1965 Jewish SIGNED BOOK Holocaust EICHMANN TRIAL Nazi WAR CRIMES Israel HEBREW

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Seller: judaica-bookstore (2,048) 100%, Location: TEL AVIV, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 273803777320 DESCRIPTION : Up for sale is the MOST IMPORTANT and THRILLING documentary book regarding the ADOLF EICHMANN HUNT , Capture and TRIAL in ISRAEL. The book was written by TUVIA FRIEDMAN , The well known NAZI HUNTER and the founder and director of the "INSTITUTE FOR THE DOCUMENTATION of the NAZI WAR CRIMES in HAIFA ISRAEL" . The book "TWENTY YEARS to the MURDER of the EUROPEAN JEWRY" was published in 1965 , After EICHMANN was executed. HAND SIGNED and INSCRIBED in HEBREW by FRIEDMAN in 1965. The book is a PROFUSION of literaly HUNDREDS of PHOTOS, DOCUMENTS and TESTIMONIES regarding the NAZI MASS MURDER and ATROCITIES. Original HC. 11 x 8" .Around 150 unpaged PP. Very good condition . Tightly bound. Clean. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Will be sent inside a protective rigid envelope . PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal . SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmail is $17 . Book will be sent inside a protective envelope . Will be sent within 3-5 days after payment . Kindly note that duration of Int'l registered airmail is around 14 days. Tuviah Friedman (23 January 1922 – 13 January 2011[1][2]) was a Nazi hunter and director of the Institute for the Documentation of Nazi War Crimes in Haifa, Israel. Friedman was born in Radom, Poland, in 1922. During World War II he was imprisoned in a Nazi concentration camp near Radom, from which he escaped in 1944. The following year he was appointed an interrogation officer in the Danzig jail. From 1946 to 1952 he worked for Haganah Wien in Austria, as Director of Staff of the Documentation Center in Vienna, where he and his colleagues hunted down numerous Nazis.[3] Afterwards, in Israel, he played a role in the capture of Adolf Eichmann.[2] Papers Friedman's autobiography is titled The Hunter. The archives at Yad Vashem in Israel contain dossiers on various Nazis, collected by Friedman.[4] *** Nazi hunter Tuvia Friedman, died on Thursday at the age of 89. Friedman and another world famous Nazi hunter, Shimon Wiesenthal, worked together fearlessly day and night for several years after the Holocaust and succeeded in capturing and bringing over 250 Nazi criminals to justice, before they could go underground and disappear. They found many SS officers hiding their identities in Allied prison camps. Some of the top Nazis captured by Friedman were SS Officer Konrad Buchmayer, sentenced to 12 years in prison and SS Officer Richard Sheigel who died awaiting trial. Brigadfuhrer Herbert Bottcher, head of the SS in Radom, Friedman's home town, and his assistant Obershtumbanfuher Wilhelm Blum, who sent 300,000 Jews to Treblinka. were both hanged after Friedman found them and had them brought to trial. Friedman's most famous accomplishment was his work in capturing Adolph Eichmann, the man who organized the mass extermination of the Jews of Europe.. The search was hampered by the lack of a picture and Friedman found one of Eichmann's girlfriends, enabling the police to raid her home and confiscate a picture that was corroborated by Jews who had known him. Friedman had lost his entire family in the Holocaust, except for one sister. Towards the war's end, he escaped a death sentence by grabbing the rifle of the German soldier who fell asleep while guarding him and crossed to the Russian lines where he helped their war effort. The United States Army cooperated with the two tireless men who were willing to put their lives in danger because they had decided to see to it that the murderers who spilled innocent Jewish blood without fear would begin to tremble at the thought of Jewish retribution. However, after a three year period, the American army stopped its Nazi trials. At this point, the two Nazi hunters parted ways. Friedman moved to Israel in 1952 while Wiesenthal settled in Vienna. Efraim Zuroff, head of the Israel Wiesenthal Center, told Arutz Sheva that Friedman continued fighting non-stpp to keep the issue of bringing Nazi criminals to justice in the public eye. “Friedman made sure to keep on reminding us that Adolph Eichmann was still a free man and thus made certain that we continued the efforts to locate him. He was mistaken about Eichmann’s whereabouts, though, and a short time before the mass murderer was caught, Friedman claimed in a press release that Eichmann was in Kuwait.” [Some think this might been a way to keep Eichmann off guard, ed.] Zuoff described how after the Holocaust, both Friedman and Wiesenthal decided to drop everything else and devote their lives wholly to one goal—bringing Nazi murderers to justice. Friedman wrote a book "Nazi Hunter" describing their efforts. “The fact that Friedman was a Zionist and decided to make aliyah, limited his ability to continue physically searching out and capturing Nazi criminals, but he continued to do invaluable work by collecting data, finding documentation and engaging in educational activities on the Holocaust until the end of his life,” Zuroff said. A project to make the contents of many archives accessible to the public online is currently underway at the National Library. The Library's collection includes hundreds of personal and institutional archives. These are catalogued in Merhav, accessible to all users and available for perusal in the Archive Department. Among the archives recently processed is that of Nazi hunter Tuviah Friedman (1922-2011). The archive contains a wealth of materials about Friedman's anti-Nazi activities, his contact with individuals and institutions across the world, and his mission to document and memorialize the Holocaust by means of an institute he founded in Haifa, where he lived. To the Israeli public, the name Tuviah Friedman is synonymous with the appellation "Nazi hunter." Friedman was born in Radom, Poland, and passed away in January 2011 at the age of 89. In August 1940 he was sent to a labor camp, from which he escaped and returned to Radom. In the spring of 1941, along with the rest of Radom's Jewish population, he was imprisoned in the city's ghetto. Labor camps would be his home until the summer of 1944, when he escaped, hid in a cemetery and tried to join the partisans. In November 1944 he was captured by the Germans who intended to execute him as a partisan. Friedman managed to kill his guard and escape death once again. The Russian Army entered Radom at the beginning of 1945. This was Tuviah Friedman's opportunity to try and realize his greatest aspiration – revenge on the Nazis. He found a way to enlist in the Polish police, using a fake identity, and thus reached the city of Danzig as a Polish investigative officer. Friedman worked energetically to apprehend Nazis, interrogated many of them and saw them tried. In 1946 he decided to resign from the Polish police and make his way to Israel-Palestine. Friedman arrived in Vienna, where he encountered the Aliyah Bet movement (a clandestine organization that smuggled survivors out of Europe) and the activities of Arthur Ben-Natan who recruited him to track and interrogate Nazis. Friedman was particularly interested in locating Nazis who had participated in the expulsion and destruction of the Jews of his hometown of Radom. He succeeded in capturing Konrad Buchmayer, an SS officer who had abused the Jews of Radom and then Richard Sheigel, another SS officer, who had sent Jews of Radom to the Treblinka death camp. Friedman worked in Vienna for several years, locating several Nazi criminals and having them arrested and in certain cases incarcerated for long periods of time. During this period Friedman also assisted the Haganah with acquisitions and counter-operations in central Europe. In 1952, Tuviah Friedman moved to Israel. He served as director of the Haifa branch of Yad Vashem for several years, until he was dismissed from the position for giving priority to the location and capture of Nazis, while the organization sought to focus on documentation and memorialization of the Holocaust. And so, in 1957, Friedman established the Institute of Documentation in Israel for the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes. For the rest of his life, Friedman documented, published, and attempted to track Nazi criminals and pressure governments to prosecute those known to have committed war crimes. Friedman's contribution to the capture of Adolf Eichmann holds a special significance among his achievements. These efforts began when he was still in Vienna when, with encouragement from Arthur Ben-Natan, he managed to obtain a current photograph of Eichmann. Later he played an important part in lobbying public interest in efforts to root Eichmann from his hiding place. Friedman collected many materials about the architect of the "final solution", which he later turned over the Israeli police. Friedman worked hard to raise awareness of the existence of Eichmann through the media, with a view to tracking him down and bringing him to trial. At first he believed that Eichmann was in Kuwait, publishing articles in the press to this effect. Though this information would prove incorrect, Friedman began receiving snippets of information. One of these indicated that Eichmann was in Argentina. It came from a half-Jewish German resident of Argentina by the name of Lothar Hermann, who had himself fallen victim to Nazi persecution. After some time, urged by Friedman, the Mossad decided to address the information submitted by Lothar Hermann. The details proved accurate and filled in part of the puzzle for Israeli intelligence operatives who eventually captured Eichmann in Argentina. Most of Tuviah Friedman's Nazi hunting and prosecution activities took place in the years following WWII, while he lived in Vienna and worked with Arthur Ben-Natan, Aliyah Bet, the Haganah and Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal. Nevertheless, Friedman worked throughout his life to make the public, in Israel and abroad, aware of the need to take practical steps to locate and prosecute Nazi criminals. Friedman's autobiography, The Hunter, has been translated into five languages. He entrusted his extensive archive to the National Library in Jerusalem, with which he had had dealings over the years. Friedman also lectured at the Library about his personal story from the Holocaust and his Nazi hunting work. Among the wealth of materials in his archive are an index of Nazi criminals, copious materials on Adolf Eichmann, press clipping from Israel and abroad, and Friedman's rich and varied correspondence with public figures and important persons in Israel and abroad. The archive reflects the degree to which Friedman dedicated himself to his highest priority: capturing any Nazi criminals that may be wandering free. Tuviah Friedman, credited with helping to find Adolf Eichmann, dies at 88 Nazi hunter Tuvia Friedman, director of Historical Documentation in shown in his Haifa, Israel, office in 1960. (Associated Press) Enlarge Photo TOOLBOX Resize Print E-mail Reprints By T. Rees Shapiro Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday, January 20, 2011; 11:28 PM Tuviah Friedman survived years in a series of concentration camps during World War II. His parents and two siblings perished, and he had seen Nazis kill dozens of others. Mr. Friedman, who died Jan. 13 at 88 in Haifa, Israel, made it his life's work to bring his captors to justice. As a Nazi hunter in the decades after the war, he was credited with helping to find Adolf Eichmann, the German officer considered a major architect of the Holocaust. Born to a Jewish family in Poland, Mr. Friedman "was an indefatigable and sometimes brash or even intemperate voice for justice on behalf of the victims of Nazi inhumanity," said Eli Rosenbaum, a prosecutor with the Justice Department who has investigated Nazi war crimes cases. After the war ended in Europe, Mr. Friedman worked with Soviet and Polish authorities who were seeking evidence of German atrocities. In the spring of 1945, they sent him to inspect an abandoned Nazi facility on the outskirts of what was then Danzig (now Gdansk), Poland. "One room was filled with naked corpses," Mr. Friedman wrote in his 1961 memoir, "The Hunter." "Another room was filled with boards on which were stretched human skins. Nearby was a smaller building, with a heavy padlock. We broke in and found an oven in which the Germans had experimented in the manufacture of soap, using human fat as raw material." Mr. Friedman was often described as working in the shadow of Simon Wiesenthal, a renowned Nazi hunter who died in 2005. Unlike Wiesenthal, a self-promoter, Mr. Friedman