1787 Nicely Toned Solid Silver Shilling V Old Antique Coin Fine Good Grade Dark

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller notinashyway (17,263) 99.7%, Location: Look at my other Items, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 401853587677 1787 Shilling Coin Sold Silver *** OVER 230 Years Old *** Darkend and Nicely Toned a unique coin Made by the Royal Mint in London Two hundred and fifty six year old Engllish Shilling Coin from 1787 George III Shilling The 1787 British shilling obverse features the armored laureate bust of King George III facing right, with the surrounding legend: 'GEORGIVS-III-DEI-GRATIA-' The reverse shows a cruciform of shields representing George III's regal claims, with crowns in the fields, an abbreviated surrounding legend, and date below. The top shield shows three lions to the left, representing England, and one lion to the right representing Scotland. The right shield shows three Fleur-de-lis, representing France, the lower shield shows a harp, representing Ireland, and the left shield shows the Hanoverian arms 1787 British shilling specifications Monarch George III (1760 - 1820) Edge diagonally reeded Weight app. 6 g Diameter app. 25.2 mm Composition 92.5% silver Minted Mintage Scarcity with semee: harder variant 1787 British shilling design Obverse Luis Pingo Reverse Luis Pingo Solid 0.925 Silver In Very Good Condition for its age Would make an Excellent Lucky Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir I will have a lot of Old Coins on Ebay so CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 14,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 5 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items so why not > Check out my other items! I Always Leave instant Feedback Automatically on Receiving payment All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain! 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The Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabw The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in the United Kingdom and former British Commonwealth countries. The word shilling comes from scilling, an accounting term that dates back to Anglo-Saxon times where it was deemed to be the value of a cow in Kent or a sheep elsewhere. The word is thought to derive from the base skell-, "to ring/resound" and the diminutive suffix -ling.[1] The slang term for a shilling as a currency unit was a "bob". The abbreviation for shilling is s, from the Latin solidus, the name of a Roman coin. Often it was informally represented by a slash, standing for a long s: e.g., "1/6" would be 1 shilling and sixpence, often pronounced "one and six" (and equivalent to 18d; the shilling itself was valued at 12d). A price with no pence would be written with a slash and a dash, e.g., "11/-". Quite often a triangle or (serif) apostrophe would be used to give a neater appearance, e.g., "1'6" and "11'-". In Africa, it is often abbreviated sh. During the Great Recoinage of 1816, the mint was instructed to coin one troy pound (weighing 5760 grains) of standard (0.925 fine) silver into 66 shillings, or its equivalent in other denominations. This effectively set the weight of the shilling, and its subsequent decimal replacement 5 new pence coin, at 87.2727 grains or 5.655 grams from 1816 to 1990, when a new smaller 5p coin was introduced. The British shilling is a historic British coin from the eras of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the later United Kingdom; also adopted as a Scot denomination upon the 1707 Treaty of Union. The word shilling comes from an accounting term that dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, deemed to be the value of a cow in Kent or a sheep elsewhere.[1] There counted twelve pence to the shilling, with twenty shillings to the pound. The British shilling had succeeded the English shilling, and it remained in circulation until Decimal Day 1971. Upon decimalisation the British shilling was superseded by the five-pence piece having a comparable value, size and weight. The pre-decimal shilling was withdrawn from circulation in 1990, when the five pence piece was reduced in size. Shillings were minted in every monarch's reign. During the early part of the reign of King George III, very few shillings (like other silver coins) were struck, although there was a large issue in 1787. A small number of coins dated 1763 were distributed by the Earl of Northumberland in Ireland; this issue is now very rare, but the contemporary rumour that the issue limit was £100 (2000 pieces) is probably untrue. In 1787 the hearts were left out of the Hanoverian shield in error, but the error was so minor that it took some time for it to be noticed and corrected, so both types are of similar value. The mint coined a large stockpile of silver belonging to a consortium of London bankers into shillings of 1798, which were subsequently declared illegal, reclaimed and melted down. There may have been over 10,000 pieces minted, but there are currently only about four known to exist and an example could be worth over £10,000 in any condition. British coinage Current circulation One penny Two pence Five pence Ten pence Twenty pence Fifty pence One pound Two pounds Commemorative and bullion Twenty-five pence Five pounds Maundy money Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign Britannia Withdrawn (decimal) Half penny Withdrawn (pre-decimal, selected coins) Quarter-farthing Third-farthing Half-farthing Farthing Halfpenny Penny Threepence Groat Sixpence One shilling Two shillings (florin) Half crown Double florin (four shillings) Crown Half guinea Guinea See also Pound sterling Coins of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United Kingdom George III of the United Kingdom Full-length portrait in oils of a clean-shaven young George in eighteenth century dress: gold jacket and breeches, ermine cloak, powdered wig, white stockings, and buckled shoes. Coronation portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762 King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[a] Elector/King of Hanover[b] (more...) Reign 25 October 1760 – 29 January 1820 Coronation 22 September 1761 Predecessor George II Successor George IV Born 4 June 1738 [NS][c] Norfolk House, St James's Square, London, England Died 29 January 1820 (aged 81) Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Burial 16 February 1820 St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle Spouse Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (m. 1761; died 1818) Issue George IV, King of the United Kingdom Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany William IV, King of the United Kingdom Charlotte, Princess Royal Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Princess Augusta Princess Elizabeth Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Princess Amelia Full name George William Frederick House Hanover Father Frederick, Prince of Wales Mother Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha Religion Protestant Signature Handwritten "George" with a huge leading "G" and a curious curlicue at the end George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738[c] – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language,[1] and never visited Hanover.[2] His life and reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, and places farther afield in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence. Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the later part of his life, George III had recurrent, and eventually permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them.[3] Early life Conversation piece in oils: Ayscough dressed in black with a clerical collar stands beside a settee on which the two boys sit, one wearing a grey suit the other a blue one. He holds a sheet of paper; the boys hold a book. George (right) with his brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, and their tutor, Francis Ayscough, later Dean of Bristol, c. 1749 George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square. He was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, who was both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford.[4] One month later, he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker. His godparents were the King of Sweden (for whom Lord Baltimore stood proxy), his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha (for whom Lord Carnarvon stood proxy) and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia (for whom Lady Charlotte Edwin stood proxy).[5] Prince George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight.[6] He was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, mathematics, French, Latin, history, music, geography, commerce, agriculture and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing, fencing, and riding. His religious education was wholly Anglican.[7] At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred."[8] Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated".[9] George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, and took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, and George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks later the king created George Prince of Wales[10][11] (the title is not automatically acquired). Head-and-shoulders portrait of a young clean-shaven George wearing a finely-embroidered jacket, the blue sash of the Order of the Garter, and a powdered wig. Pastel portrait of George as Prince of Wales by Jean-Étienne Liotard, 1754 In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the king offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would later serve as Prime Minister.[12] George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.[13][14] Marriage In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and consequently must often act contrary to my passions."[15] Nevertheless, attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother;[16] Sophie married the Margrave of Bayreuth instead.[17] The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday. The search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day.