4 King George IV Solid Silver Shilling Coin 1825 1826 Georgian Antique Royalty

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller notinashyway (17,096) 99.7%, Location: Look at my other Items, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 401821887338 4 x Shillings Solid Silver I bought them coin as part of a Box of Coins from a Flea Market Nine Sold Silver Shillings from the Reign of King George III They are from 1825, 3x 1826 Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP I have a lot of Old Coins and Antique Memrobilia on Ebay so Please CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 12,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items so why not > Check out my other items! Instant Feedback Automatically Left Immediately after Receiving Payment All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. 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Reign 29 January 1820 – 26 June 1830 Coronation 19 July 1821 Predecessor George III Successor William IV Born 12 August 1762 St James's Palace, London, England Died 26 June 1830 (aged 67) Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England Burial 15 July 1830 St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle Spouse Caroline of Brunswick (m. 1795; died 1821) Issue Princess Charlotte of Wales Full name George Augustus Frederick House Hanover Father George III of the United Kingdom Mother Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Religion Protestant Signature George IV's signature George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as regent during his father's final mental illness. He was the eldest child of George III and his consort, Queen Charlotte. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the Regency era. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, and Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle. George's charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He excluded Caroline from the coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in an unsuccessful attempt to divorce her. George's ministers found his behaviour selfish, unreliable and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites.[1] He did not provide national leadership in time of crisis, nor act as a role model for his people. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars. For most of his regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, and attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it. His only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. Early life George (left) with his mother Queen Charlotte and younger brother Frederick. Portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1764 George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. As the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth; he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a few days later.[2] On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury.[3] His godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (his maternal uncle, for whom the Duke of Devonshire, Lord Chamberlain, stood proxy), the Duke of Cumberland (his paternal great-uncle) and the Dowager Princess of Wales (his paternal grandmother).[4] George was a talented student, and quickly learned to speak French, German and Italian, in addition to his native English.[5] At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, and in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades. He was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, and showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783, and obtained a grant of £60,000 (equivalent to £7,095,000 today[6]) from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 (equivalent to £5,913,000 today[6]) from his father. It was far too little for his needs – the stables alone cost £31,000 a year. He then established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life.[7] Animosity developed between the prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir apparent. The King, a political conservative, was also alienated by the prince's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians.[8] Portrait miniature by Richard Cosway, c. 1780–82 Soon after he reached the age of 21, the prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, and a Roman Catholic.[9] Nevertheless, the prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, and the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent.[10] Nevertheless, the couple went through a marriage ceremony on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. Legally the union was void, as the King's consent was not granted (and never even requested).[11] However, Fitzherbert believed that she was the prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it.[12] The prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant. The prince's relationship with Fitzherbert was suspected, and revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny.[13] Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince. He appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, meanwhile, granted the prince £161,000 (equivalent to £20,095,000 today[6]) to pay his debts and £60,000 (equivalent to £7,489,000 today[6]) for improvements to Carlton House.[5][14][15] Regency crisis of 1788 Portrait published by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1785 In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated, possibly as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria.[16][17] He was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, and when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver the customary speech from the throne during the State Opening of Parliament. Parliament found itself in an untenable position: according to long-established law it could not proceed to any business until the delivery of the King's Speech at a State Opening.[13][18] Although arguably barred from doing so, Parliament began debating a regency. In the House of Commons, Charles James Fox declared his opinion that the Prince of Wales was automatically entitled to exercise sovereignty during the King's incapacity. A contrasting opinion was held by the prime minister, William Pitt the Younger, who argued that, in the absence of a statute to the contrary, the right to choose a regent belonged to Parliament alone.[19] He even stated that, without parliamentary authority "the Prince of Wales had no more right ... to assume the government, than any other individual subject of the country."[20] Though disagreeing on the principle underlying a regency, Pitt agreed with Fox that the Prince of Wales would be the most convenient choice for a regent.[13][18] Miniature by Richard Cosway, 1792 The Prince of Wales—though offended by Pitt's boldness—did not lend his full support to Fox's approach. The Prince of Wales's brother, Prince Frederick, Duke of York, declared that George would not attempt to exercise any power without previously obtaining the consent of Parliament.[21] Following the passage of preliminary resolutions Pitt outlined a formal plan for the regency, suggesting that the powers of the Prince of Wales be greatly limited. Among other things, the Prince of Wales would not be able either to sell the King's property or to grant a peerage to anyone other than a child of the King. The Prince of Wales denounced Pitt's scheme, declaring it a "project for producing weakness, disorder, and insecurity in every branch of the administration of affairs."