toiled in obscurity for most of his career. In the postwar period, Mr. Friedman worked in Vienna with the support of the Haganah, a Jewish paramilitary group. He and a small team chased down leads all over Europe. Mr. Friedman pursued Eichmann with a maniacal passion. He scoured thousands of documents and interviewed hundreds of Holocaust survivors for hints of the Nazi officer's whereabouts. Eichmann had disappeared from Germany after the war and was the subject of an international manhunt. Eichmann's wife tried to have him declared dead. To get background on Eichmann's family, Mr. Friedman visited Linz, Austria, where Eichmann's father owned an electrical goods store, and bought a light bulb. "I felt, after looking at the old man, that I had seen Satan's father," Mr. Friedman wrote in his book. Once Mr. Friedman left the store, he smashed the bulb in the street and spit on the shards. The Eichmann trail soon ran cold. Mr. Friedman's team was disbanded, and in 1952 he moved to Israel. In Haifa, Mr. Friedman's life bringing Nazi war criminals to justice became a lonely obsession. He bought classified ads in newspapers, asking for tipsters to contact his one-man foundation: the Institute of Documentation for the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes. As years passed, Mr. Friedman found that interest in finding Eichmann waned. He received little cooperation from government authorities who were focused on the burgeoning Cold War. He was financially supported by his wife, an eye surgeon. In the late 1950s, Mr. Friedman lobbied the World Jewish Congress and the Israeli government to offer a reward for information leading to Eichmann's arrest. Mr. Friedman's activism and publicity efforts paid off Oct. 18, 1959, when a letter originating from Argentina came to his address. The sender was a partially blind survivor of the Dachau concentration camp. He wrote that Eichmann was alive and living near Buenos Aires under an assumed name. Overjoyed with the fresh tip, Mr. Friedman alerted Israeli authorities. Unbeknownst to Mr. Friedman, the Israelis were already working on a plan to capture Eichmann. He was kidnapped by Israeli commandos in May 1960 and smuggled to Israel. Planning for Eichmann's trial, Israeli police sought the help of Mr. Friedman, who provided investigators with hundreds of documents related to the Nazi's war crimes. Eichmann, convicted of crimes against humanity, was hanged in 1962. Mr. Friedman was not called to testify against Eichmann. Wiesenthal and others said Mr. Friedman's role in Eichmann's capture or prosecution was overblown; Wiesenthal himself had written a book, "I Hunted Eichmann" (1961), in which he boasted of his part in finding the Nazi officer. Rosenbaum, the Justice Department official, said that finding Eichmann was a combined effort. "It's fair to say that but for the constant agitation of Wiesenthal and Friedman, it would have been very unlikely that Israel would have launched the operation that resulted in Adolf Eichmann's apprehension and trial," Rosenbaum said in an interview. "Eichmann's apprehension and trial, which mesmerized the world, helped stimulate a reinvigoration of efforts in West Germany to pursue Nazi criminals - efforts that are still underway in 2011." Tuviah Samuel Friedman was born Jan. 23, 1922, in Radom, Poland. His wife, the former Anna Gutman, and their son, Ronni, have both died. Survivors could not be confirmed. Toward the end of his 1961 book, Mr. Friedman wrote that he had hope that future governments would "look about them and remove from their midst the residue of Nazi murderers who still live." "Sadly," said Rosenbaum, the Justice Department prosecutor, "that hope was not realized, because the vast majority of Nazi perpetrators have evaded justice." ******The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt")also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "catastrophe"; Yiddish: חורבן, Churben or Hurban, from the Hebrew for "destruction"), was the mass murder or genocide of approximately six million Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, throughout German-occupied territory.Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds were killed.Over one million Jewish children were killed in the Holocaust, as were approximately two million Jewish women and three million Jewish men. A network of over 40,000 facilities in Germany and German-occupied territory were used to concentrate, hold, and kill Jews and other victims.Some scholars argue that the mass murder of the Romani and people with disabilities should be included in the definition,and some use the common noun "holocaust" to describe other Nazi mass murders, including those of Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet civilians, and homosexuals.Recent estimates based on figures obtained since the fall of the Soviet Union indicates some ten to eleven million civilians and prisoners of war were intentionally murdered by the Nazi regime.The persecution and genocide were carried out in stages. Various laws to remove the Jews from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, were enacted in Germany before the outbreak of World War II in Europe. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were subjected to slave labor until they died of exhaustion or disease. Where Germany conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized paramilitary units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings. The occupiers required Jews and Romani to be confined in overcrowded ghettos before being transported by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, most were systematically killed in gas chambers. Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics that led to the genocides, turning the Third Reich into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal state". During World War II, ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe were set up by the Third Reich in order to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed area within a city. In total, according to USHMM archives, there were at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone. Therefore, the examples are intended only to illustrate their scope and living conditions across Eastern Europe. Although the common usage in Holocaust literature is 'ghetto', the Nazis most often referred to these detention facilities in documents and signage as 'Jüdischer Wohnbezirk' or 'Wohngebiet der Juden' (German); both are often translated as Jewish Quarter although the former is literally "Jewish Living/Residential Area/District/Neighborhood" and the latter is "Living Area of the Jews"). Soon after the 1939 Invasion of Poland, the German Nazis began to systematically move Polish Jews away from their homes and into designated areas of larger Polish cities and towns. The first ghetto at Piotrków Trybunalski was established in October 1939, the one in Tuliszkow was established in December 1939 – January 1940, followed by the first large scale ghetto, the Łódź Ghetto in April 1940, and the Warsaw Ghetto in October, with many other ghettos established throughout 1940 and 1941. Many ghettos were walled off or enclosed with barbed wire. In the case of sealed ghettos, any Jew found leaving them was shot. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in Nazi occupied Europe, with over 400,000 Jews crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km) located in the heart of the city. The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000 List of ghetto uprisings during the Holocaust Będzin Ghetto Uprising (also known as the Będzin-Sosnowiec Ghetto Uprising) Białystok Ghetto Uprising - organized by the Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising Łachwa (Lakhva) Ghetto Uprising Mińsk Mazowiecki Ghetto Uprising Warsaw Ghetto Uprising - organised by the ŻOB and ŻZW Riga Ghetto Resistance Movement To some extent the armed struggle was also carried out during the final liquidation of Ghettos in: Kraków Ghetto Łódź Ghetto Lwów Ghetto Marcinkonys Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Pińsk Ghetto Wilno (Vilna) Ghetto - resistance of the Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje Otto Adolf Eichmann (pronounced [ˈɔto ˈaːdɔlf ˈaɪ̯çman]; 19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organisers of the Holocaust. Eichmann was charged by SS-Obergruppenführer (general/lieutenant general) Reinhard Heydrich with facilitating and managing the logistics of mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in German-occupied Eastern Europe during World War II. In 1960, he was captured in Argentina by Mossad, Israel's intelligence service. Following a widely publicised trial in Israel, he was found guilty of war crimes and hanged in 1962. After an unremarkable school career, Eichmann briefly worked for his father's mining company in Austria, where the family had moved in 1914. He worked as a travelling oil salesman beginning in 1927 and joined the Nazi Party and SS in 1932. After returning to Germany in 1933, he joined the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; Security Service), where he was appointed head of the department responsible for Jewish affairs—especially emigration, which the Nazis encouraged through violence and economic pressure. After the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Eichmann and his staff arranged for Jews to be concentrated into ghettos in major cities with the expectation they would be transported farther east or overseas. Eichmann drew up plans for a Jewish reservation, first at Nisko in south-east Poland and later in Madagascar, but neither of these plans were ever carried out. As the Nazis began the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, their Jewish policy changed from emigration to extermination. To co-ordinate planning for the genocide, Heydrich hosted the regime's administrative leaders at the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942. Eichmann collected information for Heydrich, attended the conference, and prepared the minutes. Eichmann and his staff became responsible for Jewish deportations to extermination camps, where the victims were gassed. After Germany invaded Hungary in March 1944, Eichmann oversaw the deportation and extermination of that country's Jewish population. Most of the victims were sent to Auschwitz concentration camp, where 75 to 90 per cent were killed on arrival. By the time the transports were stopped in July, 437,000 of Hungary's 725,000 Jews had been killed. Historian Richard J. Evans estimates that between 5.5 and 6 million Jews were exterminated by the Nazis. Eichmann said towards the end of the war that he would "leap laughing into the grave because the feeling that he had five million people on his conscience would be for him a source of extraordinary satisfaction."[1] After Germany's defeat in 1945, Eichmann fled to Austria. He lived there until 1950, when he moved to Argentina using false papers. Information collected by the Mossad, Israel's intelligence agency, confirmed Eichmann's location in 1960. A team of Mossad and Shin Bet agents captured Eichmann and brought him to Israel to stand trial on 15 criminal charges, including war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes against the Jewish people. Found guilty on many of these charges, he was sentenced to death by hanging and executed on 1 June 1962.[a] The trial was widely followed in the media and was later the subject of several books, including Hannah Arendt's work Eichmann in Jerusalem, in which Arendt coined the phrase "the banality of evil" to describe Eichmann.[3] Contents 1 Early life and education2 Early career3 Second World War 3.1 Transition from emigration to deportation3.2 Wannsee Conference3.3 Hungary 4 After the Second World War5 Capture in Argentina6 Trial 6.1 Appeals and execution6.2 Impact 7 Summary of SS career 7.1 Dates of rank7.2 Nazi awards and decorations 8 See also9 References 9.1 Notes9.2 Citations9.3 Sources 10 Further reading11 External links 11.1 Links related to the trial Early life and education Otto Adolf Eichmann, the eldest of five children, was born in 1906 to a Calvinist Protestant family in Solingen, Germany.[4] His parents were Adolf Karl Eichmann, a bookkeeper, and Maria née Schefferling, a housewife.[5][6][b] The elder Adolf moved to Linz, Austria, in 1913 to take a position as commercial manager for the Linz Tramway and Electrical Company, and the rest of the family followed a year later. After the death of Maria in 1916, Eichmann's father married Maria Zawrzel, a devout Protestant with two sons.[7] Eichmann attended the Kaiser Franz Joseph Staatsoberrealschule (state secondary school) in Linz, the same high school Adolf Hitler had attended some 17 years before.