[d] A fortnight later on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress (in contrast with his grandfather and his sons), and the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck.[1][8] They had 15 children—nine sons and six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House (on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace) for use as a family retreat.[19] His other residences were Kew and Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for official use. He did not travel extensively, and spent his entire life in southern England. In the 1790s, the King and his family took holidays at Weymouth, Dorset,[20] which he thus popularised as one of the first seaside resorts in England.[21] Early reign Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years' War George, in his accession speech to Parliament, proclaimed: "Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Britain."[22] He inserted this phrase into the speech, written by Lord Hardwicke, to demonstrate his desire to distance himself from his German forebears, who were perceived as caring more for Hanover than for Britain.[23] Although his accession was at first welcomed by politicians of all parties,[e] the first years of his reign were marked by political instability, largely generated as a result of disagreements over the Seven Years' War.[25] George was also perceived as favouring Tory ministers, which led to his denunciation by the Whigs as an autocrat.[1] On his accession, the Crown lands produced relatively little income; most revenue was generated through taxes and excise duties. George surrendered the Crown Estate to Parliamentary control in return for a civil list annuity for the support of his household and the expenses of civil government.[26] Claims that he used the income to reward supporters with bribes and gifts[27] are disputed by historians who say such claims "rest on nothing but falsehoods put out by disgruntled opposition".[28] Debts amounting to over £3 million over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the civil list annuity was increased from time to time.[29] He aided the Royal Academy of Arts with large grants from his private funds,[30] and may have donated more than half of his personal income to charity.[31] Of his art collection, the two most notable purchases are Johannes Vermeer's Lady at the Virginals and a set of Canalettos, but it is as a collector of books that he is best remembered.[32] The King's Library was open and available to scholars and was the foundation of a new national library.[33] Quarter-length portrait in oils of a clean-shaven young George in profile wearing a red suit, the Garter star, a blue sash, and a powdered wig. He has a receding chin and his forehead slopes away from the bridge of his nose making his head look round in shape. George III by Allan Ramsay, 1762 In May 1762, the incumbent Whig government of the Duke of Newcastle was replaced with one led by the Scottish Tory Lord Bute. Bute's opponents worked against him by spreading the calumny that he was having an affair with the King's mother, and by exploiting anti-Scottish prejudices amongst the English.[34] John Wilkes, a member of parliament, published The North Briton, which was both inflammatory and defamatory in its condemnation of Bute and the government. Wilkes was eventually arrested for seditious libel but he fled to France to escape punishment; he was expelled from the House of Commons, and found guilty in absentia of blasphemy and libel.[35] In 1763, after concluding the Peace of Paris which ended the war, Lord Bute resigned, allowing the Whigs under George Grenville to return to power. Later that year, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed a limit upon the westward expansion of the American colonies. The Proclamation aimed to divert colonial expansion to the north (to Nova Scotia) and to the south (Florida). The Proclamation Line did not bother the majority of settled farmers, but it was unpopular with a vocal minority and ultimately contributed to conflict between the colonists and the British government.[36] With the American colonists generally unburdened by British taxes, the government thought it appropriate for them to pay towards the defence of the colonies against native uprisings and the possibility of French incursions.[f] The central issue for the colonists was not the amount of taxes but whether Parliament could levy a tax without American approval, for there were no American seats in Parliament.[39] The Americans protested that like all Englishmen they had rights to "no taxation without representation". In 1765, Grenville introduced the Stamp Act, which levied a stamp duty on every document in the British colonies in North America. Since newspapers were printed on stamped paper, those most affected by the introduction of the duty were the most effective at producing propaganda opposing the tax.[40] Meanwhile, the King had become exasperated at Grenville's attempts to reduce the King's prerogatives, and tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade William Pitt the Elder to accept the office of Prime Minister.[41] After a brief illness, which may have presaged his illnesses to come, George settled on Lord Rockingham to form a ministry, and dismissed Grenville.[42] Bust by John van Nost the younger, 1767 Lord Rockingham, with the support of Pitt and the King, repealed Grenville's unpopular Stamp Act, but his government was weak and he was replaced in 1766 by Pitt, whom George created Earl of Chatham. The actions of Lord Chatham and George III in repealing the Act were so popular in America that statues of them both were erected in New York City.[43] Lord Chatham fell ill in 1767, and the Duke of Grafton took over the government, although he did not formally become Prime Minister until 1768. That year, John Wilkes returned to England, stood as a candidate in the general election, and came top of the poll in the Middlesex constituency. Wilkes was again expelled from Parliament. Wilkes was re-elected and expelled twice more, before the House of Commons resolved that his candidature was invalid and declared the runner-up as the victor.[44] Grafton's government disintegrated in 1770, allowing the Tories led by Lord North to return to power.[45] Three-quarter length seated portrait of a clean-shaven George with a fleshy face and white eyebrows wearing a powdered wig. Portrait by Johann Zoffany, 1771 George was deeply devout and spent hours in prayer,[46] but his piety was not shared by his brothers. George was appalled by what he saw as their loose morals. In 1770, his brother Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, was exposed as an adulterer, and the following year Cumberland married a young widow, Anne Horton. The King considered her inappropriate as a royal bride: she was from a lower social class and German law barred any children of the couple from the Hanoverian succession. George insisted on a new law that essentially forbade members of the Royal Family from legally marrying without the consent of the Sovereign. The subsequent bill was unpopular in Parliament, including among George's own ministers, but passed as the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Shortly afterward, another of George's brothers, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, revealed he had been secretly married to Maria, Countess Waldegrave, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole. The news confirmed George's opinion that he had been right to introduce the law: Maria was related to his political opponents. Neither lady was ever received at court.[47] Lord North's government was chiefly concerned with discontent in America. To assuage American opinion most of the custom duties were withdrawn, except for the tea duty, which in George's words was "one tax to keep up the right [to levy taxes]".[48] In 1773, the tea ships moored in Boston Harbor were boarded by colonists and the tea thrown overboard, an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. In Britain, opinion hardened against the colonists, with Chatham now agreeing with North that the destruction of the tea was "certainly criminal".[49] With the clear support of Parliament, Lord North introduced measures, which were called the Intolerable Acts by the colonists: the Port of Boston was shut down and the charter of Massachusetts was altered so that the upper house of the legislature was appointed by the Crown instead of elected by the lower house.[50] Up to this point, in the words of Professor Peter Thomas, George's "hopes were centred on a political solution, and he always bowed to his cabinet's opinions even when sceptical of their success. The detailed evidence of the years from 1763 to 1775 tends to exonerate George III from any real responsibility for the American Revolution."[51] Though the Americans characterised George as a tyrant, in these years he acted as a constitutional monarch supporting the initiatives of his ministers.[52] American War of Independence Main articles: American Revolution and American Revolutionary War The American War of Independence was the culmination of the civil and political American Revolution resulting from the American Enlightenment. Brought to a head over the lack of American representation in Parliament, which was seen as a denial of their rights as Englishmen and often popularly focused on direct taxes levied by Parliament on the colonies without their consent, the colonists resisted the imposition of direct rule after the Boston Tea Party. Creating self-governing provinces, they circumvented the British ruling apparatus in each colony by 1774. Armed conflict between British regulars and colonial militiamen broke out at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775. After petitions to the Crown for intervention with Parliament were ignored, the rebel leaders were declared traitors by the Crown and a year of fighting ensued. The colonies declared their independence in July 1776, listing twenty-seven grievances against the British king and legislature while asking the support of the populace. Among George's other offences, the Declaration charged, "He has abdicated Government here ... He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people." The gilded equestrian statue of George III in New York was pulled down.