[22] In the interests of the nation, both factions agreed to compromise.[18] A significant technical impediment to any Regency Bill involved the lack of a speech from the throne, which was necessary before Parliament could proceed to any debates or votes. The speech was normally delivered by the King, but could also be delivered by royal representatives known as Lords Commissioners; but no document could empower the Lords Commissioners to act unless the Great Seal of the Realm was affixed to it. The seal could not be legally affixed without the prior authorisation of the sovereign. Pitt and his fellow ministers ignored the last requirement and instructed the Lord Chancellor to affix the Great Seal without the King's consent, as the act of affixing the Great Seal in itself gave legal force to the bill. This legal fiction was denounced by Edmund Burke as "forgery, fraud",[23] a "glaring falsehood",[24] and as a "palpable absurdity".[24] The Duke of York described the plan as "unconstitutional and illegal."[22] Nevertheless, others in Parliament felt that such a scheme was necessary to preserve an effective government. Consequently, on 3 February 1789, more than two months after it had convened, Parliament was formally opened by an "illegal" group of Lords Commissioners. The Regency Bill was introduced, but before it could be passed the King recovered. The King declared retroactively that the instrument authorising the Lords Commissioners to act was valid.[13][18] Marriage and mistresses Portrait after Sir William Beechey, 1798 The Prince of Wales's debts continued to climb, and his father refused to aid him unless he married his cousin Princess Caroline of Brunswick.[25] In 1795, the prince acquiesced; and they were married on 8 April 1795 at the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. The marriage, however, was disastrous; each party was unsuited to the other. The two were formally separated after the birth of their only child, Princess Charlotte, in 1796, and remained separated thereafter. The Prince remained attached to Maria Fitzherbert for the rest of his life, despite several periods of estrangement.[26] George's mistresses included Mary Robinson, an actress who was bought off with a generous pension when she threatened to sell his letters to the newspapers;[27] Grace Elliott, the divorced wife of a physician;[28][29] and Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, who dominated his life for some years.[26] In later life, his mistresses were the Marchioness of Hertford and the Marchioness Conyngham, who were both married to aristocrats.[30] George was rumoured to have fathered several illegitimate children. James Ord (born 1786)—who moved to the United States and became a Jesuit priest—was reportedly his son by Fitzherbert.[31] The King, late in life, told a friend that he had a son who was a naval officer in the West Indies, whose identity has been tentatively established as Captain Henry A. F. Hervey (1786–1824), reportedly George's child by the songwriter Lady Anne Lindsay (later Barnard), a daughter of the 5th Earl of Balcarres.[32] Other reported offspring include Major George Seymour Crole, the son of theatre manager's daughter Eliza Crole; William Hampshire, the son of publican's daughter Sarah Brown; and Charles "Beau" Candy, the son of a Frenchwoman with that surname.[33] Anthony Camp, Director of Research at the Society of Genealogists, has dismissed the claims that George IV was the father of Ord, Hervey, Hampshire and Candy as fictitious.[34] The problem of the Prince of Wales's debts, which amounted to the extraordinary sum of £630,000 (equivalent to £63,934,000 today[6]) in 1795,[35] was solved (at least temporarily) by Parliament. Being unwilling to make an outright grant to relieve these debts, it provided him an additional sum of £65,000 (equivalent to £6,596,000 today[6]) per annum.[36] In 1803, a further £60,000 (equivalent to £5,382,000 today[6]) was added, and George's debts of 1795 were finally cleared in 1806, although the debts he had incurred since 1795 remained.[15] In 1804, a dispute arose over the custody of Princess Charlotte, which led to her being placed in the care of the King, George III. It also led to a Parliamentary Commission of Enquiry into Princess Caroline's conduct after the Prince of Wales accused her of having an illegitimate son. The investigation cleared Caroline of the charge but still revealed her behaviour to have been extraordinarily indiscreet.[37] Regency Main article: Regency era Profile by Sir Thomas Lawrence, c. 1814 Portrait in Garter robes by Lawrence, 1816 In late 1810, George III was once again overcome by his malady following the death of his youngest daughter, Princess Amelia. Parliament agreed to follow the precedent of 1788; without the King's consent, the Lord Chancellor affixed the Great Seal of the Realm to letters patent naming Lords Commissioners. The letters patent lacked the Royal Sign Manual, but were sealed by request of resolutions passed by both Houses of Parliament. The Lords Commissioners appointed by the letters patent, in the name of the King, then signified the granting of Royal Assent to a bill that became the Regency Act 1811. Parliament restricted some of the powers of the Prince Regent (as the Prince of Wales became known). The constraints expired one year after the passage of the Act.[38] The Prince of Wales became Prince Regent on 5 February 1811.[39] The Regent let his ministers take full charge of government affairs, playing a far lesser role than his father. The principle that the prime minister was the person supported by a majority in the House of Commons, whether the king personally favoured him or not, became established.[40] His governments, with little help from the Regent, presided over British policy. One of the most important political conflicts facing the country concerned Catholic emancipation, the movement to relieve Roman Catholics of various political disabilities. The Tories, led by the Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, were opposed to Catholic emancipation, while the Whigs supported it. At the beginning of the Regency, the Prince of Wales was expected to support the Whig leader, William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville. He did not, however, immediately put Lord Grenville and the Whigs into office. Influenced by his mother, he claimed that a sudden dismissal of the Tory government would exact too great a toll on the health of the King (a steadfast supporter of the Tories), thereby eliminating any chance of a recovery.[41] In 1812, when it appeared highly unlikely that the King would recover, the Prince of Wales again failed to appoint a new Whig administration. Instead, he asked the Whigs to join the existing ministry under Perceval. The Whigs, however, refused to co-operate because of disagreements over Catholic emancipation. Grudgingly, the Prince of Wales allowed Perceval to continue as Prime Minister.