[8] He played the violin and participated in sports and clubs, including a Wandervogel woodcraft and scouting group that included some older boys who were members of various right-wing militias.[9] His poor school performance resulted in his father withdrawing him from the Realschule and enrolling him in the Höhere Bundeslehranstalt für Elektrotechnik, Maschinenbau und Hochbau vocational college.[10] He left without attaining a degree and joined his father's new enterprise, the Untersberg Mining Company, where he worked for several months.[10] From 1925 to 1927 he worked as a sales clerk for the Oberösterreichische Elektrobau AG radio company. Next, between 1927 and early 1933, Eichmann worked in Upper Austria and Salzburg as district agent for the Vacuum Oil Company AG.[11][12] During this time, he joined the Jungfrontkämpfervereinigung, the youth section of Hermann Hiltl's right-wing veterans movement, and began reading newspapers published by the Nazi Party (NSDAP).[13] The party platform included removal of the Weimar Republic in Germany, rejection of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, radical antisemitism, and anti-Bolshevism.[14] They promised a strong central government, increased Lebensraum (living space) for Germanic peoples, formation of a national community based on race, and racial cleansing via the active suppression of Jews, who would be stripped of their citizenship and civil rights.[15] Early career Adolf Eichmann's Lebenslauf (résumé) attached to his application for promotion from SS-Hauptscharführer to SS-Untersturmführer in 1937 On the advice of family friend and local Schutzstaffel (SS; protection squadron) leader Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Eichmann joined the Austrian branch of the NSDAP, member number 889,895.[16] He joined the Nazi Party on 1 April 1932, and his membership in the SS was confirmed seven months later (SS member number 45,326).[17] His regiment was SS-Standarte 37, responsible for guarding the party headquarters in Linz and protecting party speakers at rallies, which would often become violent. Eichmann pursued party activities in Linz on weekends while continuing in his position at Vacuum Oil in Salzburg.[12] A few months after the Nazi seizure of power in Germany in January 1933, Eichmann lost his job due to staffing cutbacks at Vacuum Oil. The Nazi Party was banned in Austria around the same time. These events were factors in Eichmann's decision to return to Germany.[18] Like many other National Socialists fleeing Austria in the spring of 1933, Eichmann left for Passau, where he joined Andreas Bolek at his headquarters.[19] After he attended a training programme at the SS depot in Klosterlechfeld in August, Eichmann returned to the Passau border in September, where was assigned to lead an eight-man SS liaison team to guide Austrian National Socialists into Germany and smuggle propaganda material from there into Austria.[20] In late December, when this unit was dissolved, Eichmann was promoted to SS-Scharführer (squad leader, equivalent to corporal).[21] Eichmann's battalion of the Deutschland Regiment was quartered at barracks next door to Dachau concentration camp.[22] By 1934, Eichmann requested transfer to the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; Security Service) of the SS, to escape the "monotony" of military training and service at Dachau. Eichmann was accepted into the SD and assigned to the sub-office on Freemasons, organising seized ritual objects for a proposed museum. After about six months, Eichmann was invited by Leopold von Mildenstein to join his Jewish Department, Section II/112 of the SD, at its Berlin headquarters.[23][24][c] Eichmann's transfer was granted in November 1934. He later came to consider this as his big break.[25] He was assigned to study and prepare reports on the Zionist movement and various Jewish organisations. He even learned a smattering of Hebrew and Yiddish, gaining a reputation as a specialist in Zionist and Jewish matters.[26] On 21 March 1935 Eichmann married Veronika (Vera) Liebl (1909–93).[27] The couple had four sons: Klaus (b. 1936 in Berlin), Horst Adolf (b. 1940 in Vienna), Dieter Helmut (b. 1942 in Prague) and Ricardo Francisco (b. 1955 in Buenos Aires).[28][29] Eichmann was promoted to SS-Hauptscharführer (head squad leader) in 1936 and was commissioned as an SS-Untersturmführer (second lieutenant) the following year.[30] Nazi Germany used violence and economic pressure to encourage Jews to leave Germany of their own volition;[31] around 250,000 of the country's 437,000 Jews emigrated between 1933 and 1939.[32][33] Eichmann travelled to British Mandatory Palestine with his superior Herbert Hagen in 1937 to assess the possibility of Germany's Jews voluntarily emigrating to that country, disembarking with forged press credentials at Haifa, whence they travelled to Cairo in Egypt. There they met Feival Polkes, an agent of the Haganah, with whom they were unable to strike a deal.[34] Polkes suggested that more Jews should be allowed to leave under the terms of the Haavara Agreement, but Hagen refused, surmising that a strong Jewish presence in Palestine might lead to their founding an independent state, which would run contrary to Reich policy.[35] Eichmann and Hagen attempted to return to Palestine a few days later, but were denied entry after the British authorities refused them the required visas.[36] They prepared a report on their visit, which was published in 1982.[37] In 1938, Eichmann was posted to Vienna to help organise Jewish emigration from Austria, which had just been integrated into the Reich through the Anschluss.[38] Jewish community organisations were placed under supervision of the SD and tasked with encouraging and facilitating Jewish emigration.[39] Funding came from money seized from other Jewish people and organisations, as well as donations from overseas, which were placed under SD control.[40] Eichmann was promoted to SS-Obersturmführer (first lieutenant) in July 1938, and appointed to the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna, created in August.[41] By the time he left Vienna in May 1939, nearly 100,000 Jews had left Austria legally, and many more had been smuggled out to Palestine and elsewhere.[42] Second World War Map showing the location of the General Government, 1941–1945 Transition from emigration to deportation Within weeks of the invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939, Nazi policy toward the Jews changed from voluntary emigration to forced deportation.[43] After discussions with Hitler in the preceding weeks, on 21 September SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, head of the SD, advised his staff that Jews were to be collected into cities in Poland with good rail links to facilitate their expulsion from territories controlled by Germany, starting with areas that had been incorporated into the Reich. He announced plans to create a reservation in the General Government (the portion of Poland not incorporated into the Reich), where Jews and others deemed undesirable would await further deportation.[44] On 27 September 1939 the SD and Sicherheitspolizei (comprising the Gestapo and Kripo police agencies) were combined into the new SS-Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA; Reich Main Security Office), which was placed under Heydrich's control.[45] After a posting in Prague to assist in setting up an emigration office there, Eichmann was transferred to Berlin in October 1939 to command the Central Office for Jewish Emigration for the entire Reich under Heinrich Müller, head of the Gestapo.[46] He was immediately assigned to organise the deportation of 70,000 to 80,000 Jews from Ostrava district in Moravia and Katowice district in the recently annexed portion of Poland. On his own initiative, Eichmann also laid plans to deport Jews from Vienna. Under the Nisko Plan, Eichmann chose Nisko as the location for a new transit camp where Jews would be temporarily housed before being deported elsewhere. In the last week of October 1939, 4,700 Jews were sent to the area by train and were essentially left to fend for themselves in an open meadow with no water and little food. Barracks were planned but never completed.[47][46] Many of the deportees were driven by the SS into Soviet-occupied territory and others were eventually placed in a nearby labour camp. The operation soon was called off, partly because Hitler decided the required trains were better used for military purposes for the time being.[48] Meanwhile, as part of Hitler's long-range resettlement plans, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were being transported into the annexed territories, and ethnic Poles and Jews were being moved further east, particularly into the General Government.[49] Memorial at a bus stop near the site of Eichmann's office, Referat IV B4 (Office of Jewish Affairs) at Kurfurstenstrasse 115, now occupied by a hotel. On 19 December 1939, Eichmann was assigned to head RSHA Referat IV B4 (RSHA Sub-Department IV-B4), tasked with overseeing Jewish affairs and evacuation.[49] Heydrich announced Eichmann to be his "special expert", in charge of arranging for all deportations into occupied Poland.[50] The job entailed co-ordinating with police agencies for the physical removal of the Jews, dealing with their confiscated property, and arranging financing and transport.[49] Within a few days of his appointment, Eichmann formulated a plan to deport 600,000 Jews into the General Government. The plan was stymied by Hans Frank, governor-general of the occupied territories, who was disinclined to accept the deportees as to do so would have a negative impact on economic development and his ultimate goal of Germanisation of the region.[49] In his role as minister responsible for the Four Year Plan, on 24 March 1940 Herman Göring forbade any further transports into the General Government unless cleared first by himself or Frank. Transports continued, but at a much slower pace than originally envisioned.[51] From the start of the war until April 1941, around 63,000 Jews were transported into the General Government.[52] On many of the trains in this period, up to a third of the deportees died in transit.[52][53] While Eichmann claimed at his trial to be upset by the appalling conditions on the trains and in the transit camps, his correspondence and documents of the period show that his primary concern was to achieve the deportations economically and with minimal disruption to Germany's ongoing military operations.[54] Jews were concentrated into ghettos in major cities with the expectation that at some point they would be transported further east or even overseas.[55][56] Horrendous conditions in the ghettos—severe overcrowding, poor sanitation, and a lack of food—resulted in a high death rate.[57] On 15 August 1940, Eichmann released a memorandum titled Reichssicherheitshauptamt: Madagaskar Projekt (Reich Main Security Office: Madagascar Project), calling for the resettlement to Madagascar of a million Jews per year for four years.[58] When Germany failed to defeat the Royal Air Force in the Battle of Britain, the invasion of Britain was postponed indefinitely. As Britain still controlled the Atlantic and her merchant fleet would not be at Germany's disposal for use in evacuations, planning for the Madagascar proposal stalled.[59] Hitler continued to mention the Plan until February 1942, when the idea was permanently shelved.[60] Wannsee Conference Main article: Wannsee Conference From the start of the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Einsatzgruppen (task forces) followed the army into conquered areas and rounded up and killed Jews, Comintern officials, and ranking members of the Communist Party.[61] Eichmann was one of the officials who received regular detailed reports of their activities.[62] On 31 July, Göring gave Heydrich written authorisation to prepare and submit a plan for a "total solution of the Jewish question" in all territories under German control and to co-ordinate the participation of all involved government organisations.[63] The Generalplan Ost (General Plan for the East) called for deporting the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to Siberia, for use as slave labour or to be murdered.[64] Eichmann stated at his later interrogations that Heydrich told him in mid-September that Hitler had ordered that all Jews in German-controlled Europe were to be killed.[65][d] The initial plan was to implement Generalplan Ost after the conquest of the Soviet Union.[64] However, with the entry of the United States into the war in December and the German failure in the Battle of Moscow, Hitler decided that the Jews of Europe were to be exterminated immediately rather than after the war, which now had no end in sight.