1973 Fine ROBERT INDIANA & HANS HARTUNG original LITHOGRAPHS XX Siecle ART BOOK

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Seller: judaica-bookstore (2,067) 100%, Location: TEL AVIV, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 273831102326 DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is an EXQUISITE French ART BOOK . This luxurious edition which was published in 1973 by the XXe SIECLE is defined as " XXe SIECLE - PANORAMA 73** - XLV 73 - US Art II ". The publication includes two ORIGINAL colorful LITHOGRAPHS : An original LITHOGRAPH by ROBERT INDIANA , Named " After Autoportrait 69" , Printed by Mourlot Impr. Paris ( Originaly bound with the book ) which was made especially for XX Siecle and an ORIGINAL LITHOGRAPH by HANS HARTUNG, Mourlot Impr. Paris, 1973 which was made especially for XX Siecle in 1973 . Written in FRENCH . The original LITHOGRAPHS which are printed on extremely thick stock are a genuine BEAUTY . The LARGE exquisite ALBUM is throughout ILLUSTRATED and PHOTOGRAPHED in COLOR and B&W . Contains over 200 pages of COLORFUL and B&W pieces. With texts and quotations in FRENCH - Articles about JAMES ROSENQUIST , ROY LICHTENSTEIN , ANDY WARHOL , MARCEL DUCHAMP , JOAN MIRO , PICASSO, HARTUNG , GEORGES BRAQUE and many others . Price of on-line copies is up to $350. ORIGINAL illustrated chromo HC .12.5 x 9.5" . Over 200 throughout illustrated chromo pages. 2 ORIGINAL LITHOGRAPHS . Excellent condition in and out . Inner condition including the LITOGRAPHS is FINE. Tightly bound. Clean. HC intact. Very faint foxing to a few pages. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Book will be sent inside a protective envelope . IMPORTANT REMARK : Several copies on the market lack the ORIGINAL LITHOGRAPHS - This RARE copy includes the ORIGINAL LITHOGRAPHS in excellent condition. AUTHENTICITY : This BOOK including the original LITHOGRAPHS is fully guaranteed ORIGINAL , NOT a reproduction or a recent reprint , It holds a life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY. PAYMENTS : payment method accepted : Paypal. SHIPPMENT : Shipp worldwide via registered airmail is $25. ( Sorry but the book is large and heavy ). Book will be sent inside a protective envelope . Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in Paris. He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal. He produced major works in a variety of media but considered himself a painter above all. He was best known for his photography, and he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer. Man Ray is also noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself.[1] Contents 1Life and career 1.1Background and early life 1.2First artistic endeavors 1.3New York 1.4Paris 1.5Hollywood 1.6Later life 2Accolades 3Art market 4Quotations 4.1By Man Ray 4.2About Man Ray 5Selected publications 6See also 7References and sources 8External links Life and career[edit] Background and early life[edit] Man Ray, 1913, Landscape (Paysage Fauve), watercolor on paper, 35.2 x 24.6 cm, Smithsonian American Art Museum During his career as an artist, Man Ray allowed few details of his early life or family background to be known to the public. He even refused to acknowledge that he ever had a name other than Man Ray.[2] Man Ray's birth name was Emmanuel Radnitzky in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US, in 1890.[3] He was the eldest child of Russian Jewish immigrants[3] Max, a tailor, and Minnie Radnitzky.[4] He had a brother, Sam, and two sisters, Dora and Essie,[4] the youngest born in 1897 shortly after they settled in the Williamsburg[3] neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. In early 1912, the Radnitzky family changed their surname to Ray. Man Ray's brother chose the surname in reaction to the ethnic discrimination and antisemitism prevalent at the time. Emmanuel, who was called "Manny" as a nickname, changed his first name to Man and gradually began to use Man Ray as his name.[2][5] Man Ray, c. 1921–1922, Rencontre dans la porte tournante, published on the cover (and page 39) of Der Sturm, Volume 13, Number 3, March 5, 1922 Man Ray's father worked in a garment factory and ran a small tailoring business out of the family home. He enlisted his children to assist him from an early age. Man Ray's mother enjoyed designing the family's clothes and inventing patchwork items from scraps of fabric.[2] Man Ray wished to disassociate himself from his family background, but their tailoring left an enduring mark on his art. Mannequins, flat irons, sewing machines, needles, pins, threads, swatches of fabric, and other items related to tailoring appear in almost every medium of his work.[6] Art historians have noted similarities between Ray's collage and painting techniques and styles used for tailoring.[5] Mason Klein, curator of a Man Ray exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York, Alias Man Ray: The Art of Reinvention, suggests that the artist may have been "the first Jewish avant-garde artist."[3] Man Ray was the uncle of the photographer Naomi Savage, who learned some of his techniques and incorporated them into her own work.[7] First artistic endeavors[edit] Man Ray, 1919, Seguidilla, airbrushed gouache, pen & ink, pencil, and colored pencil on paperboard, 55.8 × 70.6 cm, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Man Ray displayed artistic and mechanical abilities during childhood. His education at Brooklyn's Boys' High School from 1904 to 1909 provided him with solid grounding in draftingand other basic art techniques. While he attended school, he educated himself with frequent visits to the local art museums, where he studied the works of the Old Masters. After his graduation, Ray was offered a scholarship to study architecture but chose to pursue a career as an artist. Man Ray's parents were disappointed by their son's decision to pursue art, but they agreed to rearrange the family's modest living quarters so that Ray's room could be his studio.[2] The artist remained in the family home over the next four years. During this time, he worked steadily towards becoming a professional painter. Man Ray earned money as a commercial artist and was a technical illustrator at several Manhattan companies.[2][5] The surviving examples of his work from this period indicate that he attempted mostly paintings and drawings in 19th-century styles. He was already an avid admirer of contemporary avant-garde art, such as the European modernists he saw at Alfred Stieglitz's "291" gallery and works by the Ashcan School. However, with a few exceptions, he was not yet able to integrate these trends into his own work. The art classes he sporadically attended, including stints at the National Academy of Designand the Art Students League, were of little apparent benefit to him. When he enrolled in the Ferrer School in the autumn of 1912, he began a period of intense and rapid artistic development.[5] New York[edit] Man Ray, 1920, Three Heads (Joseph Stella and Marcel Duchamp, painting bust portrait of Man Ray above Duchamp), gelatin silver print, 20.7 x 15.7 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York Man Ray, 1920, The Coat-Stand (Porte manteau), reproduced in New York dada (magazine), Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray, April 1921[8] Man Ray, Lampshade, reproduced in 391, n. 13, July 1920 Man Ray, c. 1921–22, Dessin (Drawing), published on page 43 of Der Sturm, Volume 13, Number 3, March 5, 1922 While living in New York City, Man Ray was visually influenced by the 1913 Armory Show and galleries of European contemporary works. His early paintings display facets of cubism. After befriending Marcel Duchamp, who was interested in showing movement in static paintings, his works began to depict movement of the figures. An example is the repetitive positions of the dancer's skirts in The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself with Her Shadows (1916).[9] In 1915, Man Ray had his first solo show of paintings and drawings after he had taken up residence at an art colony in Grantwood, New Jersey, across the Hudson River from New York City.[10] His first proto-Dada object, an assemblage titled Self-Portrait, was exhibited the following year. He produced his first significant photographs in 1918. Man Ray abandoned conventional painting to involve himself with Dada, a radical anti-art movement. He published two Dadaist periodicals, that each only had one issue, The Ridgefield Gazook (1915) and TNT (1919), the latter co-edited by Adolph Wolff and Mitchell Dawson.[11][12] He started making objects and developed unique mechanical and photographic methods of making images. For the 1918 version of Rope Dancer, he combined a spray-gun technique with a pen drawing. Like Duchamp, he did readymades—ordinary objects that are selected and modified. His Gift readymade (1921) is a flatiron with metal tacks attached to the bottom, and Enigma of Isidore Ducasse[13] is an unseen object (a sewing machine) wrapped in cloth and tied with cord. Aerograph (1919), another work from this period, was done with airbrush on glass.[14] In 1920, Man Ray helped Duchamp make the Rotary Glass Plates, one of the earliest examples of kinetic art. It was composed of glass plates turned by a motor. That same year, Man Ray, Katherine Dreier, and Duchamp founded the Société Anonyme, an itinerant collection that was the first museum of modern art in the U.S. In 1941 the collection was donated to Yale University Art Gallery.[15] Man Ray teamed up with Duchamp to publish one issue of New York Dada in 1920. For Man Ray, Dada's experimentation was no match for the wild and chaotic streets of New York.[16] He wrote that "Dada cannot live in New York. All New York is dada, and will not tolerate a rival."[16] In 1913, Man Ray met his first wife, the Belgian poet Adon Lacroix (Donna Lecoeur) (1887–1975), in New York. They married in 1914, separated in 1919, and formally divorced in 1937.[17] Paris[edit] Man Ray, 1922, Untitled Rayograph, gelatin silver photogram, 23.5 x 17.8 cm In July 1921, Man Ray went to live and work in Paris, France. He soon settled in the Montparnasse quarter favored by many artists. Shortly after arriving in Paris, he met and fell in love with Kiki de Montparnasse (Alice Prin), an artists' model and celebrated character in Paris bohemian circles. Kiki was Man Ray's companion for most of the 1920s. She became the subject of some of his most famous photographic images and starred in his experimental films, Le Retour à la Raison and L'Étoile de mer. In 1929, he began a love affair with the Surrealist photographer Lee Miller. Miller left him in 1932. For the next 20 years in Montparnasse, Man Ray was a distinguished photographer. Significant members of the art world, such as James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, Jean Cocteau, Bridget Bate Tichenor,[18] and Antonin Artaud, posed for his camera. Man Ray, 1929, A Night at Saint Jean-de-Luz, Modern Art Museum of the City of Paris The Misunderstood(1938), collection of the Man Ray Estate Man Ray was represented in the first Surrealist exhibition with Jean Arp, Max Ernst, André Masson, Joan Miró, and Pablo Picasso at the Galerie Pierre in Paris in 1925. Important works from this time were a metronome with an eye, originally titled Object to Be Destroyed, and the Violon d'Ingres,[19] a stunning photograph of Kiki de Montparnasse,[20] styled after the painter/musician Ingres. Violon d'Ingres is a popular example of how Man Ray could juxtapose disparate elements in his photography to generate meaning.