[53] The British captured the city in 1776, but lost Boston, and the grand strategic plan of invading from Canada and cutting off New England failed with the surrender of the British Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne at Saratoga. George III is often accused of obstinately trying to keep Great Britain at war with the revolutionaries in America, despite the opinions of his own ministers.[54] In the words of the Victorian author George Trevelyan, the King was determined "never to acknowledge the independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal."[55] The King wanted to "keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse".[56] However, more recent historians defend George by saying in the context of the times no king would willingly surrender such a large territory,[8][57] and his conduct was far less ruthless than contemporary monarchs in Europe.[58] After Saratoga, both Parliament and the British people were in favour of the war; recruitment ran at high levels and although political opponents were vocal, they remained a small minority.[8][59] With the setbacks in America, Prime Minister Lord North asked to transfer power to Lord Chatham, whom he thought more capable, but George refused to do so; he suggested instead that Chatham serve as a subordinate minister in Lord North's administration, but Chatham refused to co-operate. He died later in the same year.[60] In early 1778, France (Britain's chief rival) signed a treaty of alliance with the United States and the conflict escalated. The United States and France were soon joined by Spain and the Dutch Republic, while Britain had no major allies of its own. Lord Gower and Lord Weymouth both resigned from the government. Lord North again requested that he also be allowed to resign, but he stayed in office at George III's insistence.[61] Opposition to the costly war was increasing, and in June 1780 contributed to disturbances in London known as the Gordon riots.[62] As late as the Siege of Charleston in 1780, Loyalists could still believe in their eventual victory, as British troops inflicted heavy defeats on the Continental forces at the Battle of Camden and the Battle of Guilford Court House.[63] In late 1781, the news of Lord Cornwallis's surrender at the Siege of Yorktown reached London; Lord North's parliamentary support ebbed away and he resigned the following year. The King drafted an abdication notice, which was never delivered,[57][64] finally accepted the defeat in North America, and authorised peace negotiations. The Treaties of Paris, by which Britain recognised the independence of the American states and returned Florida to Spain, were signed in 1782 and 1783.[65] When John Adams was appointed American Minister to London in 1785, George had become resigned to the new relationship between his country and the former colonies. He told Adams, "I was the last to consent to the separation; but the separation having been made and having become inevitable, I have always said, as I say now, that I would be the first to meet the friendship of the United States as an independent power."[66] Constitutional struggle With the collapse of Lord North's ministry in 1782, the Whig Lord Rockingham became Prime Minister for the second time, but died within months. The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him. Charles James Fox, however, refused to serve under Shelburne, and demanded the appointment of the Duke of Portland. In 1783, the House of Commons forced Shelburne from office and his government was replaced by the Fox–North Coalition. The Duke of Portland became Prime Minister, with Fox and Lord North, as Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary respectively.[8] Centre: George III, drawn as a paunchy man with pockets bulging with gold coins, receives a wheel-barrow filled with money-bags from William Pitt, whose pockets also overflow with coin. To the left, a quadriplegic veteran begs on the street. To the right, George, Prince of Wales, is depicted dressed in rags. In A new way to pay the National Debt (1786), James Gillray caricatured King George III and Queen Charlotte awash with treasury funds to cover royal debts, with Pitt handing him another money bag. The King disliked Fox intensely, for his politics as well as his character; he thought Fox was unprincipled and a bad influence on the Prince of Wales.[67] George III was distressed at having to appoint ministers not of his liking, but the Portland ministry quickly built up a majority in the House of Commons, and could not be displaced easily. He was further dismayed when the government introduced the India Bill, which proposed to reform the government of India by transferring political power from the East India Company to Parliamentary commissioners.[68] Although the King actually favoured greater control over the Company, the proposed commissioners were all political allies of Fox.[69] Immediately after the House of Commons passed it, George authorised Lord Temple to inform the House of Lords that he would regard any peer who voted for the bill as his enemy. The bill was rejected by the Lords; three days later, the Portland ministry was dismissed, and William Pitt the Younger was appointed Prime Minister, with Temple as his Secretary of State. On 17 December 1783, Parliament voted in favour of a motion condemning the influence of the monarch in parliamentary voting as a "high crime" and Temple was forced to resign. Temple's departure destabilised the government, and three months later the government lost its majority and Parliament was dissolved; the subsequent election gave Pitt a firm mandate.[8] William Pitt Imaginary garden scene with birds of paradise, vines laden with grapes, and architectural columns. The two young princesses and their baby sister wear fine dresses and play with three spaniels and a tambourine. The Three Youngest Daughters of King George III by John Singleton Copley, c. 1785 Gold coin bearing the profile of a round-headed George wearing a classical Roman-style haircut and laurel-wreath. Gold guinea of George III, 1789 For George III, Pitt's appointment was a great victory. It proved that he was able to appoint Prime Ministers on the basis of his own interpretation of the public mood without having to follow the choice of the current majority in the House of Commons. Throughout Pitt's ministry, George supported many of Pitt's political aims and created new peers at an unprecedented rate to increase the number of Pitt's supporters in the House of Lords.[70] During and after Pitt's ministry, George III was extremely popular in Britain.[71] The British people admired him for his piety, and for remaining faithful to his wife.[72] He was fond of his children, and was devastated at the death of two of his sons in infancy in 1782 and 1783 respectively.[73] Nevertheless, he set his children a strict regimen. They were expected to attend rigorous lessons from seven in the morning, and to lead lives of religious observance and virtue.[74] When his children strayed from George's own principles of righteousness, as his sons did as young adults, he was dismayed and disappointed.[75] By this time George's health was deteriorating. He had a mental illness, characterised by acute mania, which was possibly a symptom of the genetic disease porphyria,[76] although this has been questioned.[77][78] A study of samples of the King's hair published in 2005 revealed high levels of arsenic, a possible trigger for the disease. The source of the arsenic is not known, but it could have been a component of medicines or cosmetics.[79] The King may have had a brief episode of disease in 1765, but a longer episode began in the summer of 1788. At the end of the parliamentary session, he went to Cheltenham Spa to recuperate. It was the furthest he had ever been from London—just short of 100 miles (150 km)—but his condition worsened. In November he became seriously deranged, sometimes speaking for many hours without pause, causing him to foam at the mouth and making his voice hoarse. George would frequently repeat himself, and write sentences with over 400 words at a time, as well as his vocabulary becoming more complex, possible symptoms of bipolar disorder.[80] His doctors were largely at a loss to explain his illness, and spurious stories about his condition spread, such as the claim that he shook hands with a tree in the mistaken belief that it was the King of Prussia.[81] Treatment for mental illness was primitive by modern standards, and the King's doctors, who included Francis Willis, treated the King by forcibly restraining him until he was calm, or applying caustic poultices to draw out "evil humours".[82] In the reconvened Parliament, Fox and Pitt wrangled over the terms of a regency during the King's incapacity. While both agreed that it would be most reasonable for George III's eldest son and heir apparent, the Prince of Wales, to act as regent, to Pitt's consternation Fox suggested that it was the Prince of Wales's absolute right to act on his ill father's behalf with full powers. Pitt, fearing he would be removed from office if the Prince of Wales were empowered, argued that it was for Parliament to nominate a regent, and wanted to restrict the regent's authority.[83] In February 1789, the Regency Bill, authorising the Prince of Wales to act as regent, was introduced and passed in the House of Commons, but before the House of Lords could pass the bill, George III recovered.[84] French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars George wearing the red jacket of an 1800 British army general with the star of the Order of the Garter, white breeches, black knee-high boots, and a black bicorne hat. Behind him a groom holds a horse. Portrait by Sir William Beechey, 1799/1800 A span-high Napoleon stands on the outstretched hand of a full-size George III, who peers at him through a spy-glass. Caricature by James Gillray of George holding Napoleon in the palm of his hand, 1803 After George's recovery, his popularity, and that of Pitt, continued to increase at the expense of Fox and the Prince of Wales.