[66] Around this time, Eichmann was promoted to SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel), the highest rank he achieved.[67] To co-ordinate planning for the proposed genocide, Heydrich hosted the Wannsee Conference, which brought together administrative leaders of the Nazi regime on 20 January 1942.[68] In preparation for the conference, Eichmann drafted for Heydrich a list of the numbers of Jews in various European countries and prepared statistics on emigration.[69] Eichmann attended the conference, oversaw the stenographer who took the minutes, and prepared the official distributed record of the meeting.[70] In his covering letter, Heydrich specified that Eichmann would act as his liaison with the departments involved.[71] Under Eichmann's supervision, large-scale deportations began almost immediately to extermination camps at Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka and elsewhere.[72] The genocide was code-named Operation Reinhard in honour of Heydrich, who died in Prague in early June from wounds suffered in an assassination attempt.[73] Kaltenbrunner succeeded him as head of the RSHA.[74] Eichmann did not make policy, but acted in an operational capacity.[75] Specific deportation orders came from Himmler.[71] Eichmann's office was responsible for collecting information on the Jews in each area, organising the seizure of their property, and arranging for and scheduling trains.[76] His department was in constant contact with the Foreign Office, as Jews of conquered nations such as France could not as easily be stripped of their possessions and deported to their deaths.[77] Eichmann held regular meetings in his Berlin offices with his department members working in the field and travelled extensively to visit concentration camps and ghettos. His wife, who disliked Berlin, resided in Prague with the children. Eichmann initially visited them weekly, but as time went on his visits tapered off to once a month.[78] Hungary Main articles: Hungary in World War II and History of the Jews in Hungary Hungarian woman and children arrive at Auschwitz-Birkenau, May or June 1944 (photo from the Auschwitz Album) Germany invaded Hungary on 19 March 1944. Eichmann arrived the same day, and was soon joined by top members of his staff and five or six hundred members of the SD, SS, and Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; security police).[79][80] Hitler's appointment of a Hungarian government more amenable to the Nazis meant that the Hungarian Jews, who had remained essentially unharmed until that point, would now be deported to Auschwitz to serve as forced labour or be gassed.[79][81] Eichmann toured northeastern Hungary in the last week of April and visited Auschwitz in May to assess the preparations.[82] Round-ups began on 16 April, and from 14 May, four trains of 3,000 Jews per day left Hungary and travelled to the camp at Auschwitz II-Birkenau, arriving along a newly built spur line that terminated a few hundred metres away from the gas chambers.[83][84] Only between 10 and 25 per cent of the people on each train were chosen as forced labourers; the rest were killed within hours of arrival.[83][85] Under international pressure, the Hungarian government halted deportations on 6 July 1944, by which time over 437,000 of Hungary's 725,000 Jews had died.[83][86] In spite of the orders to stop, Eichmann personally made arrangements for additional trains of victims to be sent to Auschwitz on 17 and 19 July.[87] In a series of meetings beginning on 25 April, Eichmann met with Joel Brand, a Hungarian Jew and member of the Relief and Rescue Committee (RRC).[88] Eichmann later testified that Berlin had authorised him to allow emigration of a million Jews in exchange for 10,000 trucks equipped to handle the wintry conditions on the Eastern Front.[89] Nothing came of the proposal, as the Western Allies refused to consider the offer.[88] In June 1944 Eichmann was involved in negotiations with Rudolf Kasztner that resulted in the rescue of 1,684 people, who were sent by train to safety in Switzerland in exchange for three suitcases full of diamonds, gold, cash, and securities.[90] Eichmann, resentful that Kurt Becher and others were becoming involved in Jewish emigration matters, and angered by Himmler's suspension of deportations to the death camps, requested reassignment in July.[91] At the end of August he was assigned to head a commando squad to assist in the evacuation of 10,000 ethnic Germans trapped on the Hungarian border with Romania in the path of the advancing Red Army. The people they were sent to rescue refused to leave, so instead the soldiers helped evacuate members of a German field hospital trapped close to the front. For this Eichmann was awarded the Iron Cross, Second Class.[92] Throughout October and November, Eichmann arranged for tens of thousands of Jewish victims to travel by forced marches in appalling conditions from Budapest to Vienna, a distance of 210 kilometres (130 mi).[93] On 24 December 1944, Eichmann fled Budapest just before the Soviets completed their encirclement of the capital. He returned to Berlin, where he arranged for the incriminating records of Department IV-B4 to be burned.[94] Along with many other SS officers who fled in the closing months of the war, Eichmann and his family were living in relative safety in Austria when the war in Europe ended on 8 May 1945.[95] Historian Richard J. Evans estimates that 5.5 to 6 million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, were exterminated by the Nazi regime.[96] After the Second World War Red Cross passport under the name of "Ricardo Klement" that Eichmann used to enter Argentina in 1950 At the end of the Second World War, Eichmann was captured by the Americans and spent time in several camps for SS officers using forged papers that identified him as "Otto Eckmann". He escaped from a work detail at Cham when he realised that his actual identity had been discovered. He obtained new identity papers with the name of "Otto Heninger" and relocated frequently over the next several months. Moving to the Lüneburg Heath, he initially got work in the forestry industry and later leased a small plot of land in Altensalzkoth, where he lived until 1950.[97] Meanwhile, at the Nuremberg trials of major war criminals starting in 1946, damning evidence about Eichmann's activities was given by former commandant of Auschwitz Rudolf Höss and others.[98] In 1948 Eichmann obtained a landing permit for Argentina and false identification under the name of "Ricardo Klement" through an organisation directed by Bishop Alois Hudal, an Austrian cleric then residing in Italy with known Nazi sympathies.[99] These documents enabled him in 1950 to obtain an International Committee of the Red Cross humanitarian passport and the remaining entry permits that would allow emigration to Argentina.[99][e] He travelled across Europe, staying in a series of monasteries that had been set up as safe houses.[100] Departing via ship from Genoa on 17 June 1950, he arrived in Buenos Aires on 14 July.[101] Eichmann initially lived in Tucumán Province, where he worked for a government contractor. He sent for his family in 1952, and they moved to Buenos Aires. Eichmann held a series of low-paying jobs until finding employment at Mercedes-Benz, where he rose to department head.[102] The family built a house at 14 Garibaldi Street (now 6061 Garibaldi Street) and moved in during 1960.[103][104] For four months beginning in late 1956, Eichmann was extensively interviewed by Nazi expatriate journalist Willem Sassen with the intention of producing a biography. Tapes, transcripts, and handwritten notes by Eichmann were produced.[105] The memoirs were later used as the basis for a series of articles that appeared in Life and Der Stern magazines in late 1960.[106] Capture in Argentina Several Jews and other victims of the Holocaust dedicated themselves to finding Eichmann and other Nazis. Among them was the Jewish Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal.[107] Wiesenthal learned from a letter shown to him in 1953 that Eichmann had been seen in Buenos Aires, and he passed along that information to the Israeli consulate in Vienna in 1954.[108] When Eichmann's father died in 1960, Wiesenthal made arrangements for private detectives to surreptitiously photograph members of the family, as Eichmann's brother Otto was said to bear a strong family resemblance and there were no current photos of the fugitive. He provided these photographs to Mossad agents on 18 February.[109] Also instrumental in exposing Eichmann's identity was Lothar Hermann, a German half-Jew who had emigrated to Argentina in 1938.[110] When in 1956 Hermann's daughter Sylvia began dating a man named Klaus Eichmann who boasted about his father's Nazi exploits, Hermann alerted Fritz Bauer, prosecutor-general of the state of Hesse in West Germany.[111] Sylvia, sent on a fact-finding mission, was met at the door by Eichmann himself, who said he was Klaus's uncle. Informed that Klaus was not home, she sat down to wait. When Klaus returned, he addressed Eichmann as 'Father'.[112] In 1957 Bauer passed along the information in person to Mossad director Isser Harel, who assigned operatives to undertake surveillance, but no concrete evidence was initially found.[113] On 1 March 1960 Harel dispatched to Buenos Aires the Shin Bet chief interrogator Zvi Aharoni,[114] who over the course of weeks of investigation was able to confirm the identity of the fugitive.[115] As Argentina had a history of turning down extradition requests for Nazi criminals, Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion made the decision that Eichmann should be captured rather than extradited, and brought to Israel for trial.[116][117] Harel himself arrived in person in May 1960 to oversee the capture.[118] Mossad operative Rafi Eitan was named leader of the eight-man team, most of whom were Shin Bet agents.[119] The teleprinter that was used to send messages regarding the capture to Israel's diplomatic missions around the world The team captured Eichmann near his home on Garibaldi Street in San Fernando, Buenos Aires, an industrial community 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the centre of Buenos Aires on 11 May 1960.[120] The agents had arrived in Buenos Aires in April 1960 after Eichmann's identity was confirmed.[121] After observing the suspect's routine for many days, they determined that he arrived home by bus from work at around the same time every evening. They planned to seize him when he was walking beside an open field from the bus stop to his house.[122] The plan was almost abandoned on the designated day when Eichmann was not present on the bus he usually took home.[123] Finally, almost half an hour late, Eichmann got off a bus. Mossad agent Peter Malkin engaged him, asking him in Spanish if he had a moment. Frightened, Eichmann attempted to leave, but two more Mossad men came to Malkin's aid; the three wrestled Eichmann to the ground and, after a struggle, conducted him to a car where they hid him on the floor under a blanket.[124] Eichmann was taken to one of several Mossad safe houses that had been set up by the team.[124] He was held there for nine days, during which time his identity was double-checked and confirmed.[125] During these days, Harel tried to locate Josef Mengele, the notorious Nazi doctor from Auschwitz concentration camp, as the Mossad had information that he was also living in Buenos Aires. He was hoping to bring Mengele back to Israel on the same flight.[126] Mengele had already left his last known residence in the city, and Harel was unable to get any leads on where he had gone, so the plans for his capture had to be abandoned.[127] Near midnight on 20 May, Eichmann was sedated by an Israeli doctor on the Mossad team and dressed as a flight attendant.[128] He was smuggled out of Argentina aboard the same El Al Bristol Britannia aircraft that had a few days earlier carried Israel's delegation to the official 150th anniversary celebration of Argentina's independence from Spain.[129] After a tense delay at the airport getting the flight plan approved, the plane took off for Israel, stopping over in Dakar, Senegal, to refuel.[130] They arrived in Israel on 22 May, and Ben-Gurion announced Eichmann's capture to the Knesset—Israel's parliament—the following afternoon.[131] In Argentina, the abduction was met with a violent wave of antisemitism carried out by far-right sectors, including the Tacuara Nationalist Movement.[132] In June 1960, after unsuccessful negotiations with Israel, Argentina requested an urgent meeting of the United Nations Security Council to protest, as they regarded the capture as a violation of their sovereign rights.