[21] In 1934, surrealist artist Méret Oppenheim, known for her fur-covered teacup, posed nude for Man Ray in a well-known series of photographs depicting her standing next to a printing press. With Lee Miller, his photographic assistant and lover, Man Ray reinvented the photographic technique of solarization. He also created a type of photogram he called "rayographs", which he described as "pure dadaism". Man Ray was in a relationship with the model Adrienne Fidelin during some time between 1936 and 1940, the two parting ways after Ray fled the Nazi occupation in France, while Adrienne chose to stay behind to care for her family.[22] Man Ray directed a number of influential avant-garde short films, known as Cinéma Pur. He directed Le Retour à la Raison (2 mins, 1923); Emak-Bakia (16 mins, 1926); L'Étoile de Mer (15 mins, 1928); and Les Mystères du Château de Dé (27 mins, 1929). Man Ray also assisted Marcel Duchamp with the cinematography of his film Anemic Cinema (1926), and Ray personally manned the camera on Fernand Léger's Ballet Mécanique (1924). In René Clair's film Entr'acte (1924), Man Ray appeared in a brief scene playing chess with Duchamp. Duchamp, Man Ray, and Francis Picabia were friends and collaborators. The three were connected by their experimental, entertaining, and innovative art.[23][24] Hollywood[edit] Salvador Dalí and Man Ray in Paris, on June 16, 1934 making "wild eyes" for photographer Carl Van Vechten Man Ray was forced to return from Paris to the United States due to the Second World War. He lived in Los Angeles from 1940 to 1951 where he focused his creative energy on painting. A few days after arriving in Los Angeles, Man Ray met Juliet Browner, a first-generation American of Romanian-Jewish lineage. She was a trained dancer, who studied dance with Martha Graham,[25] and an experienced artists' model. The two married in 1946 in a double wedding with their friends Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning. In 1948 Man Ray had a solo exhibition at the Copley Galleries in Beverly Hills, which brought together a wide array of work and featured his newly painted canvases of the Shakespearean Equations series.[26] Later life[edit] Man Ray portrayed by Lothar Wolleh, Paris, 1975 Man Ray returned to Paris in 1951, and settled with Juliet into a studio at 2 bis rue Ferou near the Luxembourg Gardens in St. Germain des Pres, where he continued his creative practice across mediums.[27] During the last quarter century of his life, he returned to a number of his iconic earlier works, recreating them in new form. He also directed the production of limited-edition replicas of several of his objects, working first with Marcel Zerbib and later Arturo Schwarz. In 1963, he published his autobiography, Self-Portrait, which was republished in 1999.[28] He died in Paris on November 18, 1976, from a lung infection. He was interred in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris.[29] Ray's epitaph reads "unconcerned, but not indifferent". When Juliet Browner died in 1991, she was interred in the same tomb. Her epitaph reads "together again". Juliet organized a trust for his work and donated much of his work to museums. Her plans to restore the studio as a public museum proved too expensive; such was the structure's disrepair. Most of the contents were stored at the Pompidou Center.[25] Accolades[edit] In 1974, Man Ray received the Royal Photographic Society's Progress Medal and Honorary Fellowship "in recognition of any invention, research, publication or other contribution which has resulted in an important advance in the scientific or technological development of photography or imaging in the widest sense."[30] In 1999, ARTnews magazine named Man Ray one of the 25 most influential artists of the 20th century. The publication cited his groundbreaking photography, "his explorations of film, painting, sculpture, collage, assemblage and prototypes of what would eventually be called performance artand conceptual art." ARTnews further stated that "Man Ray offered artists in all media an example of a creative intelligencethat, in its 'pursuit of pleasure and liberty', unlocked every door it came to and walked freely where it would." Seeking pleasure and liberty was one of Ray's guiding principles, along with others such as doing things that are socially prohibited.[31][32] In March 2013, Man Ray's photograph Noire et Blanche (1926) was featured in the United States Postal Service's "Modern Art in America" series of stamps. Art market[edit] On 9 November 2017 Man Ray's Noire et Blanche (1926), formerly in the collection of Jacques Doucet, was purchased at Christie's Paris for 2.6 million euros, becoming the 14th most expensive photograph to ever sell at auction.[33][34][35] On 13 November 2017, an assemblage by Man Ray titled Catherine Barometer (1920), sold for $3,252,500 USD at Christie's in New York.[36] Quotations[edit] By Man Ray[edit] "It has never been my object to record my dreams, just the determination to realize them." – Julien Levy exhibition catalog, April 1945. "There is no progress in art, any more than there is progress in making love. There are simply different ways of doing it." – 1948 essay, "To Be Continued, Unnoticed". "An original is a creation motivated by desire. Any reproduction of an original is motivated by necessity. It is marvelous that we are the only species that creates gratuitous forms. To create is divine, to reproduce is human." – "Originals Graphic Multiples", circa 1968; published in Objets de Mon Affection, 1983. "I paint what cannot be photographed, that which comes from the imagination or from dreams, or from an unconscious drive. I photograph the things that I do not wish to paint, the things which already have an existence." – Undated interview, circa 1970s; published in Man Ray: Photographer, 1981. "I have been accused of being a joker. But the most successful art to me involves humor." — Undated interview, circa 1970s; published in Man Ray: Photographer, 1981. "Of course, there will always be those who look only at technique, who ask 'how', while others of a more curious nature will ask 'why'. Personally, I have always preferred inspiration to information."[37] "I do not photograph nature. I photograph my visions."[16] About Man Ray[edit] "Man Ray, n.m. synon. de Joie jouer jouir." (Translation: "Man Ray, masculine noun, synonymous with joy, to play, to enjoy.") — Marcel Duchamp, as the opening epigram for Man Ray's memoir Self-Portrait, 1963. "With him you could try anything—there was nothing you were told not to do, except spill the chemicals. With Man Ray, you were free to do what your imagination conjured, and that kind of encouragement was wonderful." – Artist and photographer, Naomi Savage, Man Ray's niece and protégée, in a 2000 newspaper interview. "Man Ray is a youthful alchemist forever in quest of the painter's philosopher's stone. May he never find it, as that would bring an end to his experimentations which are the very condition of living art expression." – Adolf Wolff, "Art Notes", International 8, no. 1 (January 1914), p. 21. "[Man Ray was] a kind of short man who looked a little like Mister Peepers, spoke slowly with a slight Brooklynese accent, and talked so you could never tell when he was kidding." – Brother-in-law Joseph Browner on his first impression of the artist; quoted in the Fresno Bee, August 26, 1990. Selected publications[edit] Man Ray and Tristan Tzara (1922). Champs délicieux: album de photographies. Paris: [Société générale d'imprimerie et d'édition]. Man Ray (1926). Revolving doors, 1916–1917: 10 planches. Paris: Éditions Surrealistes. Man Ray (1934). Man Ray: photographs, 1920–1934, Paris. Hartford, Connecticut: James Thrall Soby. Éluard, Paul, and Man Ray (1935). Facile. Paris: Éditions G.L.M. Man Ray and André Breton (1937). La photographie n'est pas l'art. Paris: Éditions G.L.M. Man Ray and Paul Éluard (1937). Les mains libres: dessins. Paris: Éditions Jeanne Bucher. Man Ray (1948). Alphabet for adults. Beverly Hills, California: Copley Galleries. Man Ray (1963). Self portrait. London: Andre Deutsch. Man Ray and L. Fritz Gruber (1963). Portraits. Gütersloh, Germany: Sigbert Mohn Verlag. **** Man Ray and his artworks Man Ray, born Emmanuel Radnitzky in 1890 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was a renowned representative of avant-garde photography in the 20th century and is considered as the pioneer of Surrealist photography. Ray's artistic work is very diverse. He was a painter, object artist, and a film maker. He was the very first artist whose images were more valuable to collectors than his artistic work. He therefore made a significant contribution to the evaluation of photography as a form of art. His early life Right from the moment he came into the limelight until his death, Man Ray did not allow much of his early life to be known, even denying that he once had another name other than Ray. Man Ray was born to Jewish immigrants from Russia. He was the only child before his family was blessed with another son and 2 daughters, the youngest child was born shortly after they relocated to Brooklyn in 1897. Man Ray's family changed their surname to Ray in 1912. Ray was nicknamed Manny but changed his name to Man, and slowly started to use Man Ray. Ray's father worked in a garment factory. He also owned a small tailoring shop outside his home, enlisting all his children from a tender age. Ray's mother, who was very passionate about tailoring, enjoyed making and designing her family's clothes. She used to make clothes from her own designs and create patchwork items out of scraps of fabrics. While Man Ray didn't want to associate himself with his family's background, this experience did leave a mark on his art work. A number of clothing and sewing related items appear at every phase of his work and in nearly every medium. His love for art Ray's artistic and mechanical ability came out at a tender age. His high school education played a more important role in providing him with a firm grounding in drafting as well as other art techniques. He also educated himself with regular visits to art museums, where he learnt the works of Old Masters like ike Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Titian and Caravaggio. As a student, Ray was inspired by Mr. Alfred Stieglitz, whose gallery he toured regularly, as well as Mr. Robert Henri, who was his high school teacher. At age 25, Ray had his very first one-man painting fair. His friendship with Duchamp, which spanned for 55 years, influenced their work and resulted in joint creative endeavors. Soon after graduating from high school in 1908, Ray was offered a scholarship to study architecture but decided to pursue a career in arts. While his parents were unhappy with his decision, they supported his love for the arts, and even rearranged the modest living quarters of the family so that their son could