[42] On 11 May 1812, Perceval was assassinated by John Bellingham. The Prince Regent was prepared to reappoint all the members of the Perceval ministry under a new leader. The House of Commons formally declared its desire for a "strong and efficient administration",[43] so the Prince Regent then offered leadership of the government to Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, and afterwards to Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Earl of Moira. He doomed the attempts of both to failure, however, by forcing each to construct an all party ministry at a time when neither party wished to share power with the other. Possibly using the failure of the two peers as a pretext, the Prince Regent immediately reappointed the Perceval administration, with Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, as Prime Minister.[44] The Tories, unlike Whigs such as Earl Grey, sought to continue the vigorous prosecution of the war in Continental Europe against the powerful and aggressive Emperor of the French, Napoleon I.[45] An anti-French alliance, which included Russia, Prussia, Austria, Britain and several smaller countries, defeated Napoleon in 1814. In the subsequent Congress of Vienna, it was decided that the Electorate of Hanover, a state that had shared a monarch with Britain since 1714, would be raised to a kingdom, known as the Kingdom of Hanover. Napoleon returned from exile in 1815, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, brother of Marquess Wellesley.[46] During this period George took an active interest in matters of style and taste, and his associates such as the dandy Beau Brummell and the architect John Nash created the Regency style. In London Nash designed the Regency terraces of Regent's Park and Regent Street. George took up the new idea of the seaside spa and had the Brighton Pavilion developed as a fantastical seaside palace, adapted by Nash in the "Indian Gothic" style inspired loosely by the Taj Mahal, with extravagant "Indian" and "Chinese" interiors.[47] Reign George IV's coronation, 19 July 1821 George IV at Holyhead en route to Ireland on 7 August 1821, the day of his wife's death When George III died in 1820, the Prince Regent, then aged 57, ascended the throne as George IV, with no real change in his powers.[48] By the time of his accession, he was obese and possibly addicted to laudanum.[5] George IV's relationship with his wife Caroline had deteriorated by the time of his accession. They had lived separately since 1796, and both were having affairs. In 1814, Caroline left the United Kingdom for continental Europe, but she chose to return for her husband's coronation, and to publicly assert her rights as queen consort. However, George IV refused to recognise Caroline as Queen, and commanded British ambassadors to ensure that monarchs in foreign courts did the same. By royal command, Caroline's name was omitted from the Book of Common Prayer, the liturgy of the Church of England.[49] The King sought a divorce, but his advisors suggested that any divorce proceedings might involve the publication of details relating to the King's own adulterous relationships. Therefore, he requested and ensured the introduction of the Pains and Penalties Bill, under which Parliament could have imposed legal penalties without a trial in a court of law. The bill would have annulled the marriage and stripped Caroline of the title of Queen. The bill proved extremely unpopular with the public, and was withdrawn from Parliament. George IV decided, nonetheless, to exclude his wife from his coronation at Westminster Abbey, on 19 July 1821. Caroline fell ill that day and died on 7 August; during her final illness she often stated that she thought she had been poisoned.[50] Half-crown of George IV, 1821 Portrait by Sir David Wilkie depicting the King during his 1822 trip to Scotland George's coronation was a magnificent and expensive affair, costing about £243,000 (approximately £21,751,000 in 2019;[6] for comparison, his father's coronation had only cost about £10,000, less than a twentieth of George IV's). Despite the enormous cost, it was a popular event.[5] In 1821 the King became the first monarch to pay a state visit to Ireland since Richard II of England.[51] The following year he visited Edinburgh for "one and twenty daft days".[52] His visit to Scotland, organised by Sir Walter Scott, was the first by a reigning monarch since the mid-17th century.[53] George IV spent most of his later reign in seclusion at Windsor Castle,[54] but he continued to intervene in politics. At first it was believed that he would support Catholic emancipation, as he had proposed a Catholic Emancipation Bill for Ireland in 1797, but his anti-Catholic views became clear in 1813 when he privately canvassed against the ultimately defeated Catholic Relief Bill of 1813. By 1824 he was denouncing Catholic emancipation in public.[55] Having taken the coronation oath on his accession, George now argued that he had sworn to uphold the Protestant faith, and could not support any pro-Catholic measures.[56] The influence of the Crown was so great, and the will of the Tories under Prime Minister Lord Liverpool so strong, that Catholic emancipation seemed hopeless. In 1827, however, Lord Liverpool retired, to be replaced by the pro-emancipation Tory George Canning. When Canning entered office, the King, hitherto content with privately instructing his ministers on the Catholic Question, thought it fit to make a public declaration to the effect that his sentiments on the question were those of his revered father, George III.[57] Canning's views on the Catholic Question were not well received by the most conservative Tories, including the Duke of Wellington. As a result, the ministry was forced to include Whigs.[58] Canning died later in that year, leaving Frederick Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich, to lead the tenuous Tory-Whig coalition. Lord Goderich left office in 1828, to be succeeded by the Duke of Wellington, who had by that time accepted that the denial of some measure of relief to Roman Catholics was politically untenable.[59][60] George was never as friendly with Wellington as he had been with Canning and chose to annoy the Duke by pretending to have fought at Waterloo disguised as a German general. With great difficulty Wellington obtained the King's consent to the introduction of a Catholic Relief Bill on 29 January 1829. Under pressure from his fanatically anti-Catholic brother, the Duke of Cumberland, the King withdrew his approval and in protest the Cabinet resigned en masse on 4 March. The next day the King, now under intense political pressure, reluctantly agreed to the Bill and the ministry remained in power.[5] Royal Assent was finally granted to the Catholic Relief Act on 13 April.[61] Decline and death Lithograph of George IV in profile, by George Atkinson, printed by C. Hullmandel, 1821 George's heavy drinking and indulgent lifestyle had taken their toll on his health by the late 1820s. While still Prince of Wales, he had become obese through his huge banquets and copious consumption of alcohol, making him the target of ridicule on the rare occasions that he appeared in public;[62] by 1797 his weight had reached 17 stone 7 pounds (111 kg; 245 lb).[63] By 1824, his corset was made for a waist of 50 inches (130 cm).[64] He suffered from gout, arteriosclerosis, peripheral edema ("dropsy"), and possibly porphyria. In his last years, he spent whole days in bed and suffered spasms of breathlessness that would leave him half-asphyxiated.[5] By December 1828, like his father, George was almost completely blind from cataracts, and was suffering from such severe gout in his right hand and arm that he could no longer sign documents.