[85] His humane and understanding treatment of two insane assailants, Margaret Nicholson in 1786 and John Frith in 1790, contributed to his popularity.[86] James Hadfield's failed attempt to shoot the King in the Drury Lane Theatre on 15 May 1800 was not political in origin but motivated by the apocalyptic delusions of Hadfield and Bannister Truelock. George seemed unperturbed by the incident, so much so that he fell asleep in the interval.[87] The French Revolution of 1789, in which the French monarchy had been overthrown, worried many British landowners. France declared war on Great Britain in 1793; in the war attempt, George allowed Pitt to increase taxes, raise armies, and suspend the right of habeas corpus. The First Coalition to oppose revolutionary France, which included Austria, Prussia, and Spain, broke up in 1795 when Prussia and Spain made separate peace with France.[88] The Second Coalition, which included Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire, was defeated in 1800. Only Great Britain was left fighting Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul of the French Republic. A brief lull in hostilities allowed Pitt to concentrate effort on Ireland, where there had been an uprising and attempted French landing in 1798.[89] In 1800, the British and Irish Parliaments passed an Act of Union that took effect on 1 January 1801 and united Great Britain and Ireland into a single state, known as the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland". George used the opportunity to abandon the title "king of France", which English and British Sovereigns had maintained since the reign of Edward III.[90] It was suggested that George adopt the title "Emperor of the British Isles", but he refused.[8] As part of his Irish policy, Pitt planned to remove certain legal disabilities that applied to Roman Catholics. George III claimed that to emancipate Catholics would be to violate his coronation oath, in which Sovereigns promise to maintain Protestantism.[91] Faced with opposition to his religious reform policies from both the King and the British public, Pitt threatened to resign.[92] At about the same time, the King had a relapse of his previous illness, which he blamed on worry over the Catholic question.[93] On 14 March 1801, Pitt was formally replaced by the Speaker of the House of Commons, Henry Addington. Addington opposed emancipation, instituted annual accounts, abolished income tax and began a programme of disarmament. In October 1801, he made peace with the French, and in 1802 signed the Treaty of Amiens.[94] George did not consider the peace with France as real; in his view it was an "experiment".[95] In 1803, the war resumed but public opinion distrusted Addington to lead the nation in war, and instead favoured Pitt. An invasion of England by Napoleon seemed imminent, and a massive volunteer movement arose to defend England against the French. George's review of 27,000 volunteers in Hyde Park, London, on 26 and 28 October 1803 and at the height of the invasion scare, attracted an estimated 500,000 spectators on each day.[96] The Times said, "The enthusiasm of the multitude was beyond all expression."[97] A courtier wrote on 13 November that, "The King is really prepared to take the field in case of attack, his beds are ready and he can move at half an hour's warning."[98] George wrote to his friend Bishop Hurd, "We are here in daily expectation that Bonaparte will attempt his threatened invasion ... Should his troops effect a landing, I shall certainly put myself at the head of mine, and my other armed subjects, to repel them."[99] After Admiral Lord Nelson's famous naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, the possibility of invasion was extinguished.[100] The King, his face obscured by a pillar, kicks out at the behinds of a group of well-fed ministers. In A Kick at the Broad-Bottoms! (1807), James Gillray caricatured George's dismissal of the Ministry of All the Talents. In 1804, George's recurrent illness returned; after his recovery, Addington resigned and Pitt regained power. Pitt sought to appoint Fox to his ministry, but George III refused. Lord Grenville perceived an injustice to Fox, and refused to join the new ministry.[8] Pitt concentrated on forming a coalition with Austria, Russia, and Sweden. This Third Coalition, however, met the same fate as the First and Second Coalitions, collapsing in 1805. The setbacks in Europe took a toll on Pitt's health and he died in 1806, reopening the question of who should serve in the ministry. Lord Grenville became Prime Minister, and his "Ministry of All the Talents" included Fox. The King was conciliatory towards Fox, after being forced to capitulate over his appointment. After Fox's death in September 1806, the King and ministry were in open conflict. To boost recruitment, the ministry proposed a measure in February 1807 whereby Roman Catholics would be allowed to serve in all ranks of the Armed Forces. George instructed them not only to drop the measure, but also to agree never to set up such a measure again. The ministers agreed to drop the measure then pending, but refused to bind themselves in the future.[101] They were dismissed and replaced by the Duke of Portland as the nominal Prime Minister, with actual power being held by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Spencer Perceval. Parliament was dissolved, and the subsequent election gave the ministry a strong majority in the House of Commons. George III made no further major political decisions during his reign; the replacement of the Duke of Portland by Perceval in 1809 was of little actual significance.[102] Later life Monochrome profile of elderly George with a long white beard Engraving by Henry Meyer of George III in later life In late 1810, at the height of his popularity,[103] already virtually blind with cataracts and in pain from rheumatism, George became dangerously ill. In his view the malady had been triggered by stress over the death of his youngest and favourite daughter, Princess Amelia.[104] The Princess's nurse reported that "the scenes of distress and crying every day ... were melancholy beyond description."[105] He accepted the need for the Regency Act of 1811,[106] and the Prince of Wales acted as Regent for the remainder of George III's life. Despite signs of a recovery in May 1811, by the end of the year George had become permanently insane and lived in seclusion at Windsor Castle until his death.[107] Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in 1812 and was replaced by Lord Liverpool. Liverpool oversaw British victory in the Napoleonic Wars. The subsequent Congress of Vienna led to significant territorial gains for Hanover, which was upgraded from an electorate to a kingdom. Meanwhile, George's health deteriorated. He developed dementia, and became completely blind and increasingly deaf. He was incapable of knowing or understanding that he was declared King of Hanover in 1814, or that his wife died in 1818.[108] At Christmas 1819, he spoke nonsense for 58 hours, and for the last few weeks of his life was unable to walk.[109] He died at Windsor Castle at 8:38 pm on 29 January 1820, six days after the death of his fourth son, the Duke of Kent. His favourite son, Frederick, Duke of York, was with him.[110] George III was buried on 16 February in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[111][112] George was succeeded by two of his sons, George IV and William IV, who both died without surviving legitimate children, leaving the throne to the only legitimate child of the Duke of Kent, Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover. Legacy George III lived for 81 years and 239 days and reigned for 59 years and 96 days: both his life and his reign were longer than those of any of his predecessors and subsequent kings. Only Queens Victoria and Elizabeth II have since lived and reigned longer. Extract from Observations on the Transit of Venus, a manuscript notebook from the collections of George III, showing George, Charlotte and those attending them. George III was dubbed "Farmer George" by satirists, at first to mock his interest in mundane matters rather than politics, but later to contrast his homely thrift with his son's grandiosity and to portray him as a man of the people.[113] Under George III, the British Agricultural Revolution reached its peak and great advances were made in fields such as science and industry. There was unprecedented growth in the rural population, which in turn provided much of the workforce for the concurrent Industrial Revolution.[114] George's collection of mathematical and scientific instruments is now owned by King's College London but housed in the Science Museum, London, to which it has been on long-term loan since 1927. He had the King's Observatory built in Richmond-upon-Thames for his own observations of the 1769 transit of Venus. When William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781, he at first named it Georgium Sidus (George's Star) after the King, who later funded the construction and maintenance of Herschel's 1785 40-foot telescope, which was the biggest ever built at the time. George III hoped that "the tongue of malice may not paint my intentions in those colours she admires, nor the sycophant extoll me beyond what I deserve",[115] but in the popular mind George III has been both demonised and praised. While very popular at the start of his reign, by the mid-1770s George had lost the loyalty of revolutionary American colonists,[116] though it has been estimated that as many as half of the colonists remained loyal.