employ the room as his studio. Ray stayed for 4 years working towards being a professional painter, while also earning some cash as a technical illustrator and commercial artist at various Manhattan companies. Surrealism and Dadaism Initially, Ray was inspired by cubism and expressionism. But when he met Marcel Duchamp, he started to add some movement to his works. His focus then changed to Dadaism. Dadaism challenged the then perceptions of art and literature, and advocated for spontaneity. Together with Duchamp and Francis Picabia, Man Ray became the leading figure in Dada movement. In 1920s, influenced by the writings of psychologist Sigmund Freud, the literary, intellectual, and artistic movement called Surrealism sought a revolution against the constraints of the rational mind; and by extension, they saw the rules of a society as oppressive. Surrealism also embraces a Marxist ideology that demands an orthodox approach to history as a product of the material interaction of collective interests, and many renown Surrealism artists later on became 20th century Counterculture symbols such as Marxist Che Guevara. Man Ray was the only member of Paris surrealist movement from the US. Among his popular artistic works at that time was The Gift, the sculpture which had two found objects. Man Ray in France Encouraged by Marcel Duchamp, Ray relocated to Paris in 1921. With the exception of a decade in Hollywood during WW1, he spent the whole of his life in France. During his time in France, Ray continued to be part of artistic avant garde, coming into contact with renowned figures such as Ernest Hemingway and Gertrude Stein. Man Ray started working in several mediums including sculpture, painting, film, and photography. His earliest artistic works w ere relatively static, influenced mostly by cubism and expressionism. Unlike many American artists who spent only a short time in Paris, Man Ray made it his home for 20 years. There he was an influential member of the international Dada and Surrealist circles of artists and writers, which included Max Ernst, Dali, Joan Miro, Rene Magritte, Picasso and André Breton His popular works Ray Man became popular for the representations of his artistic works. He went on to develop a career as a fashion photographer, capturing images for popular magazines in Paris. While in France, he produced brilliant art works which are today known as Rayogrammes - images created on a piece of photographic paper without a camera; the subject is placed directly on a piece of paper, light is exposed then the image is produced. The shadow of the object is what produces the image, which emphasizes the influence of the light and shadow instead of the importance of the picture itself. Another popular work from this period was Violin d'Ingres in 1924. This photograph featured the naked back of his lover, an actor known as Kiki, styled after the painting by a French artist called Jean August Dominique. In a witty twist, Man Ray drew two black shapes on her back to make it appear like musical instruments. Ray made a number of short films between 1923 and 1929, creating classic Surrealistic works like L'Etoile de Mer, Emak Bakia, as well as Les Mysteres du chateau de. He also experimented with the method known as the Sabatier effect, which adds a silvery quality to the picture. His later years In 1940, Ray fled the war in France and moved to Los Angeles to continue his art. He lived in L.A from 1940 to 1951. A few days after arriving, he met and started to date Juliet Browner. They tied the knot after 5 years of courting in a distinctive triple wedding with Dorothea Tanning and Max Ernst. While Ray was a very successful photographer in New York and Hollywood, he returned to France in 1951. There, he continued to focus on his paintings. He published his autobiography titled 'Self-Portrait' in 1963. In his final years, Ray continued his finest art works, with exhibits in London, New York, Paris and other popular cities before his death. He died in his studio in his beloved city of Paris on November 18, 1976. He was 86 years of age. His works can be found in a number of museums around the globe, and to date he is remembered by many for his artistic humor and uniqueness.Roberto Sebastián Antonio Matta Echaurren (Spanish pronunciation: [roˈβeɾto ˈmata]; November 11, 1911 – November 23, 2002), better known as Roberto Matta, was one of Chile's best-known painters and a seminal figure in 20th century abstract expressionist and surrealist art. Contents 1Biography 2Selected list of works 3See also 4Notes 5References 6External links Biography[edit] Matta was of Spanish, Basque and French descent.[1] Born in Santiago, he studied architecture and interior design at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile in Santiago, and graduated in 1935. That spring, he journeyed from Peru to Panama and completed surreal drawings of many of the geographical features he witnessed. He first encountered Europe while serving in the Merchant Marine after graduating.[2] His travels in Europe and the USA led him to meet artists such as Arshile Gorky, René Magritte, Salvador Dalí, André Breton, and Le Corbusier. Roberto Matta, Three Figures, 1958c, M.T. Abraham Foundation. It was Breton who provided the major spur to the Chilean's direction in art, encouraging his work and introducing him to the leading members of the Paris Surrealist movement. Matta produced illustrations and articles for Surrealist journals such as Minotaure. During this period he was introduced to the work of many prominent contemporary European artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp. The first true flowering of Matta's own art came in 1938, when he moved from drawing to the oil painting for which he is best known. This period coincided with his emigration to the United States, where he lived until 1948. His early paintings, such as Invasion of the Night, give an indication of the work he would continue, with diffuse light patterns and bold lines on a featureless background. This is also the period of the "inscape" series, and the closely related "psychological morphologies". Prof. Claude Cernuschi (see Boston College Matta exhibition external link below) writes, "Matta's key ambition to represent and evoke the human psyche in visual form was filtered through the writings of Freud and the psychoanalytic view of the mind as a three-dimensional space: the 'inscape'." According to the essay on Matta in Crosscurrents of Modernism (see references below), the inscapes' evocative forms "are visual analogies for the artist's psyche" (p. 241). During the 1940s and 1950s, the disturbing state of world politics found reflection in Matta's work, with the canvases becoming busy with images of electrical machinery and distressed figures. The addition of clay to Matta's paintings in the early 1960s lent an added dimension to the distortions. In his art Matta creates new dimensions in a blend of organic and cosmic lifeforms (see biomorphism). He was one of the first artists to take this abstract leap. Elle Loge La Folie, oil on canvas, 1970. Matta's connections with Breton's surrealist movement were severed following a private disagreement concerning Arshile Gorky and his family. Matta was accused of indirectly causing Gorky's suicide (in response to Matta's relationship with the Armenian-American painter's wife). This led to his expulsion from the group, but by this time Matta's own name was becoming widely known. He divided his life between Europe and South America during the 1950s and 1960s, successfully combining the political and the semi-abstract in epic surreal canvases. Matta believed that art and poetry can change lives, and was very involved in the social movements of the 1960s and 1970s. He was a strong supporter of the socialistgovernment of president Salvador Allende in Chile. A 4x24 meter mural of his entitled The First Goal of the Chilean People, was painted over with 16 coats of paint by the military regime of Augusto Pinochet following their violent overthrow of Salvador Allende in 1973. In 2005 the mural was discovered by local officials. In 2008 the mural was completely restored at a cost of $43,000, and is displayed today in Santiago at the La Granja city hall.[3] Throughout his life, Matta worked with many different types of media, including ceramic, photography, and video production.[4] Matta died in Civitavecchia, Italy on 23 November 2002. Matta was married twice: his first wife was Patricia Echaurren, an American (who later married Pierre Matisse), and his second wife was Germana Ferrari.[5] He is the father of six children. Two died prematurely, leaving his creative legacy to artists Gordon Matta-Clark and his twin brother Sebastian,[6] Ramuntcho Matta, Federica Matta,[7] designer Alisée and writer Pablo Echaurren, whose surname was wrongly recorded at birth. Selected list of works[edit] Sick Flesh (ca. 1932-1933) The Clown (1934) Untitled (Payasa) (1935) Panama and Wet Sheets (1936) La Forêt, Snail’s Trace, Composición Azul, Scénario No. 1: Succion Panique du Soleil and Morphology (1937) The Red Sun, Space Travel (Star Travel), To Both of You, Crucifiction (Croix Fiction), several works titled Psychological Morphology and Morphology of Desire (1938) more works titled Psychological Morphology and Water (1939) Dark Light (1940) Invasion of the Night, Ecouter Vivre, Théorie de l’Arbre, Composition Abstraite, The Initiation (Origine d’un Extrême) and Foeu (1941) The Hanged Man, The End of Everything, The Disasters of Mysticism and The Apples we Know (1942) L’Oeyx, El Día es un Atentado and Redness of Lead (1943) Cover art for the final issue of the magazine VVV, To Escape the Absolute, Et At It, Le Glaive et la Parole and Poing d’Hurlement (1944) La Femme Affamée, Abstracto, The Heart Players and Rêve ou Morte (1945) Le Pélerin du Doute and A Grave Situation (1946) Accidentalité, Metamatician # 12 and Black Mirror (1947) Wound Interrogation and The Prophet (1948) La Revécue and Woman Looked At (1949) C’Ontra Vosotvos Asesinon de Palomas (1950) Ne Songe Plus à Fuir and Les Roses Sont Belles (1951) Pecador Justificado and Eclosion (1952) Morning on Earth, Hills a Poppin, The Murder of the Rosenbergs, L’Hosticierand L’Apetite de Primer (1953) Abrir los Brazos Como se Abren los Ojos, Bud Sucker, The Chess Player, L’Atout and Tados Juntos en la Tierra (1954) Le Long Pont, Spearcing of the Grain, L’Engin dans l’Éminence and Intervision (1955) Banale de Venise, Heart Malitte, Fleur de Midi and Le Pianiste (1956) Le Point d’Ombre, L’Impencible, The And of Think and Ciel Volante (1957) La Chasse Spirituelle (started in 1957), Être Cible Nous Monde, L’Etang de No, The Infancy of Concentration, Les Eviteurs and Le Courier (1958) Un Soleil à Qui Sait Reunir, Les Faiseurs du Neant, Gay Above All, The Clanand L’Impensable (Grand Personage) (1959) Couple IV (started in 1959), Être Atout (five part suite), Vers l’Universe, Ciudad Cósmica and Design of Intuition (1960) Vivir Enfrentando las Flechas (1961) Les Moyens du Creafeur, Claustrophobic Vaincue and Mal de Terre (1962) Eve Vielle (1963) Éros Semens (triptych, started in 1962) and La Luz del Proscrito (started in 1963) (1964) La Térre Uni (1965) Le où A Marée Haute and