[133] In the ensuing debate, the Israeli representative Golda Meir claimed that the abductors were not Israeli agents but private individuals and so the incident was only an "isolated violation of Argentine law".[133] On 23 June the Council passed Resolution 138, which agreed that Argentine sovereignty had been violated and requested that Israel should make reparations.[134] After further negotiations, on 3 August, Israel and Argentina issued a joint statement admitting the violation of Argentinian sovereignty but agreeing to end the dispute.[135] In Eichmann's trial and subsequent appeal, the Israeli court determined that the circumstances of his capture had no bearing on the legality of his trial.[136] Trial Eichmann was taken to a fortified police station at Yagur in northern Israel, where he spent nine months.[137] The Israelis were unwilling to take him to trial based solely on the evidence in documents and witness testimony, so the prisoner was subject to daily interrogations, the transcripts of which totalled over 3,500 pages.[138] The interrogator was Chief Inspector Avner Less of the national police.[139] Using documents provided primarily by Yad Vashem and Nazi hunter Tuviah Friedman, Less was often able to determine when Eichmann was lying or being evasive. When additional information was brought forward that forced Eichmann into admitting what he had done, Eichmann would insist he had not had any authority in the Nazi hierarchy and had only been following orders.[140] Inspector Less noted that Eichmann did not seem to realise the enormity of his crimes and showed no remorse.[141] Eichmann on trial in 1961 Eichmann's trial before the Jerusalem District Court began on 11 April 1961.[142] The legal basis of the charges against Eichmann was the 1950 Nazi and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law,[143][f] under which he was indicted on 15 criminal charges, including crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes against the Jewish people, and membership in a criminal organisation.[144][g] The trial was presided over by three judges: Moshe Landau, Benjamin Halevy and Yitzhak Raveh.[145] The chief prosecutor was Israeli Attorney General Gideon Hausner, assisted by Gabriel Bach of the Department of Justice and Tel Aviv District Attorney Yaakov Bar-Or.[146] The defence team consisted of German lawyer Robert Servatius, legal assistant Dieter Wechtenbruch, and Eichmann himself.[147] The Israeli government arranged for the trial to have prominent media coverage.[148] Capital Cities Broadcasting Corporation of the United States obtained exclusive rights to videotape the proceedings for television broadcast.[149] Many major newspapers from all over the globe sent reporters and published front-page coverage of the story.[150] The trial was held at the Beit Ha'am (today known as the Gerard Behar Center), an auditorium in central Jerusalem. Eichmann sat inside a bulletproof glass booth to protect him from assassination attempts.[151] The building was modified to allow journalists to watch the trial on closed-circuit television, and 750 seats were available in the auditorium itself. Israelis had the opportunity to watch live television broadcasts of the proceedings, and videotape was flown daily to the United States for broadcast the following day.[152][153] The prosecution case was presented over the course of 56 days, involving hundreds of documents and 112 witnesses (many of them Holocaust survivors).[154] Hausner's intention was to not only demonstrate Eichmann's guilt but to present material about the entire Holocaust, thus producing a comprehensive record.[143] Hausner's opening address began, "It is not an individual that is in the dock at this historic trial and not the Nazi regime alone, but anti-Semitism throughout history."[155] Defence attorney Servatius repeatedly tried to curb the presentation of material not directly related to Eichmann, and was mostly successful.[156] In addition to wartime documents, material presented as evidence included tapes and transcripts from Eichmann's interrogation and Sassen's interviews in Argentina.[154] In the case of the Sassen interviews, only Eichmann's hand-written notes were admitted into evidence.[157] Eichmann's trial judges Benjamin Halevy, Moshe Landau, and Yitzhak Raveh Play media Universal Newsreel reports the verdict Some of the evidence submitted by the prosecution took the form of depositions made by leading Nazis.[158] The defence demanded that the men should be brought to Israel so that the defence's right to cross-examination would not be abrogated. But Hausner, in his role as Attorney General, declared that he would be obliged to arrest any war criminals who entered Israel.[158] The prosecution proved that Eichmann had visited places where exterminations had taken place, including Chełmno extermination camp, Auschwitz, and Minsk (where he witnessed a mass shooting of Jews),[159] and therefore was aware that the deportees were being killed.[160] When the prosecution rested, the defence opened its case with a motion to dismiss based on the trial itself being illegal. Servatius challenged Eichmann's kidnapping and the basis for the Israeli law under which he had been indicted. He argued that if the trial were to continue, it should transfer its jurisdiction to West Germany. The prosecution countered by stating that the United Nations had endorsed Israel's actions, and that both West Germany and Argentina had agreed that the charges against him were legitimate. The defence motion was subsequently dismissed.[161] The defence next engaged in a lengthy direct examination of Eichmann.[162] Observers such as Moshe Pearlman and Hannah Arendt have remarked on Eichmann's ordinariness in appearance and flat affect.[163] In his testimony throughout the trial, Eichmann insisted he had no choice but to follow orders, as he was bound by an oath of loyalty—the same superior orders defence used by some defendants in the 1945–1946 Nuremberg trials.[164] Eichmann asserted that the decisions had been made not by him, but by Müller, Heydrich, Himmler, and ultimately Hitler.[165] Servatius also proposed that decisions of the Nazi government were acts of state and therefore not subject to normal judicial proceedings.[166] Regarding the Wannsee Conference, Eichmann stated that he felt a sense of satisfaction and relief at its conclusion. As a clear decision to exterminate had been made by his superiors, the matter was out of his hands; he felt absolved of any guilt.[167] On the last day of the examination, he stated that he was guilty of arranging the transports, but he did not feel guilty for the consequences.[168] Throughout his cross-examination, prosecutor Hausner attempted to get Eichmann to admit he was personally guilty, but no such confession was forthcoming.[169] Eichmann admitted to not liking the Jews and viewing them as adversaries, but stated that he never thought their annihilation was justified.[170] When Hausner produced evidence that Eichmann had stated in 1945 that "I will leap into my grave laughing because the feeling that I have five million human beings on my conscience is for me a source of extraordinary satisfaction", Eichmann said he meant "enemies of the Reich" such as the Soviets.[171] During later examination by the judges, he admitted he meant the Jews, and said the remark was an accurate reflection of his opinion at the time.[172] The trial adjourned on 14 August, and the verdict was read on 12 December.[142] The judges declared him not guilty of personally killing anyone and not guilty of overseeing and controlling the activities of the Einsatzgruppen.[173] He was deemed responsible for the dreadful conditions on board the deportation trains and for obtaining Jews to fill those trains.[174] He was found guilty of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against Poles, Slovenes and Gypsies. He was also found guilty of membership in three organisations that had been deemed criminal at the Nuremberg trials: the Gestapo, the SD, and the SS.[175][g] When considering the sentence, the judges concluded that Eichmann had not merely been following orders, but believed in the Nazi cause wholeheartedly and had been a key perpetrator of the genocide.[176] On 15 December 1961, Eichmann was sentenced to death.[177] Appeals and execution Adolf Eichmann in the yard of his cell at Ayalon Prison in Israel, 1961 Servatius appealed the verdict, mostly relying on legal arguments about Israel's jurisdiction and the legality of the laws under which Eichmann was charged.[178] Appeal hearings took place between 22 and 29 March 1962.[179] Eichmann's wife Vera flew to Israel and saw him for the last time at the end of April.[180] On 29 May, the Israeli Supreme Court rejected the appeal and upheld the District Court's judgement on all counts.[181] Eichmann immediately petitioned Israeli President Yitzhak Ben-Zvi for clemency. Prominent people such as Hugo Bergmann, Pearl Buck, Martin Buber, and Ernst Simon spoke up on his behalf.[182] Ben-Gurion called a special cabinet meeting to resolve the issue. The cabinet decided not to recommend to President Ben-Zvi to grant clemency to Eichmann.[183] As a result, Ben-Zvi rejected the appeal to commute Eichmann's sentence. At 8:00 PM on 31 May, about four hours before his execution, Eichmann was informed that the appeal had been declined.[184] Eichmann was executed by hanging at a prison in Ramla. The hanging was scheduled for midnight on 31 May 1962, but due to a slight delay it happened a few minutes after midnight.[2] He refused a last meal (preferring instead a bottle of wine) as well as the traditional black hood.[185] Journalists and a Canadian reverend, William Lovell Hull, who had been his spiritual counselor while in prison, were allowed to attend the execution.[186] His last words were: Long live Germany. Long live Argentina. Long live Austria. These are the three countries with which I have been most connected and which I will not forget. I greet my wife, my family and my friends. I am ready. We'll meet again soon, as is the fate of all men. I die believing in God.[187] Within four hours Eichmann's body had been cremated at a secret location, and his ashes were scattered in the Mediterranean Sea, outside of Israeli territorial waters by an Israeli Navy patrol boat.[188] Impact The trial and the surrounding media coverage sparked renewed interest in wartime events, and the resulting increase in publication of memoirs and scholarly works helped raise public awareness of the Holocaust.[189] The trial received widespread coverage by the press in West Germany, and many schools added material studying the issues to their curriculum.[190] In Israel, the testimony of witnesses at the trial led to a deeper understanding of the impact of the Holocaust on survivors, especially among younger citizens who had never suffered state-sponsored oppression.[191] Political theorist Hannah Arendt, a Jew who fled Germany after Hitler's rise to power, reported on Eichmann's trial for The New Yorker. In Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt calls Eichmann the embodiment of the "banality of evil", as he appeared to have an ordinary and normal personality, displaying neither guilt nor hatred.[3][192] In his 1988 book Justice, Not Vengeance, Wiesenthal said: "The world now understands the concept of 'desk murderer'. We know that one doesn't need to be fanatical, sadistic, or mentally ill to murder millions; that it is enough to be a loyal follower eager to do one's duty."[193] Eichmann's son Ricardo says he is not resentful toward Israel for executing his father.[194] He does not agree that his father's "following orders" argument excuses his actions and notes how his father's lack of remorse caused "difficult emotions" for the Eichmann family. Ricardo is now a professor of archaeology at the German Archaeological Institute.[195] In 2015 the filming of the trial by producer Milton Fruchtman and blacklisted TV director Leo Hurwitz was the subject of the UK television film The Eichmann Show, featuring Martin Freeman and Anthony LaPaglia. The film intercuts dramatic scenes with historical footage from the trial.