[117] The grievances in the United States Declaration of Independence were presented as "repeated injuries and usurpations" that he had committed to establish an "absolute Tyranny" over the colonies. The Declaration's wording has contributed to the American public's perception of George as a tyrant. Contemporary accounts of George III's life fall into two camps: one demonstrating "attitudes dominant in the latter part of the reign, when the King had become a revered symbol of national resistance to French ideas and French power", while the other "derived their views of the King from the bitter partisan strife of the first two decades of the reign, and they expressed in their works the views of the opposition".[118] Building on the latter of these two assessments, British historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such as Trevelyan and Erskine May, promoted hostile interpretations of George III's life. However, in the mid-twentieth century the work of Lewis Namier, who thought George was "much maligned", started a re-evaluation of the man and his reign.[119] Scholars of the later twentieth century, such as Butterfield and Pares, and Macalpine and Hunter,[120] are inclined to treat George sympathetically, seeing him as a victim of circumstance and illness. Butterfield rejected the arguments of his Victorian predecessors with withering disdain: "Erskine May must be a good example of the way in which an historian may fall into error through an excess of brilliance. His capacity for synthesis, and his ability to dovetail the various parts of the evidence ... carried him into a more profound and complicated elaboration of error than some of his more pedestrian predecessors ... he inserted a doctrinal element into his history which, granted his original aberrations, was calculated to project the lines of his error, carrying his work still further from centrality or truth."[121] In pursuing war with the American colonists, George III believed he was defending the right of an elected Parliament to levy taxes, rather than seeking to expand his own power or prerogatives.[122] In the opinion of modern scholars, during the long reign of George III the monarchy continued to lose its political power, and grew as the embodiment of national morality.[8] Titles, styles and arms Titles and styles 4 June 1738 – 31 March 1751: His Royal Highness Prince George[123] 31 March 1751 – 20 April 1751: His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh 20 April 1751 – 25 October 1760: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales 25 October 1760 – 29 January 1820: His Majesty The King In Great Britain, George III used the official style "George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and so forth". In 1801, when Great Britain united with Ireland, he dropped the title of king of France, which had been used for every English monarch since Edward III's claim to the French throne in the medieval period.[90] His style became "George the Third, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith."[124] In Germany, he was "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Arch-Treasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire" (Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg, Erzschatzmeister und Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen Reiches[125]) until the end of the empire in 1806. He then continued as duke until the Congress of Vienna declared him "King of Hanover" in 1814.[124] Arms Before his succession, George was granted the royal arms differenced by a label of five points Azure, the centre point bearing a fleur-de-lis Or on 27 July 1749. Upon his father's death, and along with the dukedom of Edinburgh and the position of heir-apparent, he inherited his difference of a plain label of three points Argent. In an additional difference, the crown of Charlemagne was not usually depicted on the arms of the heir, only on the Sovereign's.[126] From his succession until 1800, George bore the royal arms: Quarterly, I Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) impaling Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); II Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); IV tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Saxony), overall an escutcheon Gules charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or (for the dignity of Archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire).[127][128] Following the Acts of Union 1800, the royal arms were amended, dropping the French quartering. They became: Quarterly, I and IV England; II Scotland; III Ireland; overall an escutcheon of Hanover surmounted by an electoral bonnet.[129] In 1816, after the Electorate of Hanover became a kingdom, the electoral bonnet was changed to a crown.[130] Coat of arms from 1749 to 1751 Coat of arms from 1751 to 1760 as Prince of Wales Coat of arms used from 1760 to 1801 as King of Great Britain Coat of arms used from 1801 to 1816 as King of the United Kingdom Coat of arms used from 1816 until death, also as King of Hanover Issue See also: Descendants of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz British Royalty House of Hanover Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or; II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules; III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent; overall an escutcheon tierced per pale and per chevron, I Gules two lions passant guardant Or, II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure, III Gules a horse courant Argent, the whole inescutcheon surmounted by crown George III George IV Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany William IV Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Princess Amelia Grandchildren Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Charlotte of Clarence Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Victoria Princess Frederica of Cumberland George V of Hanover Prince George, Duke of Cambridge Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck Great-grandchildren Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie of Hanover Great-great-grandchildren Marie Louise, Margravine of Baden George William, Hereditary Prince of Hanover Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and Prince of Hanover Great-great-great-grandchildren Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick and Prince of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes vte Name Birth Death Notes[131] George IV 12 August 1762 26 June 1830 Prince of Wales 1762–1820; married 1795, Princess Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; had one daughter: Princess Charlotte Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany 16 August 1763 5 January 1827 Married 1791, Princess Frederica of Prussia; no issue William IV 21 August 1765 20 June 1837 Duke of Clarence and St Andrews; married 1818, Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; no surviving legitimate issue, but had illegitimate children with Dorothea Jordan; descendants include David Cameron, the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Charlotte, Princess Royal 29 September 1766 6 October 1828 Married 1797, King Frederick of Württemberg; no surviving issue Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn 2 November 1767 23 January 1820 Married 1818, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; Queen Victoria was his daughter; descendants include Elizabeth II, Felipe VI of Spain, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Harald V of Norway and Margrethe II of Denmark. Princess Augusta Sophia 8 November 1768 22 September 1840 Never married, no issue Princess Elizabeth 22 May 1770 10 January 1840 Married 1818, Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg; no issue Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover 5 June 1771 18 November 1851 Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale 1799–1851; married 1815, Princess Friederike of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; had issue; descendants include Constantine II of Greece and Felipe VI of Spain. Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex 27 January 1773 21 April 1843 (1) Married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, Lady Augusta Murray; had issue; marriage annulled 1794 (2) Married 1831, Lady Cecilia Buggin (later Duchess of Inverness in her own right); no issue Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 24 February 1774 8 July 1850 Married 1818, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel; had issue; descendants include Elizabeth II Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh 25 April 1776 30 April 1857 Married 1816, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh; no issue Princess Sophia 3 November 1777 27 May 1848 Never married Prince Octavius 23 February 1779 3 May 1783 Died in childhood Prince Alfred 22 September 1780 20 August 1782 Died in childhood Princess Amelia 7 August 1783 2 November 1810 Never married, no issue Ancestry Ancestors of George III of the United Kingdom[132] See also Cultural depictions of George III of the United Kingdom List of mentally ill monarchs Notes United Kingdom from 1 January 1801, following the Acts of Union 1800. King from 12 October 1814. All dates in this article are in the New Style Gregorian calendar. George was born on 24 May in the Old Style Julian calendar used in Great Britain until 1752. George was falsely said to have married a Quakeress named Hannah Lightfoot on 17 April 1759, prior to his marriage to Charlotte, and to have had at least one child by her. However, Lightfoot had married Isaac Axford in 1753, and had died in or before 1759, so there could have been no legal marriage or children. The jury at the 1866 trial of Lavinia Ryves, the daughter of imposter Olivia Serres who pretended to be "Princess Olive of Cumberland", unanimously found that a supposed marriage certificate produced by Ryves was a forgery.[18] For example, the letters of Horace Walpole written at the time of the accession defended George but Walpole's later memoirs were hostile.[24] An American taxpayer would pay a maximum of sixpence a year, compared to an average of twenty-five shillings (50 times as much) in England.