La Promenade de Vénus (1966) Signe of the Times and Morire per Amore (1967) Malitte (modular furniture set designed between 1966 and 1968) and La Caza de Adolescentes (1968) Lieberos, Nude Hiding in the Forest and Verginosamente (1969) Elle Logela Folie, Je-ographie, El Hombre de la Lampara and MAgriTTA Chair (1970) Otto Por Tre, El primer gol del pueblo chileno and Paralelles de la Viel (1971) Coigitum and The Upheaval of One’s Ocean (1972) La Vida Allende la Muerte, Senile d’Incertitude, Migration des Révoltes and Hom’mer (Chaosmos) (suite of ten etchings with aquatint) (1973) Explosant Fixe, Je M’Espionne, Deep Mars, L’Aube Permanente and Cadran d’Incendies (1974) Mas Ceilin and Illumine le Temps (1975) Wake (started in 1974), Une d’Une and Les Voix des Temples (1976) Rooming Life, L’Ombre de l’Invisible and Ouvre l’Instant (1977) Carré-four and Dedalopolous (1978) Polimorfologia (1979) Il Proprio Corno Mio, Laocoontare (La Guerra Delle Idee) and Pyrocentre(1980) Las Scillabas de Scylla, El Espejo de Cronos and El Verbo América (1981) Geomagnética de Danza (started in 1981), Ils Sexplose, Passo Interno di Mercurio, Labirintad and The Sign (1982) Morphologie de la Gaîté, Logos Men and Artificial Lucidity (1983) Ecran de la Mémoire and Le Dauphin de la Memoire (1984) L'Espace Du Point (1985) Mi-mosa, 24 Mai 1986, Une Pierre Qui Regagnera le Ciel and Oeramen, la Conscience est un Arbre Vetroresina (1986) D’Âme et d’Eve (1987) Être Cri (1988) Violetation and L’Envenement Non Identifié (1989) A l’Intérieur de la Rose, Omnipuissance du Rouge, Navigateur and Haiku(1990) Parmi les Désirs and Ma Dame (1991) Champ du Vide, Cosmo-now, Le Désnomeur Rénomme and Farfallacqua(1992) Leaving Your Grass, Vertige du Vertige, Torinox and Colomberos (1993) Vent d’Atomes (1994) Les Arpèges, L’Âme du Fond and Melodia-Melodio (1995) The Road to Heaven, Storming Water River and Redness of Blue (1996) Flowerita and Oak Flower (1997) Youniverso (1998) Blanche ou Fleur (1999) N’ou’s Autres (2000) Chaosmos (2002), Viersen sculpture collection Post History Chicken Flowers, La Dulce Acqua Vita and La Source du Calme(2002) Roberto Matta was a Chilean-born artist known for his unique blending of Surrealism with Abstract Expressionism. Like his friend Arshile Gorky, Matta’s otherworldly paintings and prints explored the unconscious through methods of Surrealist automatism. With fluid brushstrokes of rich color the artist described nebulous spaces inhabited by floating organic and architectonic forms, as seen in the hallmark work Les Roses sont belles (1951). “I am interested only in the unknown and I work for my own astonishment,” he once declared. Born Roberto Sebastián Antonio Matta Echaurran on November 11, 1911 in Santiago, Chile, he graduated with a degree in architecture from the Catholic University of Santiago in 1932 before moving to Paris to work in the studio of Le Corbusier. While in Europe, he travelled to Madrid where he was introduced to the famed Surrealist Salvador Dalí. It was Dalí who encouraged Matta to show his architectural drawings to André Breton and pursue a career in art. Now an accepted member of the Surrealist group, Matta settled in New York in 1938, began oil painting, and befriended American artists while maintaining ties with European friends like Yves Tanguy. In 1948, after the suicide of his friend Gorky, many of his American peers blamed Matta for the death, as he had slept his Gorky’s wife shortly before the tragic event. Ostracized, the artist returned to Europe, spending much of the rest of his life between Paris and Rome. He died on November 23, 2002 in Civitavecchia, Italy at the age of 91. Matta’s works are presently held in the collections of the Tate Gallery in London, The Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, and the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice.Francis Bacon (28 October 1909 – 28 April 1992) was an Irish-born[1] British figurative painter known for his emotionally charged raw imagery, fixation on personal motifs, and heavy experimentation. Bacon is best known for his depictions of popes, crucifixions, and portraits of close friends. His abstracted figures are typically isolated in geometrical cages which give them vague 3D depth, set against flat, nondescript backgrounds. Bacon said that he saw images "in series", and his work, which numbers c. 590 extant paintings along with many others he destroyed,[2] typically focuses on a single subject for sustained periods, often in triptych or diptych formats. His output can be broadly described as sequences or variations on single motifs; including the 1930s Picasso-influenced bio-morphs and Furies, the 1940s male heads isolated in rooms or geometric structures, the 1950s screaming popes, the mid-to-late 1950s animals and lone figures, the early 1960s crucifixions, the mid to late 1960s portraits of friends, the 1970s self-portraits, and the cooler more technical 1980s paintings. Bacon took up painting in his twenties, having drifted in the late 1920s and early 1930s as an interior decorator, bon vivant and gambler.[3] He said that his artistic career was delayed because he spent too long looking for subject matter that could sustain his interest. His breakthrough came with the 1944 triptych Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion, which sealed his reputation as a uniquely bleak chronicler of the human condition. From the mid-1960s he mainly produced portraits of friends and drinking companions, either as single or triptych panels. Following the suicide of his lover George Dyer in 1971 his art became more sombre, inward-looking and preoccupied with the passage of time and death. The climax of this later period is marked by masterpieces, including his 1982's "Study for Self-Portrait" and Study for a Self-Portrait—Triptych, 1985–86. Despite his bleak existentialist outlook, solidified in the public mind through his articulate and vivid series of interviews with David Sylvester, Bacon in person was highly engaging and charismatic, articulate, well-read and openly gay. He was a prolific artist, but nonetheless spent many of the evenings of his middle age eating, drinking and gambling in London's Soho with like-minded friends including Lucian Freud (though the two fell out in the mid-1970s, for reasons neither ever explained), John Deakin, Muriel Belcher, Henrietta Moraes, Daniel Farson, Tom Baker, and Jeffrey Bernard. After Dyer's suicide he largely distanced himself from this circle, and while his social life was still active and his passion for gambling and drinking continued, he settled into a platonic and somewhat fatherly relationship with his eventual heir, John Edwards. Robert Hughes described Bacon as "the most implacable, lyric artist in late 20th-century England, perhaps in all the world"[4] and along with Willem de Kooning as "the most important painter of the disquieting human figure in the 50s of the 20th century."[5] Francis Bacon was the subject of two Tate retrospectives and a major showing in 1971 at the Grand Palais. Since his death Bacon's reputation and market value have grown steadily, and his work is among the most acclaimed, expensive and sought-after. In the late 1990s a number of major works, previously assumed destroyed,[6] including early 1950s popes and 1960s portraits, reemerged to set record prices at auction. In 2013 his Three Studies of Lucian Freud set the world record as the most expensive piece of art sold at auction. Contents 1Biography 1.1Early life 1.2London, Berlin and Paris 1.3Return to London 1.4Furniture and rugs 1.5Early success 1.6Late 1940s 1.71950s 1.8Early 1960s 1.9Death 2Themes 2.1The Crucifixion 2.2The screaming mouth 3Legacy 3.1Francis Bacon studio 3.2Estate assignment 3.3Auction value 3.4Catalogue raisonné 4See also 5References 5.1Bibliography 6Further reading 7External links Biography Francis Bacon's birthplace at 63 Baggot Street Dublin. Early life Francis Bacon was born on 28 October 1909 in a nursing home in old Georgian Dublin at 63 Lower Baggot Street.[7] His father, Captain Anthony Edward Mortimer ("Eddy") Bacon, was born in Adelaide, South Australia, to an English father and an Australian mother.[8] His father, a veteran of the Boer War, was a racehorse trainer. His mother, Christina Winifred Firth, known as Winnie, was heiress to a Sheffield steel business and coal mine. His father was a descendant of Sir Nicholas Bacon, elder half-brother of Sir Francis Bacon, the Elizabethan statesman, philosopher and essayist.[9] Bacon had an older brother, Harley,[10] two younger sisters, Ianthe and Winifred, and a younger brother, Edward. He was raised by the family's nanny, Jessie Lightfoot, from Cornwall, known as 'Nanny Lightfoot', a maternal figure who remained close to him until her death. Later in his life during the early 1940s, Bacon would rent the ground floor of 7 Cromwell Place, South Kensington, John Everett Millais' old studio, and along with Nanny Lightfoot would install an illicit roulette wheel there, organised by Bacon and his friends, for their financial benefit. The family moved house often, crossing back and forth between Ireland and England several times, leading to a sense of displacement which remained with Francis throughout his life. The family lived in Cannycourt House in County Kildare from 1911,[10] later moving to Westbourne Terrace in London, close to where Bacon's father worked at the Territorial Force Records Office. They returned to Ireland after the First World War. Bacon lived with his maternal grandmother and step-grandfather, Winifred and Kerry Supple, at Farmleigh, Abbeyleix, County Laois, although the rest of the family again moved to Straffan Lodge near Naas, County Kildare. Bacon was shy as a child and enjoyed dressing up. This, coupled with his effeminate manner, upset his father. A story emerged in 1992[11] of his father having had Francis horsewhipped by their grooms. In 1924 his parents moved to Gloucestershire, first to Prescott House in Gotherington, then Linton Hall near the border with Herefordshire. At a fancy-dress party at the Firth family home, Cavendish Hall in Suffolk, Francis dressed as a flapper with an Eton crop, beaded dress, lipstick, high heels, and a long cigarette holder. In 1926, the family moved back to Straffan Lodge, His sister, Ianthe, twelve years his junior, recalled that Bacon made drawings of ladies with cloche hats and long cigarette holders.[12] Later that year, Francis was thrown out of Straffan Lodge following an incident in which his father found him admiring himself in front of a large mirror draped in his mother's underwear.