[196][197] Summary of SS career SS number: 45,326[198]Nazi Party number: 899,895Primary positions: Sub-Department IV-B4 (Gestapo), RSHAWaffen-SS service: SS-Untersturmführer der Reserve (9 November 1944) Dates of rank Eichmann's SS-ranks Date Rank 1 April 1932 SS-Anwärter (candidate) 9 November 1933 SS-Mann (private) 24 December 1933 SS-Scharführer (sergeant) 1 May 1934 SS-Oberscharführer (staff sergeant) 1 July 1934 SS-Scharführer[h] 1 September 1935 SS-Oberscharführer (staff sergeant) 13 September 1936 SS-Hauptscharführer (sergeant first class) 9 November 1937 SS-Untersturmführer (second lieutenant) July 1938 SS-Obersturmführer (first lieutenant) 30 January 1939 SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) 1 August 1940 SS-Sturmbannführer (major) 9 November 1941 SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) Nazi awards and decorations Anschluss MedalHonour Chevron for the Old GuardIron Cross, Second Class (1944)SA Sports Badge (in Bronze)SS Honour RingSS JulleuchterSS Civil Badge; SS Zivilabzeichen (SS-Z.A. #6,375)War Merit Cross (1st & 2nd Classes with Swords) See also Glossary of Nazi GermanyList of Nazi Party leaders and officialsList of SS personnel With the Nazi occupation of 1939, Radom became the capital of one of four districts of the Generalgouvernement. With forced resettlements, the city’s Jewish population increased dramatically, reaching about 33,000 by 1942. In April 1941, the Germans established two ghettos in the city—the “large ghetto” in the city center and the “small” ghetto in the Glinica neighborhood. Despite extreme hardship and persecution, ghetto residents organized a well-developed network of self-help organizations and a civilian resistance movement that included clandestine schooling, a theater, and literary activities. The Germans liquidated the Glinica ghetto on 4 August 1942, the larger ghetto 12 days later. Most of Radom’s Jews were murdered at Treblinka. About 3,000 remained in town as laborers; in the end they were housed in a camp near Szkolna Street, which from 1944 was linked to the Majdanek concentration camp. In the summer of 1944, most were sent to the Vaihingen camp near Stuttgart, where the survivors were liberated. After the war, many Jews settled in Radom, at least temporarily. In the summer of 1945 they numbered 1,198, formed a district Jewish committee, and set up a house of prayer and a shelter. This number quickly diminished, however, as Jews faced antisemitism and acts of violence, including beatings, assault, and murder. After the Kielce pogrom of July 1946, most of the city’s remaining Jews left. By 1947 barely 99 remained, and by the next year that number had shrunk to 30. Radom’s Jews made their last public appearance in August 1950, during the unveiling ceremony of a monument commemorating the period of occupation, erected where Radom’s synagogue had once stood. Radom Ghetto was a World War II ghetto set up in March 1941 by Nazi Germany in the city of Radom during occupation of Poland, for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of Polish Jews. It was closed off from the outside officially in April 1941.[1] A year and a half later, the liquidation of the ghetto began in August 1942, and ended in July 1944, with approximately 30,000–32,000 victims deported aboard cattle trucks to their deaths at the Treblinka extermination camp.[2] For more details on this topic, see Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland. Contents 1 Background2 The Ghetto 2.1 Rescue efforts 3 See also4 Notes5 Further reading Background The city of Radom was overrun by the German forces on September 8, 1939 during the invasion of Poland. The total population was 81,000 at that time of which 25,000 were Jews.[3] On November 30, 1939 the SS-Gruppenführer Fritz Katzmann from Selbstschutz who led murder operations earlier in Wrocław,[4] and in Katowice,[5] was appointed the Higher SS and Police Leader (SSPF) of occupied Radom. His arrival was followed by wonton violence and plunder for personal gain. Katzmann ordered the execution of Jewish leaders right away.[5] Before the creation of a ghetto, many Jews were pressed into forced labor. One of their first tasks on German orders was to rebuild the prewar Polish Łucznik Arms Factory damaged in the attack, to meet the German military needs. The factory served as the major local Nazi employer throughout the war.[3] The Germans forced the Jewish community to pay contributions, and seized their valuables and businesses.[3] Nevertheless, the precious metal holdings were already depleted because the Radom Jews – especially the Jewish women from "Wizo" – made massive donations to Polish air-force fund four months before the invasion. Even the least fortunate Jews purchased air-defense bonds with pride until May 1939.[6] Soon after the invasion, around September–October 1939, the SS conducted surprise raids on synagogues. The worshipers were dragged out and put into labour commandos. The Radom Synagogue was desecrated by the Nazis and its furnishings destroyed. To instill fear, the Jewish city councilor Jojna (Yona) Zylberberg was marched with a stone over his head and beaten by the SS soldiers.[3] His wife died in an accident at home only months earlier by falling out when she tried to hang sheers, leaving her two children behind.[7] Around December 1939 – January 1940 the Judenrat was established to serve as an intermediary organization between the German command and the local Jewish community. One thousand men were sent to labour camps of the Lublin reservation in the summer of 1940. In December, the German Governor-General Hans Frank stationing in Kraków ordered the expulsion of 10,000 Jews from the city. Only 1,840 were deported due to technical difficulties. In the spring of 1941 there were about 32,000 Jews in Radom.[3] Katzmann remained there until Operation Barbarossa.[5] The Ghetto Radom received Jews expelled from other settlements including the Jewish inmates of the Kraków Ghetto because Kraków was to become the "cleanest" city of the General Government. In March 1941 the Governor-General Frank issued an order to create a ghetto in Radom. A week earlier the Jewish Ghetto Police was formed by the German administration to aid with the relocations.[3] The Jews were given ten days in which to vacate their homes and settle with their families in the designated areas. The ghetto was split in two like in many other cities. The ghetto gates were closed from the outside on April 7, 1941.[3] About 33,000 Polish Jews were gathered there; 27,000 at the main ghetto, and about 5,000 at a smaller ghetto in the suburbs. Most of the ghetto area was not walled; the barriers were formed by buildings themselves and the exits were managed by Jewish and Polish police. The "large ghetto" was set up at Wałowa street in central Śródmieście District and the "small ghetto" at the Glinice District.[3] Jewish men with armbands in the Radom Ghetto, March 1941 As with many other ghettos across occupied Poland, starvation was not uncommon. The German-allotted rations for a person in the ghetto were 100 grams (3.5 oz) of bread per day. Nonetheless the conditions in the Radom Ghetto were on average better than in many other contemporary ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe.[3] In the first months of 1942 the Germans carried out several actions, arresting or summarily executing various leaders of the Jewish community; this severely weakened the Judenrat. The Germans began to liquidate the Radom Ghetto in earnest, starting in August 1942 as part of Operation Reinhard. The first large deportation emptied the smaller Glinice ghetto.[3] Later that month many Jews from the remaining larger ghetto were deported as well; hundreds were killed during the round-up mostly by "Hiwis".[3][8] By the end of August approximately 2,000 Jews remained in Radom.[3] The deported Jews were sent to extermination camps (primarily Treblinka and Auschwitz). The remnants of the Radom ghetto were turned into a temporary labor camp. The last Radom Jews were evicted in June 1944, when on June 26 the last inhabitants were deported to Auschwitz.[3] Only a few hundred Jews from Radom survived the war. Rescue efforts Among the Polish rescuers of Jews, the most prominent role belonged to Dr. Jerzy Borysowicz (pl),[9] director of the mental hospital in Radom located at Warszawska Street. The facility was spared by the Nazis only because the former church building could not be turned into any war-related purpose. The Jews, including children, were receiving daily help from Borysowicz as well as his medical staff in total secrecy.[9] The most dramatic was the rescue of people suffering in the ghetto from the Typhoid fever. Borysowicz treated Mordechai Anielewicz, leader of the Jewish Combat Organization instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Most of his patients however, did not survive the Holocaust.[9] Anielewicz died in the Uprising.[10] Borysowicz was awarded the title of Righteous among the Nations posthumously, in 1984, four years after his death on 5 June 1980.[9] See also The Holocaust in occupied PolandTimeline of Treblinka Bełżec (pronounced [ˈbɛu̯ʐɛt͡s], in German: Belzec) was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews during the Holocaust.[2] The camp operated from 17 March 1942 to the end of December 1942.[3] It was situated about 0.5 km (0.31 mi) south of the local railroad station of Bełżec in German-occupied Poland, in the new Distrikt Lublin of the semi-colonial General Government territory.[4] The burning of exhumed corpses on five open-air grids and bone crushing continued until March 1943.[5] Between 430,000 and 500,000 Jews are believed to have been murdered by the German SS at Bełżec, along with an unknown number of Christian Poles and Romani people.[3][6] Only seven Jews performing slave labour with the camp's Sonderkommando survived World War II;[5] and only one of them,[7] became known from his own postwar testimony submitted officially.[8] The lack of viable witnesses who could testify about the camp's operation is the primary reason why Bełżec is so little known despite the enormous number of victims.[8] Contents 1 Background 1.1 Camp construction1.2 Experience in the Action T4 euthanasia program1.3 Concealment of camp's purpose 2 Camp operation3 Command structure 3.1 Camp guards 4 The gas chambers5 Closure and dismantlement6 Death toll7 Post-war commemoration8 Archeological studies9 Survivors10 See also11 Notes12 Citations13 References Background The village of Bełżec, in the interwar period, was situated between the two major Polish cities in southeastern Poland with the largest Jewish population locally, including Lublin 76 kilometres (47 mi) northwest of Bełżec, and the city of Lwów southeast (German: Lemberg, now Lviv, Ukraine). Bełżec fell within the German zone of occupation following the Soviet invasion of 1939 in accordance with the German-Soviet Pact against Poland. Originally, in April 1940 the Jewish forced labor was brought into the area for the construction of military defense facilities of the German strategic plan codenamed Operation Otto against the Soviet advance beyond the common frontier.[9] In the territory of the so-called Nisko "reservation", the city of Lublin became the hub of the early Nazi expulsions of about 95,000 German, Austrian, and Polish Jews from the West, and the General Government area.[10] The prisoners were put to work by the Schutzstaffel (SS) in the construction of anti-tank ditches along the transitory Nazi-Soviet border.[11] The Burggraben project was abandoned with the onset of Operation Barbarossa.[3][12] On 13 October 1941, Heinrich Himmler gave the SS-and-Police Leader of Lublin, SS Brigadeführer Odilo Globocnik an order to start Germanizing the area around Zamość,[9] which entailed the removal of Jews from the areas of future settlement.[13] Camp construction Main article: The Holocaust in occupied Poland The decision to begin work on the first stationary gas chambers in the General Government preceded the actual Wannsee Conference by three months.[9] The site near Bełżec was chosen for several reasons: it was situated on the border between the Lublin District and the German Distrikt Galizien formed after Operation Barbarossa. It could "process" the Jews of both regions.[9] The ease of transportation was secured by the railroad junction at nearby Rawa Ruska and the highway between Lublin-Stadt and Lemberg.[4] The northern boundary of the planned killing centre consisted of an anti-tank trench constructed a year earlier. The ditch, excavated originally for military purposes was likely to serve as the first mass grave. Globocnik brought in Obersturmführer Richard Thomalla who was a civil engineer by profession and the camp construction expert in the SS. Work has commenced in early November 1941, using local builders overseen by a squad of Trawniki guards. The installation, resembling a railway transit point for the purpose of forced labour, was finished before Christmas. It featured insulated barracks for showering among several other structures. Some local men were released. The SS completed the work in February 1942 by fitting in the tank engine and the exhaust piping systems for gassing. The trial killings were performed in early March.