[65] In mid-1829, Sir David Wilkie reported the King "was wasting away frightfully day after day", and had become so obese that he looked "like a great sausage stuffed into the covering".[65] The King took laudanum to counteract severe bladder pains, which left him in a drugged and mentally handicapped state for days on end.[66] He underwent surgery to remove a cataract in September 1829, by which time he was regularly taking over 100 drops of laudanum before state occasions.[67] By the spring of 1830, George's imminent end was apparent. Now largely confined to his bedchambers, having completely lost sight in one eye and describing himself "as blind as a beetle", he was forced to approve legislation with a stamp of his signature in the presence of witnesses.[68] His weight was recorded to be 20 stone (130 kg; 280 lb).[69] Attacks of breathlessness due to dropsy forced him to sleep upright in a chair, and doctors frequently tapped his abdomen to drain excess fluid.[66] Despite his obvious decline, George was admired for clinging doggedly to life.[70] His will to live and still-prodigious appetite astonished observers; in April 1830, the Duke of Wellington wrote the King had consumed for breakfast "a Pidgeon and Beef Steak Pye...Three parts of a bottle of Mozelle, a Glass of Dry Champagne, two Glasses of Port [and] a Glass of Brandy", followed by a large dose of laudanum.[68] Writing to Maria Fitzherbert in June, the King's doctor, Sir Henry Halford, noted "His Majesty's constitution is a gigantic one, and his elasticity under the most severe pressure exceeds what I have ever witnessed in thirty-eight years' experience."[71] Though George had been under Halford's care since the time of the Regency, the doctor's social ambitions and perceived lack of competence were strongly criticised, with The Lancet labelling Halford's bulletins on the King's health as "utterly and entirely destitute of information", subsequently characterising Halford's treatment of George, which involved administering both opium and laudanum as sedatives, as appearing to lack sense or direction.[72] George dictated his will in May and became very devout in his final months, confessing to an archdeacon that he repented of his dissolute life, but hoped mercy would be shown to him as he had always tried to do the best for his subjects.[66] By June, he was unable to lie down, and received the Sacrament on 14 June in the presence of Lady Conyngham, Halford and a clergyman.[71] While Halford only informed the Cabinet on 24 June that "the King's cough continues with considerable expectoration," he privately told his wife that "things are coming to a conclusion...I shall be released about Monday."[73] At about three in the morning of 26 June 1830 at Windsor Castle, George awoke and passed a bowel movement – "a large evacuation mix'd with blood."[73] He then sent for Halford, allegedly calling to his servants "Sir Henry! Sir Henry! Fetch him; this is death!"[73] Accounts of George's final moments and last words vary. According to Halford, following his arrival and that of Sir William Knighton, the King's "lips grew livid, and he dropped his head on the page's shoulder...I was up the stairs in five minutes, and he died but eight minutes afterwards."[73] Other accounts state the King placed his hands on his stomach and said "Surely, this must be death," or that he called out "Good God, what is this?", clasped his page's hand, said "my boy, this is death", and died.[74] George died at 3:15 a.m.[73] An autopsy conducted by his physicians revealed George had died from upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting from the rupture of a blood vessel in his stomach.[75] A large tumour "the size of an orange" was found attached to his bladder; his heart was enlarged, had heavily calcified valves and was surrounded by a large fat deposit.[75] The King was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 15 July.[76] His only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte of Wales, had died from post-partum complications in 1817, after delivering a stillborn son. His oldest brother, George III's second son Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, had died childless in 1827, so the succession passed to the third son of George III, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, who reigned as William IV.[77] Legacy See also: Cultural depictions of George IV of the United Kingdom "A Voluptuary Under The Horrors of Digestion": 1792 caricature by James Gillray from George's time as Prince of Wales George's last years were marked by increasing physical and mental decay and withdrawal from public affairs. Privately a senior aide to the King confided to his diary: "A more contemptible, cowardly, selfish, unfeeling dog does not exist ... There have been good and wise kings but not many of them ... and this I believe to be one of the worst."[1] On his death The Times captured elite opinion succinctly: "There never was an individual less regretted by his fellow-creatures than this deceased king. What eye has wept for him? What heart has heaved one throb of unmercenary sorrow? ... If he ever had a friend – a devoted friend in any rank of life – we protest that the name of him or her never reached us."[78] George IV was described as the "First Gentleman of England" on account of his style and manners.[79] He possessed many good qualities; he was bright, clever, and knowledgeable. However, his laziness and gluttony led him to squander much of his talent. The Times wrote, he would always prefer "a girl and a bottle to politics and a sermon".[80] The Regency period saw a shift in fashion that was largely determined by George. After political opponents put a tax on wig powder, he abandoned wearing a powdered wig in favour of natural hair.[81] He wore darker colours than had been previously fashionable as they helped to disguise his size, favoured pantaloons and trousers over knee breeches because they were looser, and popularised a high collar with neck cloth because it hid his double chin.[82] His visit to Scotland in 1822 led to the revival, if not the creation, of Scottish tartan dress as it is known today.[83] During the political crisis caused by Catholic emancipation, the Duke of Wellington said that George was "the worst man he ever fell in with his whole life, the most selfish, the most false, the most ill-natured, the most entirely without one redeeming quality",[84] but his eulogy delivered in the House of Lords called George "the most accomplished man of his age" and praised his knowledge and talent.[85] Wellington's true feelings probably lie somewhere between these two extremes; as he said later, George was "a magnificent patron of the arts ... the most extraordinary compound of talent, wit, buffoonery, obstinacy, and good feeling—in short a medley of the most opposite qualities, with a great preponderance of good—that I ever saw in any character in my life."[85] Statue of George IV in Trafalgar Square, London There are many statues of George IV, a large number of which were erected during his reign. In the United Kingdom, they include a bronze statue of him on horseback by Sir Francis Chantrey in Trafalgar Square.