[13] London, Berlin and Paris Bacon spent the latter half of 1926 in London, on an allowance of £3 a week from his mother's trust fund, reading Nietzsche. Although destitute, Bacon found that by avoiding rent and engaging in petty theft, he could survive. To supplement his income, he briefly tried his hand at domestic service, but although he enjoyed cooking, he became bored and resigned. He was sacked from a telephone answering position at a shop selling women's clothes in Poland Street, Soho, after writing a poison pen letter to the owner. Bacon found himself drifting through London's homosexual underworld, aware that he was able to attract a certain type of rich man, something he was quick to take advantage of, having developed a taste for good food and wine. One was a relative of Winnie, another a breeder of racehorses, Harcourt-Smith, who was renowned for his manliness. Bacon claimed his father had asked this "uncle" to take him 'in-hand' and 'make a man of him'. Francis had a difficult relationship with his father, once admitting to being sexually attracted to him. In 1927 Bacon moved to Berlin, where he saw Fritz Lang's Metropolis and Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin, both later influences. He spent two months in Berlin, though Harcourt-Smith left after one – "He soon got tired of me, of course, and went off with a woman ... I didn't really know what to do, so I hung on for a while." Bacon then spent the next year and a half in Paris. He met Yvonne Bocquentin, pianist and connoisseur, at the opening of an exhibition. Aware of his own need to learn French, Bacon lived for three months with Madame Bocquentin and her family at their house near Chantilly. He travelled into Paris to visit the city's art galleries.[14] At the Château de Chantilly (Musée Condé) he saw Nicolas Poussin's Massacre of the Innocents, a painting which he often referred to in his own later work. From Chantilly, he went to an exhibition that inspired him to take up painting. Return to London Bacon returned to London in the winter of 1928/29, where he worked as an interior designer. He took a studio at 17 Queensberry Mews West, South Kensington, sharing the upper floor with Eric Alden – who became his first collector – and his childhood nanny, Jessie Lightfoot. During this period, Bacon advertised himself as a "gentleman's companion" on the front page of The Times.[15] One among the many answers vetted by Nanny Lightfoot came from an elderly cousin of Douglas Cooper, owner of one of the finest collections of modern art in England. The gentleman, having paid Bacon for his services, found him part-time work as a telephone operator in a London club and sought Cooper's help in promoting Bacon's developing skill as a designer of furniture and interiors. In 1929, while working at the telephone exchange, he met Eric Hall, who became his patron and lover in an often torturous[clarification needed] and abusive relationship. Bacon left the Queensberry Mews West studio in 1931 and had no settled space for some years. He probably shared a studio with Roy De Maistre, circa 1931/32 in Chelsea. Portrait (1932) and Portrait (c. 1931–32) both show a round-faced youth with diseased skin. Furniture and rugs The 1933 Crucifixion was his first painting to attract public attention and was in part based on Pablo Picasso's The Three Dancers of 1925. It was not well received and, disillusioned, he abandoned painting for nearly a decade and suppressed his earlier works.[16] He visited Paris in 1935 where he bought a secondhand book on anatomical diseases of the mouth containing high quality hand-coloured plates of both open mouths and oral interiors, which haunted and obsessed him for the remainder of his life. In 1935 he saw Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin,[17] the scene of the nurse screaming on the Odessa steps and others later becoming a recurrent part of Bacon's iconography and a major theme in his paintings, with the angularity of Eisenstein's images often combined with the thick red palette of his recently purchased medical tome. A baby in a carriage falling down the "Odessa Steps" in Battleship Potemkin (1925) In the winter of 1935–36, Roland Penrose and Herbert Read, making a first selection for the International Surrealist Exhibition, visited his studio at 71 Royal Hospital Road, Chelsea saw "three or four large canvases including one with a grandfather clock", but found his work "insufficiently surreal to be included in the show". Bacon claimed Penrose told him "Mr. Bacon, don't you realise a lot has happened in painting since the Impressionists?" In 1936 or 1937 Bacon moved from 71 Royal Hospital Road to the top floor of 1 Glebe Place, Chelsea, which Eric Hall had rented. The following year, Patrick White moved to the top two floors of the building where De Maistre had his studio, on Eccleston Street and commissioned from Bacon, by now a friend, a writing desk (with wide drawers and a red linoleum top). Expressing one of his basic concerns from the late 1930s, Bacon said that his artistic career was delayed because he spent too long looking for subject matter that could sustain his interest.[3] In January 1937, at Thomas Agnew and Sons, 43 Old Bond Street, London, Bacon exhibited in a group show, Young British Painters, which included Graham Sutherland and Roy De Maistre. Eric Hall organised the show. Four works by Bacon were shown: Figures in a Garden (1936), purchased by Diana Watson; Abstraction, and Abstraction from the Human Form, known from magazine photographs. They prefigure Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1944) in alternatively representing a tripod structure (Abstraction), bared teeth (Abstraction from the Human Form), and both being biomorphic in form. Seated Figure is lost. On 1 June 1940 Bacon's father died. Bacon was named sole Trustee/Executor of his father's will, which requested the funeral be as "private and simple as possible". Unfit for active wartime service, Francis volunteered for civil defence and worked full-time in the ARP (Air Raid Precautions) rescue service; the fine dust of bombed London worsened his asthma and he was discharged. At the height of the Blitz, Eric Hall rented a cottage for Bacon and himself at Bedales Lodge in Steep, near Petersfield, Hampshire. Figure Getting Out of a Car (ca. 1939/1940) was painted here but is known only from an early 1946 photograph taken by Peter Rose Pulham. The photograph was taken shortly before the canvas was painted over by Bacon and retitled Landscape with Car. An ancestor to the biomorphic form of the central panel of Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1944), the composition was suggested by a photograph of Hitler getting out of a car at one of the Nuremberg rallies. Bacon claims to have "copied the car and not much else".[18] Bacon and Hall in 1943 took the ground floor of 7 Cromwell Place, South Kensington, John Everett Millais' old house and studio. High vaulted and north lit, its roof was recently bombed – Bacon was able to adapt a large old billiard room at the back as his studio. Lightfoot, lacking an alternative location, slept on the kitchen table. They held Illicit roulette parties, organised by Bacon with the assistance of Hall. Early success Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion, 1944. Oil and pastel on Sundeala board. Tate Britain, London By 1944 Bacon had gained confidence. His Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion had summarised themes explored in his earlier paintings, including his examination of Picasso's biomorphs, his interpretations of the Crucifixion, and the Greek Furies. It is generally considered his first mature piece;[19] he regarded his works before the triptych as irrelevant. The painting caused a sensation when exhibited in 1945 and established him as a foremost post-war painter. Remarking on the cultural significance of Three Studies, John Russell observed in 1971 that "there was painting in England before the Three Studies, and painting after them, and no one ... can confuse the two."[20] Painting (1946) was shown in several group shows including in the British section of Exposition internationale d'art moderne (18 November – 28 December 1946) at the Musée National d'Art Moderne, for which Bacon travelled to Paris. Within a fortnight of the sale of Painting (1946) to the Hanover Gallery Bacon used the proceeds to decamp from London to Monte Carlo. After staying at a succession of hotels and flats, including the Hôtel de Ré, Bacon settled in a large villa, La Frontalière, in the hills above the town. Hall and Lightfoot would come to stay. Bacon spent much of the next few years in Monte Carlo apart from short visits to London. From Monte Carlo, Bacon wrote to Graham Sutherland and Erica Brausen. His letters to Brausen show he painted there, but no paintings are known to survive. Bacon said he became "obsessed" with the Casino de Monte Carlo, where he would "spend whole days." Falling in debt from gambling here, he was unable to afford a new canvas. This compelled him to paint on the raw, unprimed side of his previous work, a practice he kept throughout his life.[21] In 1948, Painting (1946) sold to Alfred Barr for the Museum of Modern Art in New York for £240. Bacon wrote to Sutherland asking that he apply fixative to the patches of pastel on Painting (1946) before it was shipped to New York. Painting (1946) is now too fragile to be moved from MoMA for exhibition elsewhere. At least one visit to Paris in 1946 brought Bacon into more immediate contact with French postwar painting and Left Bank ideas such as Existentialism.[22] He had, by this time, embarked on his lifelong friendship with Isabel Rawsthorne, a painter closely involved with Giacometti and the Left Bank set. They shared many interests including ethnography and classical literature.[23] Late 1940s In 1947, artist Graham Sutherland introduced Bacon to Erica Brausen, who represented Bacon for twelve years. Despite this, Bacon did not mount a one-man show in Brausen's Hanover Gallery until 1949.[24] Bacon returned to London and Cromwell Place late in 1948. Head I was shown at the Summer Exhibition at the Redfern gallery from July to September 1948. The following spring Head I was displayed at the Hanover Gallery. Between 8 November and 10 December 1949 at the Hanover Gallery, Francis Bacon: Paintings; Robert Ironside: Coloured Drawings, was his first one-man show. It included Head I to Head VI, Study from the Human Body(1949) and Study for Portrait (1949) and four other paintings. Bacon's work attracted the support of Wyndham Lewis writing in The Listener. "The Hanover [Gallery] Show is of exceptional importance. Of the younger painters none actually paints so beautifully as Francis Bacon", Lewis wrote, adding: "Bacon is one of the most powerful artists in Europe today and he is perfectly in tune with his time".[25] The following year Bacon exhibited his "Heads" series, most notable for Head VI, Bacon's first surviving engagement with Velázquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X(three 'popes' were painted in Monte Carlo in 1946 but were destroyed). The Cobalt Violet mozzetta, crimson in Velázquez's painting, may reflect Bacon's use of reproductions of the painting. Bacon said that although he admired "the magnificent colour" of the Velázquez, Velázquez "wanted to make it as much like a Titian as possible but, in a curious way he cooled Titian", that is, made Titian more accessible to contemporary audiences. Of the old masters, Bacon favored Titian, Rembrandt, Velázquez, and Francisco Goya's late works. and thought highly of Paul Cézanne. He kept an extensive inventory of images for source material, but preferred not to confront the major works in person; he viewed Portrait of Innocent X only once, much later in his life.