[14][15] The "Final Solution" was formulated at Wannsee in late January 1942 by the leading proponents of gassing unaware of the Bełżec existence,[7] including Wilhelm Dolpheid, Ludwig Losacker, Helmut Tanzmann and Governor Otto Wächter.[15] Dolpheid negotiated with the SS-Oberführer Viktor Brack in Berlin for the use of the Action T4 personnel in the process.[15] Only two months later, on 17 March 1942 the daily gassing operations at Bełżec extermination camp began with the T4 leadership brought in from Germany under the guise of Organisation Todt (OT).[9][16] Experience in the Action T4 euthanasia program Bełżec commandant Christian Wirth The three commandants of the camp including Kriminalpolizei officers SS-Sturmbannführer Christian Wirth and SS-Hauptsturmführer Gottlieb Hering, had been involved in the forced euthanasia program since 1940 in common with almost all of their German staff thereafter.[15] Wirth had the leading position as the supervisor of six extermination hospitals in the Reich; Hering was the non-medical chief of the Sonnenstein gassing facility in Saxony as well as at the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre.[15] Christian Wirth had been a killing expert from the beginning as participant of the first T-4 gassing of handicapped people at the Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre. He was, therefore, an obvious choice to be the first commandant of the first stationary extermination camp of Operation Reinhard in the General Government. It was his proposal to use the exhaust gas emitted by the internal-combustion engine of a motorcar as the killing agent instead of the bottled carbon monoxide, because no delivery from outside the camp would be required as in the case of the T-4 method. However, Wirth decided that the comparable technology of mobile gas vans used at Chełmno extermination camp before December 1941 (and by the Einsatzgruppen in the East),[17] had proven insufficient for the projected number of victims from the Holocaust trains arriving at the new railway approach ramp.[18] Wirth developed his method on the basis of experience he had gained in the fixed gas chambers of Action T4. Even though Zyklon B became broadly available later on, Wirth decided against it. Zyklon B was produced by a private firm for both Birkenau, and Majdanek nearby, but their infrastructure differed. Bełżec was a Reinhard camp meant to circumvent the problems of supply, and instead, rely on a system of extermination based on ordinary and universally available killing agents. For economic and practical reasons, Wirth had almost the same carbon monoxide gas used in T-4, generated with the torque of a large engine. Although Holocaust witnesses' testimonies differ as to the type of fuel, Erich Fuchs' postwar affidavit indicates that most probably it was a petrol engine with a system of pipes delivering exhaust fumes into the gas chambers.[19] For very small transports of Jews and Gypsies over a short distance, a minimized version of the gas van technology was also used in Bełżec. The T-4 man and first operator of the gas chambers, SS-Hauptscharführer Lorenz Hackenholt,[20] rebuilt an Opel-Blitz post-office vehicle with the help of a local craftsman into a small gas van.[19] Concealment of camp's purpose Bełżec "processing" zone consisted of two sections surrounded by a high barbed wire fence camouflaged with the cut fir branches: Camp 1, which included the victims' unloading area with two undressing barracks further up; as well as Camp 2, which contained the gas chambers and the mass graves dug by the crawler excavator.[21] The two zones were completely screened from each other and connected only by a narrow corridor called der Schlauch, or "the Tube".[3] All arriving Jews disembarked from the trains at a platform in the reception zone. They were met by SS-Scharführer Fritz Jirmann (Irmann) standing at the podium with a loudspeaker,[21] and explained by the Sonderkommando men that they had arrived at a transit camp.[22] To ready themselves for the communal shower women and children were separated from men.[3] The disrobed new arrivals were forced to run along a fenced-off path to the gas chambers, leaving them no time to absorb where they were. The process was conducted as quickly as possible amid constant screaming of the Germans.[3] At times, a handful of Jews were selected at the ramp to perform all the manual work involved with extermination.[3] The wooden gas chambers, built with double walls insulated by earth packed down in between, were disguised as the shower barracks, so that the victims would not realize the true purpose of the facility. The gassing itself, which took about 30 minutes, was conducted by Hackenholt with the Ukrainian guards and a Jewish aide.[23] Removing the bodies from the gas chambers, burying them, sorting and repairing the victims' clothing for shipping was performed by Sonderkommando work-details.[23] The workshops for the Jewish prisoners, and the barracks for the Ukrainian guards, were separated from the "processing" zone behind an embankment of the old Otto Line with the barb-wire on top.[3] Most Jews from the corpse-unit (the Totenjuden) were killed periodically and replaced by new arrivals, so that they would neither organize a revolt nor survive to tell about the camp's purpose.[3] The German SS and the administration were housed in two cottages outside the camp.[3] Camp operation Aerial photograph of Belzec camp perimeter taken in 1944 by the Luftwaffe (common with death factories after cleanup, making sure that it is safe to abandon). Known structures are gone except for the brick-and-mortar garage and auto-shop for the SS, whose foundations still exist today (lower left). Across the fence (left), separated from the main camp, the Hiwi guards' accommodations with kitchen as well as sorting and packing yard for victims possessions. Dismantled barracks can still be seen surrounded by walking sand. The railway unloading platform, with two parallel ramps, marked with red arrow. A smaller arrow shows the holding pen for Jews still waiting to be "processed". Location of gas chambers marked with a cross. Undressing and hair-cropping area marked with rectangle, with fenced-out "Sluice" into the woods, obstructing the view of the surroundings. Cremation pyres and ash pits (yellow), upper half. The Bełżec history can be divided into two (or three) periods of operation. The first one, from 17 March to the end of June 1942 was marked by the existence of smaller gas chambers housed in barracks made of planks and insulated with sand and rubber. Bełżec was the first killing centre of Operation Reinhard.[3] There were many technical difficulties with the early attempts at mass extermination. The gassing installation was imperfect and usually only one or two rooms were working, causing a backlog. In the first three months 80,000 people were killed and buried in pits covered with a shallow layer of earth. The victims were Jews deported from the Lublin Ghetto and its vicinity. The original three gas chambers were insufficient for completing the task at hand.[9] The second phase of extermination began in July 1942, when the new gas chambers were built of brick and mortar on a lightweight foundation,[24] thus enabling the facility to "process" Jews of the two largest agglomerations nearby including the Kraków and the Lwów Ghettos. The wooden gas chambers were dismantled. The new building 24 m long and 10 m wide had six gas chambers, insulated with the cement walls.[22] It could handle over 1,000 victims at a time. The design was soon imitated by the other two Operation Reinhard extermination camps: Sobibor and Treblinka.[9] There was a hand-painted sign on the new building that read Stiftung Hackenholt or Hackenholt Foundation named after the SS man who designed it.[25] Until December 1942 at least 350,000 to 400,000 Jews were murdered in the new gas chambers.[9] One Wehrmacht sergeant at the train station in Rzeszow, Wilhelm Cornides, recorded in his diary a conversation with a German policeman on 30 August 1942. The Bahnschutzpolizei told him: "trains filled with Jews pass almost daily through the railway yards and leave immediately on the way to the camp. They return swept clean most often the same evening."[26] The last shipment of Jews arrived at Bełżec on 11 December 1942.[9] The buried remains often swelled in the heat as a result of putrefaction and the escape of gases. The surface layer of soil split. In October 1942 the exhumation and burning of all corpses was ordered to cover up the crime on direct orders from SS-Obergruppenführer Odilo Globocnik, the deputy of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler in Berlin. The bodies were placed on pyres made from rail tracks, splashed with petrol and burned over wood. The bones were collected and crushed. The last period of camp's operation continued until June 1943 when the area was ploughed over, and disguised as a farm.[3] Command structure Further information: Belzec trial The camp's first commandant, Christian Wirth, lived very close to the camp in a house which also served as a kitchen for the SS as well as an armoury.[27] He later moved to the Lublin airfield site, to oversee Operation Reinhard till the end. After the German takeover of Italy in 1943, he was transferred by Globocnik to serve along with him in his hometown of Trieste.[28] They set up the San Sabba concentration and transit camp there, killing up to 5,000 prisoners and sending 69 Holocaust trains to Auschwitz. Wirth received the Iron Cross in April 1944. The following month he was killed by partisans whilst traveling in an open-top car in what is today western Slovenia. After the Bełżec closure, his successor there SS-Hauptsturmführer Gottlieb Hering was transferred to Poniatowa concentration camp temporarily until the massacres of the Aktion Erntefest, and later followed Wirth and Globocnik to Trieste.[29] After the war ended, Hering served for a short time as the chief of Criminal Police of Heilbronn in the American zone, and died in autumn 1945 in a hospital. Lorenz Hackenholt survived the defeat of Germany, but disappeared in 1945 without a trace.[19] Belzec extermination camp SS staff, 1942 Only seven former members of the SS-Sonderkommando Belzec were indicted 20 years later in Munich. Of these, just one, Josef Oberhauser (leader of the SS guard platoon), was brought to trial in 1964, and sentenced to four years and six months in prison, of which he served half before being released a free man.[30] Camp guards Bełżec camp guards included German Volksdeutsche and up to 120 former Soviet prisoners of war (mostly Ukrainian) organised into four platoons.[5][22] Following Operation Barbarossa, all of them underwent special training at the Trawniki SS camp division before they were posted as "Hiwis" (German letterword for Hilfswilligen, lit. "those willing to help") in the concentration camps as guards and gas chamber operators.[31] They provided the bulk of Wachmänner collaborators in all major killing sites of the "Final Solution".[32][33] The gas chambers Main article: Gerstein Report The more detailed description of how the gas chambers at Bełżec were managed came in 1945 from SS-Obersturmführer Kurt Gerstein, Head of the Technical Disinfection Services who used to deliver Zyklon B to Auschwitz from the company called Degesch during the Holocaust.[34] In his postwar Report written at the Rottweil hotel while in the French custody, Gerstein described his visit to Bełżec on August 19 or 18, 1942.[25] He witnessed there the unloading of 45 cattle cars crowded with 6,700 Jews deported from the Lwów Ghetto less than a hundred kilometers away,[35] of whom 1,450 were already dead on arrival from suffocation and thirst. The remaining new arrivals were marched naked in batches to the gas chambers; beaten with whips to squeeze tighter inside.[36] Unterscharführer Hackenholt was making great efforts to get the engine running. But it doesn't go. Captain Wirth comes up. I can see he is afraid because I am present at a disaster. Yes, I see it all and I wait. My stopwatch showed it all, 50 minutes, 70 minutes, and the diesel did not start.[a] The people wait inside the gas chambers. In vain. They can be heard weeping 'like in the synagogue', says Professor Pfannenstiel,[b] his eyes glued to a window in the wooden door. Furious, Captain Wirth lashes the Ukrainian assisting Hackenholt twelve, thirteen times, in the face. After 2 hours and 49 minutes – the stopwatch recorded it all – the diesel started. Up to that moment, the people [locked] in those four crowded chambers were still alive, four times 750 persons in four times 45 cubic meters.