[37] In 1763, the total revenue from America amounted to about £1 800, while the estimated annual cost of the military in America was put at £225 000. By 1767, it had risen to £400 000.[38] References "George III". Official website of the British monarchy. Royal Household. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2016. Brooke, p. 314; Fraser, p. 277 Butterfield, p. 9 Hibbert, p. 8 "No. 7712". The London Gazette. 20 June 1738. p. 2. Brooke, pp. 23–41 Brooke, pp. 42–44, 55 Cannon, John (September 2004). "George III (1738–1820)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 29 October 2008. (Subscription required) Sedgwick, pp. ix–x "No. 9050". The London Gazette. 16 April 1751. p. 1. Hibbert, pp. 3–15 Brooke, pp. 51–52; Hibbert, pp. 24–25 Bullion, John L. (2004). "Augusta, princess of Wales (1719–1772)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/46829. Retrieved 17 September 2008 (Subscription required) Ayling, p. 33 Ayling, p. 54; Brooke, pp. 71–72 Ayling, pp. 36–37; Brooke, p. 49; Hibbert, p. 31 Benjamin, p. 62 Documents relating to the case. The National Archives. Retrieved 14 October 2008. Ayling, pp. 85–87 Ayling, p. 378; Cannon and Griffiths, p. 518 Watson, p. 549 Brooke, p. 612 Brooke, p. 156; Simms and Riotte, p. 58 Butterfield, pp. 22, 115–117, 129–130 Hibbert, p. 86; Watson, pp. 67–79 The Crown Estate (2004). "Our history". Retrieved 7 November 2017. Kelso, Paul (6 March 2000). "The royal family and the public purse". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2015. Watson, p. 88; this view is also shared by Brooke (see for example p. 99). Medley, p. 501 Ayling, p. 194; Brooke, pp. xv, 214, 301 Brooke, p. 215 Ayling, p. 195 Ayling, pp. 196–198 Brooke, p. 145; Carretta, pp. 59, 64 ff.; Watson, p. 93 Brooke, pp. 146–147 Watson, pp. 183–184 Cannon and Griffiths, p. 505; Hibbert, p. 122 Cannon and Griffiths, p. 505 Black, p. 82 Watson, pp. 184–185 Ayling, pp. 122–133; Hibbert, pp. 107–109; Watson, pp. 106–111 Ayling, pp. 122–133; Hibbert, pp. 111–113 Ayling, p. 137; Hibbert, p. 124 Ayling, pp. 154–160; Brooke, pp. 147–151 Ayling, pp. 167–168; Hibbert, p. 140 Brooke, p. 260; Fraser, p. 277 Brooke, pp. 272–282; Cannon and Griffiths, p. 498 Hibbert, p. 141 Hibbert, p. 143 Watson, p. 197 Thomas, p. 31 Ayling, p. 121 Carretta, pp. 97–98, 367 O'Shaughnessy, ch 1 Trevelyan, vol. 1 p. 4 Trevelyan, vol. 1 p. 5 Cannon and Griffiths, pp. 510–511 Brooke, p. 183 Brooke, pp. 180–182, 192, 223 Hibbert, pp. 156–157 Ayling, pp. 275–276 Ayling, p. 284 The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Army (1994) p. 129 Brooke, p. 221 U.S. Department of State, Treaty of Paris, 1783. Retrieved 5 July 2013 Adams, C.F. (editor) (1850–56), The works of John Adams, second president of the United States, vol. VIII, pp. 255–257, quoted in Ayling, p. 323 and Hibbert, p. 165 e.g. Ayling, p. 281 Hibbert, p. 243; Pares, p. 120 Brooke, pp. 250–251 Watson, pp. 272–279 Brooke, p. 316; Carretta, pp. 262, 297 Brooke, p. 259 Ayling, p. 218 Ayling, p. 220 Ayling, pp. 222–230, 366–376 Röhl, John C. G.; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998). Purple Secret: Genes, "Madness" and the Royal Houses of Europe. London: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-593-04148-8. Peters, Timothy J.; Wilkinson, D. (2010). "King George III and porphyria: a clinical re-examination of the historical evidence". History of Psychiatry. 21 (1): 3–19. doi:10.1177/0957154X09102616. PMID 21877427. Rentoumi, v.; Peters, T.; Conlin, J.; Gerrard, P. (2017). "The acute mania of King George III: A computational linguistic analysis". PLOS ONE. 3 (12): e0171626. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0171626. PMC 5362044. PMID 28328964. Cox, Timothy M.; Jack, N.; Lofthouse, S.; Watling, J.; Haines, J.; Warren, M. J. (2005). "King George III and porphyria: an elemental hypothesis and investigation". The Lancet. 366 (9482): 332–335. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66991-7. PMID 16039338. "Was George III a manic depressive?". BBC News. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2018. Ayling, pp. 329–335; Brooke, pp. 322–328; Fraser, pp. 281–282; Hibbert, pp. 262–267 Ayling, pp. 334–343; Brooke, p. 332; Fraser, p. 282 Ayling, pp. 338–342; Hibbert, p. 273 Ayling, p. 345 Ayling, pp. 349–350; Carretta, p. 285; Fraser, p. 282; Hibbert, pp. 301–302; Watson, p. 323 Carretta, p. 275 Ayling, pp. 181–182; Fraser, p. 282 Ayling, pp. 395–396; Watson, pp. 360–377 Ayling, pp. 408–409 Weir, p. 286 Ayling, p. 411 Hibbert, p. 313 Ayling, p. 414; Brooke, p. 374; Hibbert, p. 315 Watson, pp. 402–409 Ayling, p. 423 Colley, p. 225 The Times, 27 October 1803, p. 2 Brooke, p. 597 Letter of 30 November 1803, quoted in Wheeler and Broadley, p. xiii "Nelson, Trafalgar, and those who served". National Archives. Retrieved 31 October 2009. Pares, p. 139 Ayling, pp. 441–442 Brooke, p. 381; Carretta, p. 340 Hibbert, p. 396 Hibbert, p. 394 Brooke, p. 383; Hibbert, pp. 397–398 Fraser, p. 285; Hibbert, pp. 399–402 Ayling, pp. 453–455; Brooke, pp. 384–385; Hibbert, p. 405 Hibbert, p. 408 Letter from Duke of York to George IV, quoted in Brooke, p. 386 "Royal Burials in the Chapel since 1805". St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Dean and Canons of Windsor. Retrieved 7 November 2017. Brooke, p. 387 Carretta, pp. 92–93, 267–273, 302–305, 317 Watson, pp. 10–11 Brooke, p. 90 Carretta, pp. 99–101, 123–126 Ayling, p. 247 Reitan, p. viii Reitan, pp. xii–xiii Macalpine, Ida; Hunter, Richard A. (1991) [1969]. George III and the Mad-Business. Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-5279-7. Butterfield, p. 152 Brooke, pp. 175–176 The London Gazette consistently refers to the young prince as "His Royal Highness Prince George" "No. 8734". The London Gazette. 5 April 1748. p. 3. "No. 8735". The London Gazette. 9 April 1748. p. 2. "No. 8860". The London Gazette. 20 June 1749. p. 2. "No. 8898". The London Gazette. 31 October 1749. p. 3. "No. 8902". The London Gazette. 17 November 1749. p. 3. "No. 8963". The London Gazette. 16 June 1750. p. 1. "No. 8971". The London Gazette. 14 July 1750. p. 1. Brooke, p. 390 Marquardt, Bernd (28 July 2018). Universalgeschichte des Staates: von der vorstaatlichen Gesellschaft zum Staat der Industriegesellschaft. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 9783643900043 – via Google Books. Velde, François (19 April 2008). "Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family". Heraldica. Retrieved 9 November 2009. See, for example, Berry, William (1810). An introduction to heraldry containing the rudiments of the science. pp. 110–111. Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974). The Royal Heraldry of England. Heraldry Today. Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street Press. pp. 215–216. ISBN 978-0-900455-25-4. "No. 15324". The London Gazette. 30 December 1800. p. 2. "No. 17149". The London Gazette. 29 June 1816. p. 1. Kiste, John Van der (19 January 2004). George III's Children. The History Press. p. 205. ISBN 9780750953825. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 4. Bibliography Ayling, Stanley (1972). George the Third. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-211412-7. Benjamin, Lewis Saul (1907). Farmer George. Pitman and Sons. Black, Jeremy (2006). George III: America's Last King. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11732-9. Brooke, John (1972). King George III. London: Constable. ISBN 0-09-456110-9. Butterfield, Herbert (1957). George III and the Historians. London: Collins. Cannon, John (2004). "George III (1738–1820)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Cannon, John; Griffiths, Ralph (1988). The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822786-8. Carretta, Vincent (1990). George III and the Satirists from Hogarth to Byron. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-1146-4. Colley, Linda (1994). Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837. Yale University Press. Fraser, Antonia (1975). The Lives of the Kings and Queen of England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-76911-1. Hibbert, Christopher (1999). George III: A Personal History. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-025737-3. Medley, Dudley Julius (1902). A Student's Manual of English Constitutional History. O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson (2014). The Men Who Lost America: British Leadership, the American Revolution, and the Fate of the Empire. Pares, Richard (1953). King George III and the Politicians. Oxford University Press. Reitan, E. A. (editor) (1964). George III, Tyrant Or Constitutional Monarch?. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company. A compilation of essays encompassing the major assessments of George III up to 1964. Röhl, John C. G.; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998). Purple Secret: Genes, "Madness" and the Royal Houses of Europe. London: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-593-04148-8. Sedgwick, Romney (ed.; 1903). Letters from George III to Lord Bute, 1756–1766. Macmillan. Simms, Brendan; Riotte, Torsten (2007). The Hanoverian Dimension in British History, 1714–1837. Cambridge University Press. Thomas, Peter D. G. (1985). "George III and the American Revolution". History. 70 (228): 16–31. doi:10.1111/j.1468-229X.1985.tb02477.x. Trevelyan, George (1912). George the Third and Charles Fox: The Concluding Part of the American Revolution. New York: Longmans, Green. Watson, J. Steven (1960). The Reign of George III, 1760–1815. London: Oxford University Press. Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Revised edition. London: Random House. ISBN 0-7126-7448-9. Wheeler, H. F. B.; Broadley, A. M. (1908). Napoleon and the Invasion of England. Volume I. London: John Lane The Bodley Head. Further reading Black, Jeremy (Fall 1996). "Could the British Have Won the American War of Independence?" Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. 74 (299): 145–154. online 90-minute video lecture given at Ohio State in 2006; requires Real Player Ditchfield, G. M. (2002). George III: An Essay in Monarchy. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-91962-9. Hecht, J. Jean (1966). "The Reign of George III in Recent Historiography". In: Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939, pp. 206–234. Harvard University Press. Macalpine, Ida; Hunter, Richard (1966). "The 'insanity' of King George III: a classic case of porphyria". Br. Med. J. 1 (5479): 65–71. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5479.65. PMC 1843211. PMID 5323262. Macalpine, I.; Hunter, R.; Rimington, C. (1968). "Porphyria in the Royal Houses of Stuart, Hanover, and Prussia". British Medical Journal. 1 (5583): 7–18. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5583.7. PMC 1984936. PMID 4866084. Namier, Lewis B. (1955). "King George III: A Study in Personality" in Personalities and Power. London: Hamish Hamilton. O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson (Spring 2004). "'If Others Will Not Be Active, I Must Drive': George III and the American Revolution". Early American Studies. 2 (1): iii, 1–46. doi:10.1353/eam.2007.0037. Robertson, Charles Grant (1911). England under the Hanoverians. London: Methuen. Smith, Robert A. (1984). "Reinterpreting the Reign of George III". In: Richard Schlatter, ed. Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966, pp. 197–254. Rutgers University Press. External links George III of the United Kingdom at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity George III at the Encyclopædia Britannica "Archival material relating to George III of the United Kingdom". UK National Archives. Portraits of King George III at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata Georgian Papers Programme George III papers, including references to madhouses and insanity from the Historic Psychiatry Collection, Menninger Archives, Kansas Historical Society Newspaper clippings about George III of the United Kingdom in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW) George III of the United Kingdom House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 4 June 1738 Died: 29 January 1820 Regnal titles Preceded by George II King of Great Britain and Ireland 25 October 1760 – 31 December 1800 Acts of Union 1800 Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 25 October 1760 – 12 October 1814 Congress of Vienna Acts of Union 1800 King of the United Kingdom 1 January 1801 – 29 January 1820 Succeeded by George IV Congress of Vienna King of Hanover 12 October 1814 – 29 January 1820 British royalty Preceded by Frederick Prince of Wales 1751–1760 Vacant Title next held by George (IV) Peerage of Great Britain Preceded by Prince Frederick Duke of Edinburgh 1st creation 1751–1760 Merged in the Crown Titles in pretence Preceded by George II — TITULAR — King of France 25 October 1760 – 31 December 1800 Title abandoned Articles and topics related to George III of the United Kingdom vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund II Cnut Harold I Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold II Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret of Norway John Balliol Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James VI and I Charles I Charles II James II and VII William III and II and Mary II Anne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte Kingdom of Great Britain History Union of 1707 Great Britain in the Seven Years' War Jacobitism Jacobite risings War of Jenkins' Ear French and Indian War Boston Massacre American Revolutionary War Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784) French Revolutionary Wars Union of 1801 Floral Badge of Great Britain Royal houses Stuart Anne Hanover George I George II George III Politics Parliament House of Lords House of Commons List of Parliaments Acts of Parliament: 1707–1719 1720–1739 1740–1759 1760–1779 1780–1800 Elections: 1708 1710 1713 1715 1722 1727 1734 1741 1747 1754 1761 1768 1774 1780 1784 1790 1796 Monarchy Peers Privy Council Prime Minister list Whigs Tories Whig Junto Patriot Whigs Kit-Cat Club Geography Great Britain Architecture Queen Anne Georgian Other East India Company British Empire Longitude prize Window tax Proclamation of Rebellion South Sea Company Speenhamland system Symbols Flag Coat of arms History of Great Britain category vte Dukes of Edinburgh Frederick (1726–1751) George (1751–1760) Dukes of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1764–1834) Alfred (1866–1900) Philip (1947–present) vte British princes The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. 1st generation King George II 2nd generation Frederick, Prince of Wales Prince George William Prince William, Duke of Cumberland 3rd generation King George III Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Prince Frederick 4th generation King George IV Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany King William IV Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn King Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 5th generation Prince Albert1 King George V of Hanover Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 6th generation King Edward VII Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Prince Ernest Augustus 7th generation Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale King George V Prince Alexander John of Wales Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George William of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick 8th generation King Edward VIII King George VI Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Prince George, Duke of Kent Prince John Alastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover 9th generation Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh2 Prince William of Gloucester Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent 10th generation Charles, Prince of Wales Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex 11th generation Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex James, Viscount Severn3 12th generation Prince George of Cambridge Prince Louis of Cambridge 1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see his article. vte Princes of Wales Edward (1301–1307) Edward (1343–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Edward (1454–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1471–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1489–1502) Henry (1504–1509) Edward (1537–1547) Henry (1610–1612) Charles (1616–1625) Charles (1641–1649) James (1688) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1729–1751) George (1751–1760) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1958–present) See also: Principality of Wales vte Rulers of Hanover Electors of Hanover Ernest Augustus I (Elector-designate) George I Louis* George II* George III* Kings of Hanover George III* George IV* William* Ernest Augustus II George V 1787 Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 17th century 18th century 19th century Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s 1800s Years: 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1787 by topic Arts and science Archaeology Architecture Art Literature Poetry Music Science Countries Canada Denmark France Great Britain Ireland Norway Russia Scotland Sweden United States Lists of leaders State leaders Colonial governors Religious leaders Birth and death categories Births Deaths Establishments and disestablishments categories Establishments Disestablishments Works category Works vte 1787 in various calendarsGregorian calendar 1787 MDCCLXXXVII Ab urbe condita 2540 Armenian calendar 1236 ԹՎ ՌՄԼԶ Assyrian calendar 6537 Balinese saka calendar 1708–1709 Bengali calendar 1194 Berber calendar 2737 British Regnal year 27 Geo. 3 – 28 Geo. 3 Buddhist calendar 2331 Burmese calendar 1149 Byzantine calendar 7295–7296 Chinese calendar 丙午年 (Fire Horse) 4483 or 4423 — to — 丁未年 (Fire Goat) 4484 or 4424 Coptic calendar 1503–1504 Discordian calendar 2953 Ethiopian calendar 1779–1780 Hebrew calendar 5547–5548 Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 1843–1844 - Shaka Samvat 1708–1709 - Kali Yuga 4887–4888 Holocene calendar 11787 Igbo calendar 787–788 Iranian calendar 1165–1166 Islamic calendar 1201–1202 Japanese calendar Tenmei 7 (天明7年) Javanese calendar 1713–1714 Julian calendar Gregorian minus 11 days Korean calendar 4120 Minguo calendar 125 before ROC 民前125年 Nanakshahi calendar 319 Thai solar calendar 2329–2330 Tibetan calendar 阳火马年 (male Fire-Horse) 1913 or 1532 or 760 — to — 阴火羊年 (female Fire-Goat) 1914 or 1533 or 761 Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1787. September 17: The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia. 1787 (MDCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1787th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 787th year of the 2nd millennium, the 87th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1787, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Contents 1 Events 1.1 January–March 1.2 April–June 1.3 July–September 1.4 October–December 1.5 Date unknown 2 Births 2.1 Date unknown 3 Deaths 4 References 5 Further reading Events January–March January 9 – The North Carolina General Assembly authorizes nine commissioners to purchase 100 acres (0.40 km2) of land for the seat of Chatham County. The town is named Pittsborough (later shortened to Pittsboro), for William Pitt the Younger. January 11 – William Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus. January 19 – Mozart's Symphony No. 38 is premièred in Prague. February 2 – Arthur St. Clair of Pennsylvania is chosen as the new President of the Congress of the Confederation.[1] February 4 – Shays' Rebellion in Massachusetts fails. February 21 – The Confederation Congress sends word to the 13 states that a convention will be held in Philadelphia on May 14 to revise the Articles of Confederation.[1] February 28 – A charter is granted, establishing the institution which will become the University of Pittsburgh. March 3 – By a vote of 33 to 29, Harrisburg is approved as the new capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[2] March 17 – The Bank of North America, the central bank of the United States government under the Articles of Confederation, is re-incorporated after its charter had expired in 1786.