[26] 1950s The Colony Room was a private drinking club at 41 Dean Street in Soho, known as "Muriel's" after Muriel Belcher, its proprietor. Belcher had run the Music-box club in Leicester Square during the war, and secured a 3 – 11pm drinking licence for the Colony Room bar as a private-members club; public houses had to, by law, close at 2:30 pm. Bacon was a founding member, joining the day after its opening in 1948. He was 'adopted' by Belcher as a 'daughter', and allowed free drinks and £10 a week to bring in friends and rich patrons. In 1948 he met John Minton, a regular at Muriel's, as were the painters Lucian Freud, Frank Auerbach, Patrick Swift and the Voguephotographer, John Deakin. In 1950, Bacon met the art critic David Sylvester, then best known for his writing on Henry Moore and Alberto Giacometti. Sylvester had admired and written about Bacon since 1948. Bacon's artistic inclinations in the 1950s moved towards his abstracted figures which were typically isolated in geometrical cage-like spaces, and set against flat, nondescript backgrounds. Bacon said that he saw images "in series", and his work typically focused more on a single subject for sustained periods, often in triptych or diptych formats. Although his decisions might have been driven by the fact that in the 50s he tended to produce group works for specific showings, usually leaving things to the last minute, there is significant development in his aesthetic choices during the 1950s which influenced his artistic preference for the represented content in his paintings. Three Studies for a Portrait of Henrietta Moraes, 1963 Bacon was impressed by Goya, African landscapes and wildlife, and took photographs in Kruger National Park. On his return journey he spent a few days in Cairo, and wrote to Erica Brausen of his intent to visit Karnak and Luxor, and then travel via Alexandria to Marseilles. The visit confirmed his belief in the supremacy of Egyptian art, embodied by the Sphinx. He returned in spring 1951. On 30 April[27] 1951, Jessie Lightfoot, his childhood nanny, died at Cromwell Place. Bacon was gambling in Nice when he learned of her death. She had been his closest companion, joining him in London on his return from Paris, and lived with him and Eric Alden at Queensberry Mews West, and later with him and Eric Hall at the cottage near Petersfield, in Monte Carlo and at Cromwell Place. Stricken, Bacon sold the 7 Cromwell Place apartment. In 1958 he aligned with the Marlborough Fine Art gallery, who remained as his sole dealer until 1992. In return for a 10-year contract, Marlborough advanced him money against current and future paintings, with the price of each determined by its size. A painting measuring 20 inches by 24 inches was valued at £165 ($462), while one of 65 inches by 78 inches was valued at £420 ($1,176); these were sizes Bacon favoured. According to the contract, the painter would try to supply the gallery with £3,500 ($9,800) worth of pictures each year.[28] Early 1960s Main article: The Black Triptychs Bacon met George Dyer in 1963 at a pub,[29] although a much-repeated myth claims their acquaintance started during the younger man's burglary into the artist's apartment.[30] Dyer was about 30 years old, from London's East End. He came from a family steeped in crime, and had till then spent his life drifting between theft, detention and jail. Bacon's earlier relationships had been with older and tumultuous men. His first lover, Peter Lacy, tore up the artist's paintings, beat him in drunken rages, at times leaving him on streets half-conscious.[31] Bacon was now the dominating personality; attracted to Dyer's vulnerability and trusting nature. Dyer was impressed by Bacon's self-confidence and success, and Bacon acted as a protector and father figure to the insecure younger man.[32] Dyer was, like Bacon, a borderline alcoholic and similarly took obsessive care with his appearance. Pale-faced and a chain-smoker, Dyer typically confronted his daily hangovers by drinking again. His compact and athletic build belied a docile and inwardly tortured personality. The art critic Michael Peppiatt describes him as having the air of a man who could "land a decisive punch". Their behaviours eventually overwhelmed their affair, and by 1970 Bacon was merely providing Dyer with enough money to stay more or less permanently drunk.[32] As Bacon's work moved from the extreme subject matter of his early paintings to portraits of friends in the mid-1960s, Dyer became a dominating presence in the artist's work.[33] Bacon's treatment of his lover in these canvases emphasised his subject's physicality while remaining uncharacteristically tender. More than any other of the artist's close friends portrayed during this period, Dyer came to feel inseparable from his effigies. The paintings gave him stature, a raison d'etre, and offered meaning to what Bacon described as Dyer's "brief interlude between life and death".[34] Many critics have cited Dyer's portraits as favourites, including Michel Leirisand Lawrence Gowing. Yet as Dyer's novelty diminished within Bacon's circle of sophisticated intellectuals, the younger man became increasingly bitter and ill at ease. Although Dyer welcomed the attention the paintings brought him, he did not pretend to understand or even like them. "All that money an' I fink they're reely 'orrible," he observed with choked pride.[35] Dyer abandoned crime but soon descended into alcoholism. Bacon's money attracted hangers-on for massive benders around London's Soho. Withdrawn and reserved when sober, Dyer was highly animated and aggressive when drunk, and often attempted to "pull a Bacon" by buying large rounds and paying for expensive dinners for his wide circle. Dyer's erratic behaviour inevitably wore thin with his cronies, with Bacon, and with Bacon's friends. Most of Bacon's art world associates regarded Dyer as a nuisance – an intrusion into the world of high culture to which their Bacon belonged.[36] Dyer reacted by becoming increasingly needy and dependent. By 1971, he was drinking alone and only in occasional contact with his former lover. In October 1971, Dyer joined Bacon in Paris for the opening of the artist's retrospective at the Grand Palais. The show was the high point of Bacon's career to date, and he was now described as Britain's "greatest living painter". Dyer was a desperate man, and although he was "allowed" to attend, he was well aware that he was slipping out of the picture. To draw Bacon's attention, he planted cannabis in his flat and phoned the police,[37] and attempted suicide on a number of occasions.[38] On the eve of the Paris exhibition, Bacon and Dyer shared a hotel room, but Bacon was forced escape in disgust to the room of gallery employee Terry Danziger-Miles, as Dyer was entertaining an Arab rent boy with "smelly feet". When Bacon returned to his room the next morning, together with Danziger-Miles and Valerie Beston, they discovered Dyer in the bathroom dead, sat on the toilet. With the agreement of the hotel manager, the party agreed not to announce the death for two days.[39] Bacon spent the following day surrounded by people eager to meet him. In mid-evening of the following day he was "informed" that Dyer had taken an overdose of barbiturates and was dead. Bacon continued with the retrospective and displayed powers of self-control "to which few of us could aspire", according to Russell.[40]Bacon was deeply affected by the loss of Dyer, and had recently lost four other friends and his nanny. From this point, death haunted his life and work.[41] Though outwardly stoic at the time, he was inwardly broken. He did not express his feelings to critics, but later admitted to friends that "daemons, disaster and loss" now stalked him as if his own version of the Eumenides (Greek for The Furies).[42] Bacon spent the remainder of his stay in Paris attending to promotional activities and funeral arrangements. He returned to London later that week to comfort Dyer's family. During the funeral many of Dyer's friends, including hardened East-End criminals, broke down in tears. As the coffin was lowered into the grave one friend was overcome and screamed "you bloody fool!" Bacon remained stoic during the proceedings, but in the following months suffered an emotional and physical breakdown. Deeply affected, over the following two years he painted a number of single canvas portraits of Dyer, and the three highly regarded "Black Triptychs", each of which details moments immediately before and after Dyer's suicide.[43] Death While holidaying in Madrid in 1992, Bacon was admitted to the Handmaids of Maria, a private clinic, where he was cared for by Sister Mercedes. His chronic asthma, which had plagued him all his life, had developed into a more severe respiratory condition and he could not talk or breathe very well. He died of a heart attack on 28 April 1992; attempts to resuscitate him having failed. He had bequeathed his estate (then valued at £11 million) to John Edwards and Brian Clark, executors. In 1998 the director of the Hugh Lane Gallery in Dublin secured the donation of the contents of Bacon's chaotic studio at 7 Reece Mews, South Kensington.[44] The contents of his studio were moved and reconstructed in the gallery.[45] A collection of drawings, some consisting of little more than scribbles given by Bacon to his driver and handyman Barry Joule, possibly to be destroyed, surfaced in 1998, when Joule handed them over to the Tate Gallery. According to Joule the items were given as a gift.[46] Their artistic and commercial value proved negligible but they provided some insight into Bacon's imagination and his thinking, in the early stages of conceiving a finished work. Today most of the works are in the Hugh Lane Gallery in Dublin. Themes The Crucifixion The imagery of the crucifixion weighs heavily in the work of Francis Bacon.[47] Critic John Russell wrote that the crucifixion in Bacon's work is a "generic name for an environment in which bodily harm is done to one or more persons and one or more other persons gather to watch".[48] Bacon admitted that he saw the scene as "a magnificent armature on which you can hang all types of feeling and sensation".[49] He believed the imagery of the crucifixion allowed him to examine "certain areas of human behaviour" in a unique way, as the armature of the theme had been accumulated by so many old masters.[49] Though he came to painting relatively late in life – he did not begin to paint seriously until his late 30s – crucifixion scenes can be found in his earliest works.[50] In 1933, his patron Eric Hall commissioned a series of three paintings based on the subject.[51] The early paintings were influenced by such old masters as Matthias Grünewald, Diego Velázquez and Rembrandt,[50] but also by Picasso's late 1920s/early 1930s biomorphs and the early work of the Surrealists.[52] The screaming mouth Still from Sergei Eisenstein's 1925 silent film Battleship Potemkin The inspiration for the recurring motif of screaming mouths in many Bacons of the late 1940s and early 1950s was drawn from a number of sources, including medical text books, the works of Matthias Grünewald[53] and photographic stills of the nurse in the Odessa Stepsscene in Sergei Eisenstein's 1925 silent Battleship Potemkin. Bacon saw the film in 1935, and viewed it frequently thereafter. He kept in his studio a photographic still of the scene, showing a close-up of the nurse's head screaming in panic and terror and with broken pince-nez spectacles hanging from her blood-stained face. He referred to the image throughout his career, using it as a source of inspiration.