[86] In Edinburgh, "George IV Bridge" is a main street linking the Old Town High Street to the north over the ravine of the Cowgate, designed by the architect Thomas Hamilton in 1829 and completed in 1835. King's Cross, now a major transport hub sitting on the border of Camden and Islington in north London, takes its name from a short-lived monument erected to George IV in the early 1830s.[87] A square and a neighbouring park in St Luke's, Islington, are also named after George IV.[88] Titles, styles, honours, and arms Titles and styles 12 August 1762 – 19 August 1762: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall 19 August 1762 – 5 February 1811: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales 5 February 1811 – 29 January 1820: His Royal Highness The Prince Regent 29 January 1820 – 26 June 1830: His Majesty The King At birth, he was also entitled to the dignities Prince of Great Britain and Ireland, Electoral Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Duke of Rothesay.[89] Under the Act of Parliament that instituted the regency, the prince's formal title as regent was "Regent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland".[90] Honours British honours 26 December 1765: Knight of the Garter[89] 21 November 1783: Privy Counsellor[89] 26 January 1789: Fellow of the Royal Society[89] 2 May 1810: Doctor of Civil Law, University of Oxford[89] Foreign honours Russia: 25 November 1813: Knight of St Andrew[89] 20 April 1814: Knight of St Alexander Nevski[89] Kingdom of France: 20 April 1814: Knight of the Holy Spirit[89] Denmark: 4 July 1815: Knight of the Elephant[91] Austrian Empire: July 1815: Knight of the Golden Fleece[89] Netherlands: 27 November 1818: Grand Cross of the Military William Order[92] Military appointments 1782: Colonel, British Army[89] 1796–1820: Colonel of the 10th Light Dragoons[89] Arms George's coat of arms as the Prince of Wales was the royal arms (with an inescutcheon of Gules plain in the Hanoverian quarter), differenced by a label of three points Argent.[93] The arms included the royal crest and supporters but with the single arched coronet of his rank, all charged on the shoulder with a similar label. His arms followed the change in the royal arms in 1801, when the Hanoverian quarter became an inescutcheon and the French quarter was dropped altogether.[94] The 1816 alteration did not affect him as it only applied to the arms of the King.[95] As king his arms were those of his two kingdoms, the United Kingdom and Hanover, superimposed: Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); overall an escutcheon tierced in pall reversed (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westphalia), overall an inescutcheon Gules charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or, the whole escutcheon surmounted by a crown.[96] Coat of Arms from 1762 to 1801 as Prince of Wales Coat of Arms from 1801 to 1820 as Prince of Wales and Prince Regent Coat of arms of King George IV Coat of arms of King George IV (in Scotland) Ancestry Ancestors of George IV of the United Kingdom[97] Notes and sources Baker, Kenneth (2005). "George IV: a Sketch". History Today. 55 (10): 30–36. Smith, E. A., p. 1 Smith, E. A., p. 2 Hibbert, George IV: Prince of Wales 1762–1811, p. 2 Hibbert, Christopher (2004). "George IV (1762–1830)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 27 January 2019. Smith, E. A., pp. 25–28 Smith, E. A., p. 48 Smith, E. A., p. 33 Parissien, p. 64 Smith, E. A., pp. 36–38 David, pp. 57–91 Innes, Arthur Donald (1914). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 3. The MacMillan Company. pp. 396–397. De-la-Noy, p. 31 Marilyn Morris, "Princely Debt, Public Credit, and Commercial Values in Late Georgian Britain." Journal of British Studies 2004 43(3): 339–365 Röhl, J. C. G.; Warren, M.; Hunt, D. (1998). Purple Secret. Bantam Press. Peters, T. J.; Wilkinson, D. (2010). "King George III and porphyria: a clinical re-examination of the historical evidence". History of Psychiatry. 21 (81 Pt 1): 3–19. doi:10.1177/0957154X09102616. PMID 21877427. David, pp. 92–119 Smith, E. A., p. 54 Derry, p. 71 Derry, p. 91 May, Thomas Erskine (1896). The Constitutional History of England Since the Accession of George the Third, 1760–1860 (11th ed.). London: Longmans, Green and Co. chapter III pp. 184–195. Derry, p. 181 Derry, p. 109 Smith, E. A., p. 70 David, pp. 150–205 Parissien, p. 60 Major, Joanne; Murden, Sarah (2016), An infamous mistress : the life, loves and family of the celebrated Grace Dalrymple Elliott, Pen & Sword History, ISBN 1473844835 Hibbert, George IV: Prince of Wales 1762–1811, p. 18 Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p. 214 David, pp. 76–78 David, p. 78 David, p. 80 Camp, Anthony J. (2007) Royal Mistresses and Bastards: Fact and Fiction 1714–1936, ISBN 978-0-9503308-2-2 De-la-Noy, p. 55 Smith, E. A., p. 97 Ashley, Mike (1998). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. London: Robinson. p. 684. ISBN 1-84119-096-9. Innes, Arthur Donald (1915). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 4. The MacMillan Company. p. 50. "No. 16451". The London Gazette. 5 February 1811. p. 227. Bagehot, Walter (1872) The English constitution, p. 247 Parissien, p. 185 Smith, E. A., pp. 141–142 Smith, E. A., p. 144 Smith, E. A., p. 145 Smith, E. A., p.146 Parissien, pp. 264–281 Rutherford, Jessica M. F. (1995). The Royal Pavilion: The Palace of George IV. Brighton Borough Council. p. 81. ISBN 0-948723-21-1. Innes, Arthur Donald (1915). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 4. The MacMillan Company. p. 81. Parissien, pp. 209–224 Innes, Arthur Donald (1915). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 4. The MacMillan Company. p. 82. De-la-Noy, p. 95 Prebble, John (2000). The King's Jaunt: George IV in Scotland, 1822. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited. ISBN 1-84158-068-6. Parissien, pp. 316–323 "King George IV". Official website of the British monarchy. Retrieved 18 April 2016. Parissien, p. 189 Smith, E. A., p. 238 Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p. 292 Smith, E. A., pp. 231–234 Parissien, p. 190 Smith, E. A., p. 237 Parissien, p. 381 Parissien, p. 355 De-la-Noy, p. 43 Parissien, p. 171 Smith, E. A., pp. 266–267 Smith, E. A., p. 269 Parissien, p. 4 Parissien, p. 3 Baker, Kenneth (2005). George IV: a life in caricature. Hudson and Thames. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-500-25127-0. Smith, E. A., p. 270 Parissien, p. 6 Parissien, pp. 5–6 Parissien, pp. 7–8 De-la-Noy, p. 103; Parissien, pp. 7–8; Smith, E. A., p. 271 Smith, E. A., p. 275 Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p. 336 Innes, Arthur Donald (1915). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 4. The MacMillan Company. p. 105. The Times (London) 15 July 1830 quoted in Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p. 342 The Diary of Prince Pückler-Muskau (May 1828). Quoted in Parissien, p.420 Clarke, John (1975). "George IV". The Lives of the Kings and Queens of England. Knopf: 225. Parissien, p. 112 Parissien, p. 114 Parissien, pp. 324–326 Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p. 310 Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p. 344 Parissien, pp. 14, 162–163, 201, 277 "Camden's history". Camden Council. Archived from the original on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2007. "History". St Clement's Church, King Square. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015. Cokayne, G. E. (1910), Gibbs, Vicary (ed.), The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, 4, London: St Catherine's Press, pp. 450–451 Hibbert, George IV: Prince of Wales 1762–1811, p. 280 Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 207. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2. "Militaire Willems-Orde: Wales, George Augustus Frederick, Prince of" [Military William Order: Wales, George Augustus Frederick, Prince of] (in Dutch). Ministerie van Defensie. Retrieved 12 March 2016. Francois R. Velde. "Heraldica – British Royalty Cadency". Heraldica.org. Retrieved 11 May 2013. "No. 15324". The London Gazette. 30 December 1800. p. 2. Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974). The Royal Heraldry of England. Heraldry Today. Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street Press. pp. 228–229. ISBN 0-900455-25-X. "No. 17149". The London Gazette. 29 June 1816. p. 1237. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 5. References and further reading Baker, Kenneth (2005). "George IV: a Sketch". History Today. 55 (10): 30–36. Baker, Kenneth (2005). George IV: A Life in Caricature. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-25127-4. David, Saul (2000). Prince of Pleasure: The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3703-2. De-la-Noy, Michael (1998). George IV. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1821-7. Derry, John W. (1963). The Regency Crisis and the Whigs. Cambridge University Press. Hibbert, Christopher (1972). George IV, Prince of Wales, 1762–1811. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-12675-4. Hibbert, Christopher (1973). George IV, Regent and King, 1811–1830. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-0487-9. Hibbert, Christopher (2008) [2004]. "George IV (1762–1830)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. (subscription or UK public library membership required) Machin, G. I. T. (1964). The Catholic Question in English Politics 1820 to 1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Parissien, Steven (2001). George IV: The Grand Entertainment. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5652-X. Priestley, J. B. (1969). The Prince of Pleasure and His Regency (1811–20). London: Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-434-60357-2. Smith, E. A. (1999). George IV. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07685-1. Smith, E. A. (2008) [2004]. "Caroline (1768–1821)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). (subscription or UK public library membership required) External links Simple English Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: George IV of the United Kingdom Wikimedia Commons has media related to George IV of the United Kingdom. George IV at the Encyclopædia Britannica "Archival material relating to George IV of the United Kingdom". UK National Archives. Portraits of King George IV at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata George IV of the United Kingdom House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 12 August 1762 Died: 26 June 1830 Regnal titles Preceded by George III King of the United Kingdom and Hanover 29 January 1820 – 26 June 1830 Succeeded by William IV British royalty Vacant Title last held by George (III) Prince of Wales 1762–1820 Vacant Title next held by Albert Edward Vacant Title last held by Frederick Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay 1762–1820 Military offices Preceded by Sir William Augustus Pitt Colonel of the 10th (The Prince of Wales's Own) Royal Regiment of (Light) Dragoons (Hussars) 1796–1820 Succeeded by The Lord Stewart Masonic offices Preceded by The Duke of Cumberland Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England 1790–1813 Succeeded by The Duke of Sussex Other offices Preceded by The Duke of Portland President of the Foundling Hospital 1809–1820 Succeeded by The Duke of York vte English, Scottish and British monarchs vte British princes vte Princes of Wales vte Dukes of Cornwall Edward (1337–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Henry (1421–1422) Edward (1453–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1470–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1486–1502) Henry (1502–1509) Henry (1511) Henry (1513) Henry (1515) Edward (1537–1547) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1701/2) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present) Cornwall Portal vte Dukes of Rothesay David (1398–1402) James (1402–1406) Alexander (1430) James (1430–1437) James (1452–1460) James (1473–1488) James (1507–1508) Arthur (1509–1510) James (1512–1513) James (1540–1541) James (1566–1567) Henry Frederick (1594–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles James (1629) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1689) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present) vte Rulers of Hanover Electors of Hanover Ernest Augustus I (Elector-designate) George I Louis* George II* George III* Kings of Hanover George III* George IV* William* Ernest Augustus II George V * also British monarch vte Hanoverian princes Generations are numbered by descent from George III, first king of Hanover 1st generation King George IV1 Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany1 King William IV1 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn1 King Ernest Augustus1 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex1 Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge1 Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg 2nd generation King George V1 Prince George, Duke of Cambridge1 3rd generation Crown Prince Ernest Augustus1 4th generation Hereditary Prince George William1 Prince Christian1 Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick1 5th generation Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick1 Prince George William1 Prince Christian Oscar Prince Welf Henry 6th generation Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover Prince Ludwig Rudolph Prince Heinrich Prince Welf Ernst Prince Georg 7th generation Hereditary Prince Ernest Augustus Prince Christian Prince Otto Heinrich Prince Albert Prince Julius 8th generation Prince Welf August 1 also prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland vte Premier Grand Lodge of England Grand Masters Anthony Sayer (1717–1718) George Payne (1718–1719) John Theophilus Desaguliers (1719–1720) George Payne (1720–1721) Duke of Montagu (1721–1723) Duke of Wharton (1723) Earl of Dalkeith (1723–1724) Duke of Richmond (1724) Lord Paisley (1724–1725) Earl of Inchiquin (1726–1727) Baron Colerane (1727–1728) Baron Kingston (1728–1730) Duke of Norfolk (1730–1731) Baron Lovell (1731–1732) Viscount Montagu (1732–1733) Earl of Strathmore (1733–1734) Earl of Crawford (1734–1735) Lord Weymouth (1735–1736) Earl of Loudoun (1736–1737) Earl of Darnley (1737–1738) Marquis of Carnarvon (1738–1739) Baron Raymond (1739–1740) Earl of Kintore (1740–1741) Earl of Morton (1741–1742) Baron Ward (1742–1744) Lord Cranstoun (1744–1747) Baron Byron (1747–1752) Baron Carysfort (1752–1753) Marquis of Carnarvon (1754–1757) Lord Aberdour (1757–1762) Earl Ferrers (1762–1764) Baron Blayney (1764–1767) Duke of Beaufort (1767–1772) Baron Petre (1772–1777) Duke of Manchester (1777–1782) Duke of Cumberland (1782–1790) George, Prince of Wales (1792–1813) Duke of Sussex (1813) Related articles History of Freemasonry Antient Grand Lodge of England United Grand Lodge of England James