[c] Another 25 minutes elapsed. Many were already dead, that could be seen through the small window because an electric lamp inside lit up the chamber for a few moments. After 28 minutes, only a few were still alive. Finally, after 32 minutes, all were dead ... Dentists hammered out gold teeth, bridges and crowns. In the midst of them stood Captain Wirth. He was in his element, and showing me a large can full of teeth, he said: "See for yourself the weight of that gold! It's only from yesterday and the day before. You can't imagine what we find every day – dollars, diamonds, gold. You'll see for yourself!" — Kurt Gerstein, Gerstein Report [41] Closure and dismantlement Bełżec mausoleum. Unloading ramp and cremation rails Portion of the memorial in Bełżec. Cemented rails built in place of the original unloading ramp, lead in all directions from which the Jews were brought in [42] The field of crushed stone serves as grave marker; the entire perimeter contains human ashes mixed with sand.[42] Portion of the memorial in Bełżec. Symbolic "death road" (portion of the memorial in Bełżec). Under the ground passage built in place of former "Sluice" into the gas chambers, evokes the feelings of no escape [42] Belzec extermination camp memorial. During the construction of the Mausoleum trees planted by the SS were removed and only the oaks, that witnessed the genocide, were retained.[42] The ohel of the Belzec mausoleum Belzec extermination camp museum In the last phase of the camp operations, all prior mass graves were unearthed by a mechanical digger. It was the result of direct orders from the Nazi leadership (possibly from Himmler), soon after the Soviet Katyn massacre of 22,000 Polish soldiers were discovered in Russia. At Katyn, the German-led exhumations by the international Katyn Commission revealed details of the mass murder by examining preserved bodies.[43] The Germans attempted to use the commission's results to drive a wedge between the Allies.[44] All corpses buried at Bełżec were secretly dug out from the graves and then gradually cremated on long open-air pyres, part of the country-wide plan known as the Sonderaktion 1005. Bone fragments were pulverized and mixed with the ashes to hide the evidence of mass murder. The site was planted with small firs and wild lupines and all camp structures were dismantled.[3][29] The last train with 300 Jewish Sonderkommando prisoners who performed the cleanup operation departed to Sobibor extermination camp for gassing in late June 1943. They were told that they were being evacuated to Germany instead. Any equipment that could be reused was taken by the German and Ukrainian personnel to the concentration camp Majdanek. Wirth's house and the neighboring SS building, which had been the property of the Polish Railway before the war, were not demolished.[29] In an effort to disguise the site the SS personnel with work commandos turned the camp into a fake farm with one Ukrainian SS guard assigned to settle there permanently with his family.[29] This model for guarding and disguising murder sites was also adopted in Treblinka and Sobibor death camps.[29] Death toll Historian Eugeniusz Szrojt in his 1947 study published by the Bulletin of the Main Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes against the Polish Nation (Biuletyn Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni Niemieckich w Polsce, 1947) following investigation by GKBZNwP which began in 1945, estimated the number of people murdered in Bełżec at 600,000.[42] This number became widely accepted in literature. Raul Hilberg gave a figure of 550,000.[45] Yitzhak Arad accepted 600,000 as minimum,[31] and the sum in his table of Bełżec deportations by the city exceeded 500,000.[31] Józef Marszałek calculated 500,000.[46] British historian Robin O'Neil once gave an estimate of about 800,000 based on his investigations at the site.[47] German historians Dieter Pohl and Peter Witte,[48] gave estimate of 480,000 to 540,000. Michael Tregenza stated that it would have been possible to have buried up to one million victims on the site although the true death toll is probably around half of that amount.[49] This document, the so-called Höfle Telegram, confirms 434,508 Jews were killed at Belzec in 1942 The crucial piece of evidence came from declassified Höfle Telegram sent to Berlin on 11 January 1943 by Operation Reinhard's Chief of Staff Hermann Höfle. It was published in 2001 by Stephen Tyas and Peter Witte.[48] The radio telegram indicated that 434,508 Jews were deported to Bełżec through December 31, 1942 based on numbers shared by the SS with the state-run Deutsche Reichsbahn (DRG).[50] The camp had ceased to operate for mass killings by then. The cleanup commando of up to 500 prisoners remained in the camp, disinterring the bodies and burning them. The Sonderkommando was transported to Sobibor extermination camp around August 1943 and murdered on arrival. "In our view," wrote Pohl & Witte in 2001, "there is no evidence to justify a figure higher than that of 600,000 victims."[51] The Holocaust train-records were notoriously incomplete as revealed by postwar analysis by the Main Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes against the Polish Nation.[52] The difference between the "low-end" figure and other estimates can be explained by the lack of exact and detailed sources on the deportations statistics. Thus, Y. Arad writes, that he had to rely, in part, on Yizkor books of Jewish ghettos, which were not guaranteed to give the exact estimates of the numbers of deportees. He also relied on partial German railway documentation, from which the number of trains could be gleaned. Some assumptions had to be made about the number of persons per each Holocaust train.[31] The Deutsche Reichsbahn calculations were predetermined with the carrying capacity of each trainset set up at 50 boxcars, each loaded with 50 prisoners, which was routinely disregarded by the SS cramming trains up to 200% capacity for the same price.[10] The Hoefle's numbers were repeated in Korherr Report suggesting their common origin. Other sources, like Westermann's report,[53] contain the exact data about the number of deported persons, but only estimates of the numbers of those who died in transit.[53] Post-war commemoration The physical evidence of the camp's existence was almost entirely erased before the war's end as a result of the Nazi German prolonged cleanup efforts. There were no survivors to alert the Stalinist officials to the true significance of the site in the post-war years, even though the levelled-out mass graves of the victims remained. The scene was not legally protected until the late 1940s, and for many years gave the impression of being forgotten. Students from Bełżec school,[54] led by teachers, made effort to keep it clean.[55] Beginning in the second half of the 1950s the pursuit by Germany itself of the Nazi German perpetrators of the Holocaust drew first serious attention to the site. The Soviet trials of Russian camp personnel, held in Kiev and Krasnodar in the early 1960s soon followed suit.[55] In the 1960s the grounds of the former Bełżec camp were fenced off. The first monuments were erected, although the area did not correspond to the actual size of the camp during its operation due to lack of proper evidence and modern forensic research. Some commercial development took place in areas formerly belonging to it. On top of that, due to remote location on the Polish-Soviet border, only a very small number of people visited the former camp before the revolutions of 1989 resulting in the return to democracy. The site was largely forgotten and poorly maintained.[55] Following the collapse of the Communist dictatorship in 1989, the situation began to change. As the number of visitors to Poland interested in Holocaust sites increased, more of them came to Bełżec. Many reacted negatively to the unkept state of the grounds. In the late 1990s extensive investigations were carried out on the camp grounds to determine precisely the camp's extent and provide greater understanding of its operation. Buildings constructed after the war on the camp grounds were removed. In 2004, Bełżec became a new branch of the Majdanek State Museum. New official monuments commemorating the camp's victims were unveiled.[56] Scrawled with a Pencil in the Sealed Cattle Car, a poem by Dan Pagis, forms part of the modern memorial One of the prime benefactors behind the new memorial at Bełżec was Miles Lerman, an American Holocaust survivor whose own parents were murdered in Belzec, raising approximately 5 million dollars with the help of the Polish government and the American Jewish Committee. Another prominent Holocaust survivor with a connection to Belzec is philanthropist Anita Ekstein, former national chair of March of the Living Canada. Anita Ekstein was born in the Lviv area and was hidden as a child by Righteous Poles during the Holocaust.[57] Her mother, Ethel Helfgott, was among the victims in Belzec.[58] Anita Ekstein has led many groups of students on educational trips to Poland where she shares her Holocaust story. She first visited Belzec in 2005, a year after the new memorial opened, and discovered her mother's name inscribed on the memorial wall on Mother's Day.[59] Archeological studies From late 1997 until early 1998, a thorough archaeological survey of the site was conducted by a team led by two Polish scientists including Andrzej Kola, director of the Underwater Archaeological Department at the University of Toruń, and Mieczysław Góra, senior curator of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography in Łódź (pl). The team identified the railway sidings and remains of a number of buildings. They also found 33 mass graves, the largest of which were 210 by 60 feet in diameter; and unearthed some 15,000 unburned bodies.[24] The largest mass graves at the archaeological dig contained unburned human remains including parts and pieces of skulls with hair and skin attached, as well as entire bodies preserved in wax-fat transformation. The bottom layer of the graves consisted of human fat resembling black soap. It was up to one meter thick. One grave contained uncrushed human bones compressed into a rock formation.[24] Survivors It is believed that some 50 Jews might have escaped from Bełżec successfully, although most of them perished before the commencement of the "Final Solution". Of those who escaped, only seven were still alive at the war's end. An unknown number of prisoners jumped out from the moving Holocaust trains on the way to the camp, at their own peril.[5] The railway embankments used to be lined with bodies.[26] There were only two Jewish escapees from Bełżec who shared their testimony with the Polish Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi German Crimes. They were Rudolf Reder who submitted a deposition in January 1946 in Kraków, and Chaim Hirszman. However, it is only the testimony of Reder that is of significance, because Hirszman joined the new communist militia in Stalinist Poland tasked with the crushing of Polish underground, torture, makeshift executions, and mass deportation to Siberia of over 50,000 political undesirables.[60] Hirszman was shot in March 1946 at his residence by the Cursed soldiers from TOW, in the course of an anti-communist insurrection against the new reign of terror, before he was able to give a full account of his camp experience.[61] Rudolf Reder summarized his account of the Bełżec camp imprisonment in the book Bełżec, published in 1946 by the Jewish Historical Committee in Kraków with Preface by Nella Rost, his editor and literary helper. The book was illustrated with a map by Józef Bau, a Holocaust survivor who studied at the Academy of Fine Arts. It was reprinted in 1999 by the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum with translation by Margaret M. Rubel.[62] In 1960, Reder's testimony became part of the German preparations for the Belzec trial in Munich against eight former SS members of the extermination camp personnel. The accused were set free except for Oberhauser, who was sentenced to 4.5 years imprisonment, and released after serving half of his sentence.[63] See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to Belzec extermination camp. Belzec Trial of eight former SS staff of Belzec extermination camp in the mid-1960s, MunichChełmno Trials of the Chełmno extermination camp personnel, held in Poland and in Germany, decided almost twenty years apartMajdanek Trials, the overall longest Nazi war crimes trial in historyGrojanowski Report by Chełmno prisoner, Szlama Ber WinerList of Nazi-German concentration camps 2729 Condition: Used, Condition: Very good condition . Tightly bound. Clean. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ), Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel, Country of Manufacture: Israel

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