[54] Bacon described the screaming mouth as a catalyst for his work, and incorporated its shape when painting the chimera. His use of the motif can be seen in one of his first surviving works,[55] Abstraction from the Human Form. By the early 1950s it became an obsessive concern, to the point, according to art critic and Bacon biographer Michael Peppiatt, "it would be no exaggeration to say that, if one could really explain the origins and implications of this scream, one would be far closer to understanding the whole art of Francis Bacon."[56] Legacy Francis Bacon studio Bacon's relocated studio in situ, Dublin In August 1998 the Hugh Lane Gallery, Dublin, acquired and moved the studio and its entire contents from London to Dublin. The move involved both art historians and archaeologists who made the survey and elevation drawings of the studio, mapping out the spaces and locations of the objects. At that time, John Edwards, Bacon's sole heir, commented about his decision to send the entire studio to Ireland: "a little corner of South Kensington moved to his birthplace. Thousands of papers, books, photos, rotted curtains - all in Dublin. I think it would have made him roar with laughter...". [57] Besides, in an interview to BBC news, when the decision to move Bacon's London Studio to Ireland was announced, the sole executor of Bacon Estate, Brian Clark, commented the following about all controversies over the donation of the studio: "Bacon once said that he'd never come back to Dublin until he was dead, (...) I think frankly if he were here today to see what happened, I think he'd be touched but I think he'd probably roar with laughter as well".[58] To The Irish Times he also commented about the Bacon's Studio polemic removal to Ireland: "And it's very appropriate. I'm convinced Francis would have loved it. After all, he was born here, and he said once that he couldn't come back until he was dead - the fuss would be too much." [59] Conservators and curators tagged and packed each of the items, including the walls, doors, floor, ceiling and dust. The relocated studio opened in 2001. Over 7,000 items were catalogued on a specially designed database, the first computerised archive of the entire contents of a world ranking artist's studio. Every item in the studio has a database entry. Each entry consists of an image and a factual account of an object. The database has entries on approximately 570 books and catalogues, 1,500 photographs, 100 slashed canvases, 1,300 leaves torn from books, 2,000 artist's materials and 70 drawings. Other categories include the artist's correspondence, magazines, newspapers and vinyl records. Estate assignment In 1999, England's High Court ruled that Marlborough Fine Art had to be replaced by a new independent representative for the Bacon estate.[60] The estate moved its business to Faggionato Fine Arts in Europe and Tony Shafrazi in New York.[61] That same year, the estate sued Marlborough UK and Marlborough International, Vaduz, charging them with wrongfully exploiting Bacon in a relationship that was manifestly disadvantageous to him until his death in 1992, and to his estate. The suit alleged Marlborough in London grossly underpaid Bacon for his works and resold them through its Liechtenstein branch at much higher prices. It contended that Marlborough never supplied a complete accounting of Bacon's works and sales and that Marlborough handled some works it has never accounted for.[62] The suit was dropped in early 2002 when both sides agreed to pay their own costs and Marlborough released all its documents about Bacon.[63] In 2003, the estate was handed to a four-person trust based in Jersey.[64] Auction value The Popes and large triptychs, in their time, commanded the highest prices at auction.[61] By 1989 Bacon was the most expensive living artist after one of his triptychs sold at Sotheby's for over $6 million. In 2007, actress Sophia Loren consigned Study for Portrait II (1956) from the estate of her late husband Carlo Ponti at Christie's.[65] It was auctioned for the then record price of £14.2 million ($27.5 million).[66] On 14 May 2008, the Triptych, 1976, sold at Sotheby's for €55.465 million ($86.28 million), then a record for the artist and the highest price paid for a postwar work of art at auction up to 2008. On 13 November 2013, Three Studies of Lucian Freud sold at Christie's New York for $142.4 million, surpassing both Triptych and 1976 in auctioned value, and more importantly claiming the record for highest auction price of a work of art at that time, a title previously held by the fourth version of Edvard Munch's Scream and now held by Leonardo da Vinci's Salvator Mundi.[67] Catalogue raisonné A first, incomplete catalogue raisonné was compiled by curator Ronald Alley in 1964.[68] In 2016, a five-volume Francis Bacon: Catalogue Raisonné, documenting 584 paintings by Bacon, was released by Martin Harrison and others.[68] Harrison's Catalogue Raisonne summarized the artist's motivations when he gifted the second version of his triptych of the Crucifixion to the Tate in 1991. "This reprise of the painting Bacon considered his 'Opus I' is both larger and more monumental that the original, the sumptuous, dusky crimson backgrounds and deep space evoking a subverted Baroque altarpiece. Conscious no doubt of his artistic legacy, Bacon intended a posthumous bequest of the painting to the Tate; he was persuaded to bring forward the donation and, on condition there should be no ceremony, gifted it to the gallery in 1991." Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German (naturalised American in 1948 and French in 1958) painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism. He had no formal artistic training, but his experimental attitude toward the making of art resulted in his invention of frottage—a technique that uses pencil rubbings of objects as a source of images— and 'grattage', an analogous technique in which paint is scraped across canvas to reveal the imprints of the objects placed beneath. He is also noted for his novels consisting of collages. Contents 1Biography 1.1Early life 1.2Dada and surrealism 1.3World War II and later life 2Selected works 2.1Paintings 2.1.1Early works 2.1.2First French period 2.1.3American period 2.1.4Second French period 2.2Collages, lithographs, drawings, illustrations, etc. 2.3Sculpture 3Ernst in modern culture 4Legacy 5See also 6Notes 7References 8External links Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Max Ernst was born in Brühl, near Cologne, the third of nine children of a middle-class Catholic family. His father Philipp was a teacher of the deaf and an amateur painter, a devout Christian and a strict disciplinarian. He inspired in Max a penchant for defying authority, while his interest in painting and sketching in nature influenced Max to take up painting.[1]In 1909 Ernst enrolled in the University of Bonn to read philosophy, art history, literature, psychology and psychiatry. He visited asylums and became fascinated with the art work of the mentally ill patients; he also started painting that year, producing sketches in the garden of the Brühl castle, and portraits of his sister and himself. In 1911 Ernst befriended August Macke and joined his Die Rheinischen Expressionisten group of artists, deciding to become an artist. In 1912 he visited the Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne, where works by Pablo Picasso and post-Impressionists such as Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguinprofoundly influenced him. His work was exhibited that year together with that of the Das Junge Rheinland group, at Galerie Feldman in Cologne, and then in several group exhibitions in 1913.[1] In his paintings of this period, Ernst adopted an ironic style that juxtaposed grotesque elements alongside Cubist and Expressionistmotifs.[2] In 1914 Ernst met Hans Arp in Cologne. The two became friends and their relationship lasted for fifty years. After Ernst completed his studies in the summer, his life was interrupted by World War I. Ernst was drafted and served both on the Western Front and the Eastern Fronts. The effect of the war on Ernst was devastating; in his autobiography, he wrote of his time in the army thus: "On the first of August 1914 M[ax].E[rnst]. died. He was resurrected on the eleventh of November 1918".[3] For a brief period on the Western Front, Ernst was assigned to chart maps, which allowed him to continue painting.[1] Several German Expressionist painters died in action during the war, among them August Macke and Franz Marc. Dada and surrealism[edit] Max Ernst, Ubu Imperator, 1923, Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris In 1918, Ernst was demobilised and returned to Cologne. He soon married art history student Luise Straus, whom he had met in 1914. In 1919, Ernst visited Paul Klee in Munich and studied paintings by Giorgio de Chirico. The same year, inspired by de Chirico and mail-order catalogues, teaching-aide manuals and similar sources, he produced his first collages (notably Fiat modes, a portfolio of lithographs), a technique which would dominate his artistic pursuits. Also in 1919 Ernst, social activist Johannes Theodor Baargeld and several colleagues founded the Cologne Dada group. In 1919–20 Ernst and Baargeld published various short-lived magazines such as Der Strom, die Schammade and organised Dada exhibitions.[1] Ernst and Luise's son Ulrich 'Jimmy' Ernst was born on 24 June 1920; he also became a painter.[1] Ernst's marriage to Luise was short-lived. In 1921 he met Paul Éluard, who became a lifelong friend. Éluard bought two of Ernst's paintings (Celebes and Oedipus Rex) and selected six collages to illustrate his poetry collection Répétitions. A year later the two collaborated on Les malheurs des immortels and then with André Breton, whom Ernst met in 1921, on the magazine Littérature. In 1922, unable to secure the necessary papers, Ernst entered France illegally and settled into a ménage à trois with Éluard and his wife Gala in Paris suburb Saint-Brice, leaving behind his wife and son.[1] During his first two years in Paris, Ernst took various odd jobs to make a living and continued to paint. In 1923 the Éluards moved to a new home in Eaubonne, near Paris, where Ernst painted numerous murals. The same year his works were exhibited at Salon des Indépendants.[1] "Les Fusains": 22, rue Tourlaque, 18th arrondissement of Paris where Max Ernst established a studio in 1925 Although apparently accepting the ménage à trois, Éluard eventually became more concerned about the affair. In 1924 he abruptly left, first for Monaco and then for Saigon.[4]He soon asked his wife and Max Ernst to join him; both had to sell paintings to finance the trip. Ernst went to Düsseldorf and sold a large number of his works to a long-time friend, Johanna Ey, owner of gallery Das Junge Rheinland.