[2][3] March 28 – In the British House of Commons, Henry Beaufoy files the first motion to repeal the Test Act 1673, which restricts the rights of non-members of the Church of England.;[4] Beaufoy's motion is rejected, and the Act is not repealed until 1829. March 30 – Biblical theology becomes a separate discipline from biblical studies, as Johann Philipp Gabler delivers his speech "On the proper distinction between biblical and dogmatic theology and the specific objectives of each" upon his inauguration as the professor of theology at the University of Altdorf in Germany.[5] April–June April 2 – A Charter of Justice is signed, providing the authority for the establishment of the first New South Wales (i.e. Australian) Courts of Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction. May 7 – The New Church is founded. May 13 – Captain Arthur Phillip leaves Portsmouth, England with the 11 ships of the First Fleet, carrying around 700 convicts and at least 300 crew and guards, to establish a penal colony in Australia. May 14 – In Philadelphia, delegates begin arriving for a Constitutional Convention.[1] May 22 – In Britain, Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp found the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, with support from John Wesley, Josiah Wedgwood and others. May 25 – In Philadelphia, delegates begin to convene the Constitutional Convention, intended to amend the Articles of Confederation (however, a new United States Constitution is eventually produced). George Washington presides over the Convention. May – Orangist troops attack Vreeswijk, Harmelen and Maarssen; civil war starts in the Dutch Republic. May 31 – The original Lord's Cricket Ground in London holds its first cricket match;[6] Marylebone Cricket Club founded.[7] June 20 – Oliver Ellsworth moves at the Federal Convention that the government be called the United States. June 28 – Princess Wilhelmina of Orange, sister of King Frederick William II of Prussia, is captured by Dutch Republican patriots, taken to Goejanverwellesluis and not allowed to travel to The Hague. July–September July 13 – The Congress of the Confederation enacts the Northwest Ordinance, establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory (the future states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin). It also establishes procedures for the admission of new states, and limits the expansion of slavery.[1] July 18 – The United States ratifies its first treaty with the Sultanate of Morocco.[1] August 9 – South Carolina cedes to the United States its claims to a 12-mile wide strip of land that runs across northern Alabama and Mississippi.[1] August 27 – Launching a 45-foot (14 m) steam powered craft on the Delaware River, John Fitch demonstrates the first U.S. patent for his design. September 13 – Prussian troops invade the Dutch Republic. Within a few weeks 40,000 Patriots (out of a population of 2,000,000) go into exile in France (and learn from observation the ideals of the French Revolution). September 17 – The United States Constitution is signed by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.[1] September 24 – Washington Academy (later Washington & Jefferson College) is chartered by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[8] October–December October 1 – Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) – Battle of Kinburn: Alexander Suvorov, though sustaining a wound, routs the Turks. October 27 – The first of The Federalist Papers, a series of essays calling for ratification of the U.S. Constitution, is published in The Independent Journal, a New York newspaper. October 29 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Don Giovanni (libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte) premieres in the Estates Theatre in Prague. November 1 – The first secondary education school open to girls in Sweden, Societetsskolan, is founded in Gothenburg. November 21 – Treaty of Versailles (1787) signed, forming an alliance between the Kingdom of France and the Lord Nguyễn Phúc Ánh, future Emperor of Vietnam. December 3 – James Rumsey demonstrates his water-jet propelled boat on the Potomac River. December 7 – Delaware ratifies the Constitution, and becomes the first U.S. state. December 8 – La Purisima Mission is founded by Padre Fermín Lasuén as the eleventh of the Spanish missions in California. December 12 – Pennsylvania becomes the second U.S. state. December 18 – New Jersey becomes the third U.S. state. December 23 – Captain William Bligh sets sail from England for Tahiti, in HMS Bounty.[6] Date unknown Caroline Herschel is granted an annual salary of £50, by King George III of Great Britain, for acting as assistant to her brother William in astronomy.[9] The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates Waynesborough, and designates it the seat for Wayne County, North Carolina. Antoine Lavoisier is the first to suggest that silica is an oxide of a hitherto unknown metallic chemical element, later isolated and named silicon. Freed slave Ottobah Cugoano publishes Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species in England. Births January 1 – Manuel José Arce, Revolutionary General and first President of The Federal Republic of Central America (d. 1847) February 10 – William Bradley, Britain's tallest man ever at 7 ft 9 in. (d. 1820) February 17 – George Mogridge (Old Humphrey), English writer, poet (d. 1854) Joseph von Fraunhofer February 23 – Emma Willard, American educator (d. 1870) March 6 – Joseph von Fraunhofer, German optician (d. 1826) March 7 – George Bethune English, American explorer, writer (d. 1828) March 9 - Josephine Kablick, Czech botanist, paleontologist (d. 1863) March 10 – Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa y Berdejo, Prime Minister of Spain (d. 1862) March 11 – Ivan Nabokov, Russian General (d. 1852) April 26 – Ludwig Uhland, German poet (d. 1862) May 25 – José María Bocanegra, 3rd President of Mexico (d. 1862) June 28 – Sir Harry Smith, English soldier, military commander (d. 1860) July 28 – Pedro Vélez, Mexican politician (d. 1848) August 24 – James Weddell, British sailor known for discovering the Weddell Sea (d. 1834) September 5 – François Sulpice Beudant, French mineralogist, geologist (d. 1850) October 4, – François Guizot, Prime Minister of France (d. 1874) November 4 – Edmund Kean, English actor (d. 1833) November 7 – Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, Serbian linguist, major reformer of the Serbian language (d. 1864) Louis Daguerre November 18 – Louis Daguerre, French artist, chemist (d. 1851) November 21 – Samuel Cunard, Canadian business, prominent Nova Scotian, founder of the Cunard Line (d. 1865) November 25 – Franz Xaver Gruber, Austrian composer (d. 1863) December 10 – Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, American educator (d. 1851) December 11 – Macacha Güemes, Argentine heroine (d. 1866) December 16 – Mary Russell Mitford, English novelist, dramatist (d. 1855) December 17 – Jan Evangelista Purkyne, Czech anatomist, botanist (d. 1869) Date unknown Hugh Maxwell, Scottish-born American lawyer, politician (d. 1873) Juana Galán, Spanish heroine (d. 1812) Shaka, Zulu king (d. 1828) Deaths January 1 – Arthur Middleton, American politician (b. 1742) January 4 – Prince Joseph of Saxe-Hildburghausen, German prince (b. 1702) February 2 – Ignác Raab, Czech artist (b. 1715) February 5 – Hugh Farmer, British theologian (b. 1714) February 4 – Pompeo Batoni, Italian painter (b. 1708) Roger Joseph Boscovich February 13 Rudjer Boscovich, Croatian scientist, diplomat (b. 1711) Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, French statesman, diplomat (b. 1717) February 21 – Antonio Rodríguez de Hita, Spanish composer (b. 1722) February 28 – Princess Ulrike Friederike Wilhelmine of Hesse-Kassel, German princess (b. 1722) March 8 – Samuel Graves, British Royal Navy admiral (b. 1713) March 22 – Charles de Fitz-James, Marshal of France (b. 1712) April 1 – Floyer Sydenham, English classical scholar (b. 1710) April 2 – Thomas Gage, British general (b. 1719) May 10 – William Watson, English physician, scientist (b. 1715) May 26 – Lord John Murray, British politician (b. 1711) May 28 – Leopold Mozart, Austrian composer (b. 1719) May 31 – Felix of Nicosia, Cypriot Catholic saint (b. 1715) June 10 – La Caramba (Maria Antonia Fernandez), Spanish flamenco singer and dancer (b. 1751) June 14 – Johann Georg Dominicus von Linprun, German scientist (b. 1714) June 17 – José de Gálvez, Spanish politician (b. 1720) June 20 – Carl Friedrich Abel, German composer (b. 1723) July 4 – Charles, Prince of Soubise, Marshal of France (b. 1715) July 25 – Arthur Devis, British artist (b. 1712) August 1 – Alphonsus Liguori, Italian founder of the Redemptorist Order (b. 1696) August 7 – Francis Blackburne, English Anglican churchman, activist (b. 1705) August 13 – Marc Antoine René de Voyer, French noble (b. 1722) August 16 – John Ponsonby (politician), Irish politician (b. 1713) September 7 – Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 4th Duke of Liria and Jérica, Spanish duke (b. 1752) October 7 – Henry Muhlenberg, German-born founder of the U.S. Lutheran Church (b. 1711) October 28 – Johann Karl August Musäus, German author (b. 1735) November 3 – Robert Lowth, English bishop, grammarian (b. 1710) November 4 – Johan Daniel Berlin, Norwegian composer and organist (b. 1714) Christoph Willibald Gluck November 15 – Christoph Willibald Gluck, German composer (b. 1714) December 11 – Robert de Lamanon, French botanist (b. 1752) December 18 – Soame Jenyns, English writer (b. 1704) date unknown Maria Pellegrina Amoretti, Italian lawyer (b. 1756) The Two-Headed Boy of Bengal, sufferer from the rare condition Craniopagus parasiticus (b. 1783) Francis William Drake, British admiral and Governor of Newfoundland (b. 1724) Condition: In Very Good Condition for its age over 230 years old, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Year of Issue: 1787, Denomination: Shilling, Collections/ Bulk Lots: 1758 Shilling, Era: Early Milled (c.1662-1816)

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