[1] After a brief time together in Saigon, the trio decided that Gala would remain with Paul. The Éluards returned to Eaubonne in early September, while Ernst followed them some months later, after exploring more of South-East Asia. He returned to Paris in late 1924 and soon signed a contract with Jacques Viot that allowed him to paint full-time. In 1925 Ernst established a studio at 22, rue Tourlaque.[1] In 1925, Ernst invented a graphic art technique called frottage (see Surrealist techniques), which uses pencil rubbings of objects as a source of images.[5] He also created the 'grattage' technique, in which paint is scraped across canvas to reveal the imprints of the objects placed beneath. He used this technique in his famous painting Forest and Dove (as shown at the Tate Modern). The next year he collaborated with Joan Miró on designs for Sergei Diaghilev. With Miró's help, Ernst developed grattage, in which he trowelled pigment from his canvases. He also explored with the technique of decalcomania, which involves pressing paint between two surfaces.[6] Ernst developed a fascination with birds that was prevalent in his work. His alter ego in paintings, which he called Loplop, was a bird. He suggested that this alter-ego was an extension of himself stemming from an early confusion of birds and humans.[7] He said that one night when he was young, he woke up and found that his beloved bird had died; a few minutes later, his father announced that his sister was born. Loplop often appeared in collages of other artists' work, such as Loplop presents André Breton. Ernst drew a great deal of controversy with his 1926 painting The Virgin Chastises the infant Jesus before Three Witnesses: André Breton, Paul Éluard, and the Painter.[8] In 1927, Ernst married Marie-Berthe Aurenche [de] and it is thought his relationship with her may have inspired the erotic subject matter of The Kiss and other works of that year.[9] Ernst appeared in the 1930 film L'Âge d'Or, directed by the Surrealist Luis Buñuel. Ernst began to sculpt in 1934 and spent time with Alberto Giacometti. In 1938, the American heiress and artistic patron Peggy Guggenheim acquired a number of Max Ernst's works, which she displayed in her new gallery in London. Ernst and Peggy Guggenheim were married from 1942 to 1946. World War II and later life[edit] L'Ange du Foyer, 1937 In September 1939, the outbreak of World War II caused Ernst to be interned as an "undesirable foreigner" in Camp des Milles, near Aix-en-Provence, along with fellow surrealist, Hans Bellmer, who had recently emigrated to Paris. He had been living with his lover and fellow surrealist painter, Leonora Carrington who, not knowing whether he would return, saw no option but to sell their house to repay their debts and leave for Spain. Thanks to the intercession of Paul Éluard and other friends, including the journalist Varian Fry, he was released a few weeks later. Soon after the German occupation of France, he was arrested again, this time by the Gestapo but managed to escape and flee to America with the help of Peggy Guggenheim and Fry.[10] Ernst and Peggy Guggenheim arrived in the United States in 1941 and were married at the end of the year.[11] Along with other artists and friends (Marcel Duchamp and Marc Chagall) who had fled from the war and lived in New York City, Ernst helped inspire the development of Abstract expressionism. His marriage to Guggenheim did not last and in Beverly Hills, California in October 1946, in a double ceremony with Man Rayand Juliet P. Browner, he married Dorothea Tanning.[12] The couple made their home in Sedona, Arizona from 1946 to 1953, where the high desert landscapes inspired them and recalled Ernst's earlier imagery.[13] Despite the fact that Sedona was remote and populated by fewer than 400 ranchers, orchard workers, merchants and small Native American communities, their presence helped begin what would become an American artists colony. Among the monumental red rocks, Ernst built a small cottage by hand on Brewer Road and he and Tanning hosted intellectuals and European artists such as Henri Cartier-Bresson and Yves Tanguy. Sedona proved an inspiration for the artists and for Ernst, who compiled his book Beyond Painting and completed his sculptural masterpiece Capricorn while living there. As a result of the book and its publicity, Ernst began to achieve financial success. From the 1950s he lived mainly in France. In 1954 he was awarded the Grand Prize for painting at the Venice Biennale.[14] He died at the age of 84 on 1 April 1976 in Paris and was interred at Père Lachaise Cemetery.[10] Selected works[edit] Paintings[edit] Early works[edit] Aquis Submersus (1919) Trophy, Hypertrophied (1919) Little Machine Constructed by Minimax Dadamax in Person (1919–1920) Murdering Airplane (1920) The Hat Makes the Man (1920) Celebes (1921) Oedipus Rex (1922) First French period[edit] Pietà or Revolution by Night (1923) Saint Cecilia (1923) The Wavering Woman (1923) Ubu Imperator (1923) Of This Men Shall Know Nothing (1923) Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale (1924) Woman, Old Man and Flower (1924) Paris Dream (1924–25) The Blessed Virgin Chastises the Infant Jesus Before Three Witnesses: A.B., P.E. and the Artist (1926) Forest series, e.g. Forest and Dove (1927), The Wood (1927) Rendezvous of Friends – The Friends Become Flowers (1928) Loplop series, e.g. Loplop Introduces Loplop (1930), Loplop Introduces a Young Girl (1930) City series, e.g. Petrified City (1933), Entire City (1935–36, two versions) Garden Aeroplane Trap series (1935–36) The Joy of Living (1936) The Nymph Echo (1936) The Fireside Angel (1937) The Fascinating Cypress (1940) The Robing of the Bride (1940) American period[edit] Totem and Taboo (1941) Marlene (1941) Napoleon in the Wilderness (1941) Day and Night (1941–42) The Antipope (1942) Europe After the Rain II (1940–42) Surrealism and Painting (1942) Vox Angelica (1943) Everyone Here Speaks Latin (1943) Painting for Young People (1943) The Eye of Silence (1944) Dream and Revolution (1945) The Temptation of Saint Anthony (1945) The Phases of the Night (1946) Design in Nature (1947) Inspired Hill (1950) Colorado of Medusa, Color-Raft of Medusa (1953) Second French period[edit] Mundus est fabula (1959) The Garden of France (1962) The Sky Marries the Earth (1964) The World of the Naive (1965) Ubu, Father and Son (1966) Birth of a Galaxy (1969) "La dernière forêt" (The last forest) (1960–1970) Collages, lithographs, drawings, illustrations, etc.[edit] Frontispiece for Répétitions by Paul Éluard, 1922 Fiat modes (1919, portfolio of lithographs) Illustrations for books by Paul Éluard: Répétitions (1922), Les malheurs des immortels (1922), Au défaut du silence(1925) Histoire Naturelle (1926, frottage drawings) La femme 100 têtes (1929, graphic novel) Rêve d'une petite fille qui voulut entrer au carmel (1930, graphic novel) Une Semaine de Bonté (1934, graphic novel) Paramythes (1949, collages with poems) Illustrations for editions of works by Lewis Carroll: Symbolic Logic (1966, under the title Logique sans peine), The Hunting of the Snark (1968), and Lewis Carrols Wunderhorn (1970, an anthology of texts) Deux Oiseaux (1970, lithograph in colours) Aux petits agneaux (1971, lithographs) Paysage marin avec capucin (1972, illustrated book with essays by various authors) Maximiliana: the illegal practice of astronomy : hommage à Dorothea Tanning (1974, art book) Oiseaux en peril (1975, etchings with aquatint in colours; published posthumously) Sculpture[edit] Bird (c. 1924) Oedipus (1934, two versions) Moonmad (1944) An Anxious Friend (1944) Capricorn (1948) The King Playing with the Queen (1954) Two and Two Make One (1956) Immortel (1966–67) Ernst in modern culture[edit] Many of Ernst's works from Une Semaine de Bonté are used in albums by American rock group The Mars Volta. Also, Barefoot in the Head, a collaboration between guitarist Thurston Moore and saxophonists Jim Sauter and Don Dietrich of Borbetomagus, features a collage from this same book. American rock group Mission of Burma titled two songs after the artist: "Max Ernst" was the b-side of their first 1980 single (now included on the CD of Signals, Calls and Marches), mentioning two of Ernst's paintings (The Blessed Virgin Chastises the Infant Jesus and Garden Airplane-Trap) and ending with the words "Dada dada dada ..." repeated many times and distorted via tape loop; their 2002 album OnOffOn features "Max Ernst's Dream". Writer J. G. Ballard makes numerous references to the art works of Max Ernst in his breakthrough novel The Drowned World (1962) and the experimental collection of short stories The Atrocity Exhibition (1970). Europe After the Rain was used by musician John Foxx as the title for the opening track of his 1981 album The Garden. Max Ernst himself, and some of his work, is mentioned in William Gibson's novel Count Zero (1986), the second novel of the Sprawl trilogy, an influential set of books which established the cyberpunk subgenre of science-fiction (The) Eye of Silence was used by musician Cavestar (Kevin Crosslin) as the title of a track from his 1997 album Cavestar. The first edition of the Penguin paperback edition of James Blish's A Case of Conscience uses details from The Eye of Silence as cover art. Ernst's alter-ego Loplop appears in China Miéville's 1998 debut novel King Rat. German experimental electronic musician Thomas Brinkmann has made numerous references to Max Ernst and Loplop in his productions and record labels. Legacy[edit] Max Ernst's life and career are examined in Peter Schamoni's 1991 documentary Max Ernst. Dedicated to the art historian Werner Spies, it was assembled from interviews with Ernst, stills of his paintings and sculptures, and the memoirs of his wife Dorothea Tanning and son Jimmy. The 101-minute German film was released on DVD with English subtitles by Image Entertainment. In 2005, "Max Ernst: A Retrospective" opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and included works such as Celebes (1921), Ubu Imperator (1923), and Fireside Angel (1937), which is one of the few definitively political pieces and is sub-titled The Triumph of Surrealism depicting a raging bird-like creature that symbolises the wave of fascism that enveloped Europe. The exhibition also includes Ernst's works that experiment with free association writing and the techniques of frottage, created from a rubbing from a textured surface; grattage, involving scratching at the surface of a painting; and decalcomania, which involves altering a wet painting by pressing a second surface against it and taking it away.[15] Ernst's son Jimmy, a well-known German/American abstract expressionist painter, who lived on the south shore of Long Island, died in 1984. His memoirs, A Not-So-Still Life, were published shortly before his death. Max Ernst's grandson Eric and his granddaughter Amy are both artists and writers. . ebay599 Condition: Used, Condition: Excellent condition in and out . Inner condition including the LITOGRAPHS is FINE. Tightly bound. Clean. Chromo HC intact. Faint foxing on a few pages. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ), Country/Region of Manufacture: France

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