Anderson's The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (1723) Freemasons' Tavern Freemasons' Hall, London Royal Society Society of Antiquaries of London Royal College of Physicians Worshipful Society of Apothecaries Spalding Gentlemen's Society Newtonianism English Enlightenment Order of the Bath Walpole ministries Whiggism (Kit-Cat Club) Gormogons Hellfire Club Foundling Hospital Unlawful Societies Act Members James Anderson John Byrom William Stukeley William Jones William Cowper Charles Delafaye Baron Carpenter William Billers Sir Thomas Prendergast, 2nd Baronet Brook Taylor Martin Folkes John Arbuthnot Charles Cox Earl Cornwallis Richard Cantillon John Machin William Rutty James Vernon John Senex James Thornhill Earl of Macclesfield John Browne James Jurin James Douglas Alexander Stuart Ephraim Chambers Richard Manningham Frank Nicholls Richard Rawlinson Charles Stanhope James Cavendish Earl of Hopetoun William Richardson William Becket John Anstis Duke of Ancaster Charles Hayes Edmund Prideaux George Shelvocke John Woodward John Ward John Baptist Grano Baron King Jacques Leblon Adolphus Oughton Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet Viscount Cobham Francis Columbine Hugh Warburton Earl of Pembroke Viscount Townshend Martin Bladen Earl Waldegrave Duke of Kingston Earl of Burlington Earl of Essex Duke of Queensberry Earl of Deloraine Earl of Portmore Duke of Marlborough Baron Baltimore Duke of Atholl Marquess of Lothian Earl of Balcarres Earl of Winchilsea Sir Arthur Acheson, 5th Baronet Sir Robert Lawley, 4th Baronet Alexander Brodie William Hogarth Charles Labelye Walter Calverley-Blackett Frederick, Prince of Wales Thomas Wright Edward Gibbon Baron Hervey Thomas Dunckerley William Preston Marquess of Hastings James Moore Smythe Robert Boyle-Walsingham Sir Robert de Cornwall Batty Langley Thomas Arne John Soane Joseph Banks Johan Zoffany John Coustos Hipólito da Costa Meyer Löw Schomberg Moses Mendes Meyer Solomon Moses Montefiore Nathan Mayer Rothschild Prime Ministers Robert Walpole Duke of Newcastle Hammered coinage is the most common form of coins produced since the invention of coins in the first millennium BC until the early modern period of ca. the 15th–17th centuries, contrasting to the very rare cast coinage and the later developed milled coinage. Hammered coins were produced by placing a blank piece of metal (a planchet or flan) of the correct weight between two dies, and then striking the upper die with a hammer to produce the required image on both sides. The planchet was usually cast from a mold. The bottom die (sometimes called the anvil die) was usually counter sunk in a log or other sturdy surface and was called a pile. One of the minters held the die for the other side (called the trussel), in his hand while it was struck either by himself or an assistant. Striking coins: wall relief at Rostock In later history, in order to increase the production of coins, hammered coins were sometimes produced from strips of metal of the correct thickness, from which the coins were subsequently cut out. Both methods of producing hammered coins meant that it was difficult to produce coins of a regular diameter. Coins were liable to suffer from "clipping" where unscrupulous people would remove slivers of precious metal since it was difficult to determine the correct diameter of the coin. Coins were also vulnerable to "sweating," which is when silver coins would be placed in a bag that would be vigorously shaken. This would produce silver dust, which could later be removed from the bag. Milled coins The ability to fashion coins from machines (Milled coins) caused hammered coins to gradually become obsolete during the 17th century. Interestingly, they were still made in Venice until the 1770s. France became the first country to adopt a full machine-made coin in 1643. In England, the first non-hammered coins were produced in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I in the 1560s, but while machine-produced coins were experimentally produced at intervals over the next century, the production of hammered coins did not finally end until 1662. Cast coins An alternative method of producing early coins, particularly found in Asia, especially in China, was to cast coins using molds. This method of coin production continued in China into the nineteenth century. Up to a couple of dozen coins could be produced at one time from a single mold, when a 'tree' of coins (which often contained features such as a square hole in the centre) would be produced and the individual coins (called cash) would then be broken off. oins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes: these coins are usually worth less than banknotes: usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, or the general public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law). Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g. C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not. Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e.g. porcelain) have been used to produce coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment: bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1] Today, the term coin can also be used in reference to digital currencies which are not issued by a state. As of 2013, examples include BitCoin and LiteCoin, among others. As coins have long been used as money, in some languages the same word is used for "coin" and "currency". Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later assumed the Kingship, of Ireland, and continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the pope and the Roman Catholic Church. His struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and his own establishment as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church.[1] Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. He is also well known for a long personal rivalry with both Francis I of France and the Habsburg monarch Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (King Charles I of Spain), his contemporaries with whom he frequently warred. Domestically, he is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting supremacy over the Church of England in its break from Rome in initiating the English Reformation, he also greatly expanded royal power. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, those accused were often executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder instead. He achieved much of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, many of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Figures such as Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer figured prominently in Henry's administration. An extravagant spender, he depended on spoils from the Dissolution of the Monasteries as well as various acts of the Reformation Parliament to divert money formerly bound for Rome to greatly increase the royal income. Despite the massive influx of money from these acts, Henry was always on the verge of financial ruin, due to his personal extravagance, as well as his numerous costly, and ultimately fruitless, continental wars. His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated and accomplished king, and he has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne".[2] Besides ruling with considerable power, he also engaged himself as an author and composer. His desire to provide England with a male heir – which stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly because he believed a daughter would be unable to consolidate the Tudor dynasty and the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses[3] – led to the two things for which Henry is most remembered: his six marriages and his break with Rome (which would not allow a annulment), leading to the English Reformation. Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.[4] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI. King of England; Lord/King of Ireland (more...) Reign 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547 Coronation 24 June 1509 Predecessor Henry VII Successor Edward VI Spouse Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Issue Among others Mary I of England Elizabeth I of England Edward VI of England Henry Fitzroy (illegitimate) House House of Tudor Father Henry VII of England Mother Elizabeth of York Born 28 June 1491 Greenwich Palace, Greenwich Died 28 January 1547 (aged 55) Palace of Whitehall, London Burial 4 February 1547 St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle Anglicanism History Jesus Christ Paul Apostolic Succession Ecumenical councils Æthelberht Edwin Offa Celtic Christianity Augustine of Canterbury Paulinus Hygeberht Bede Medieval Architecture Henry VIII English Reformation Cranmer Dissolution of Monasteries Church of England Edward VI Elizabeth I Parker Hooker James I King James Version Charles I Laud Caroline Divines Nonjuring schism Oxford Movement St. Louis Ordination of women Homosexuality Windsor Report 19th-century engraving of Canterbury Cathedral Anglican Communion Archbishop of Canterbury Anglican Communion Primates Meeting Lambeth Conferences Anglican Consultative Council Episcopal polity Supreme Governor of the Church of England Theology Trinity (Father Son Holy Spirit) Thirty-Nine Articles Lambeth Quadrilateral Affirmation of St. Louis Sacraments Eucharist Mary Saints Liturgy and worship Book of Common Prayer Morning / Evening Prayer Liturgical year Biblical canon Books of Homilies High / Low / Broad church Other topics Continuing Anglicanism Converts to Anglicanism Ministry Monasticism Music Anglican Communion ecumenism Anglican rosary Anglicanism of the Americas Anglican rose Anglicanism [hide] v t e English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603 Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Forkbeard Edmund Ironside Cnut the Great Harold Harefoot Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar the Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Canmore Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret First Interregnum John Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in 1603 James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII William III & II and Mary II Anne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. [hide] v t e Dukes of Cornwall Edward (1337–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Henry (1421–1422) Edward (1453–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1470–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1486–1502) Henry (1502–1509) Henry (1511) Henry (1514) Edward (1537–1547) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1701/2) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present) Cornwall Portal [hide] v t e Dukes of York Edmund of Langley (1385–1402) Edward of Norwich (1402–1415) Richard Plantagenet (1415–1460) Edward of York (1460–1461) Richard of Shrewsbury (1474–1483) Henry (1494–1509) Charles (1605–1625) James (1633/1644–1685) Dukes of York and Albany (18th century) George (1892–1910) Albert (1920–1936) Andrew (1986–present) Coins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes: these coins are usually worth less than banknotes: usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, or the general public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law). Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g. C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not. Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e.g. porcelain) have been used to produce coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment: bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1] Today, the term coin can also be used in reference to digital currencies which are not issued by a state. As of 2013, examples include BitCoin and LiteCoin, among others. As coins have long been used as money, in some languages the same word is used for "coin" and "currency". Numismatics Claudius II coin (colourised).png Currency Coins · Banknotes · Forgery Community currencies Company scrip · Coal scrip · LETS · Time dollars Fictional currencies History Ancient currencies Greek · Roman · China · India Byzantine Medieval currencies Modern currencies Africa · The Americas · Europe · Asia · Oceania Production Mint · Designers · Coining · Milling · Hammering · Cast Exonumia Credit cards · Medals · Tokens · Cheques Notaphily Banknotes Scripophily Stocks · Bonds The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, India & China around 600-700 BC. Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.[2] Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire. Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius). Ancient and early medieval coins in theory had the value of their metal content, although there have been many instances throughout history of the metal content of coins being debased, so that the inferior coins were worth less in metal than their face value. Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the jiaozi paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the later Middle Ages, but some coins continued to have the value of the gold or silver they contained throughout the Early Modern period. The penny was mint (coin)ed as a silver coin until the 17th century. The first copper pennies were minted in the United States in the 1790s.[3][citation needed] Silver content was reduced in many coins in the 19th century (use of billon), and the first coins made entirely of base metal (e.g. nickel, cupronickel, aluminium bronze), representing values higher than the value of their metal, were minted in the mid 19th century. Bronze Age predecessors[edit] An Oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values. Coins were an evolution of "currency" systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made, such as those discovered in a tomb near Anyang.[4][5] These were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese money, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell.[6][7][8] These, as well as later Chinese bronzes, were replicas of knives, spades, and hoes, but not "coins" in the narrow sense, as they did not carry a mark or marks certifying them to be of a definite exchange value.[9] Iron Age[edit] Further information: Archaic period of ancient Greek coinage 1/3rd stater from Lydia, 6th century BC. Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620-600 BC. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch. Anatolian gold coin from 4th century BC Mysia. Greek drachma of Aegina. Obverse: Land Chelone / Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin. The oldest Aegina Chelone coins depicted sea turtles and were minted ca. 700 BC.[10] The earliest coins are mostly associated with Iron Age Anatolia, especially with the kingdom of Lydia.[11] Early electrum coins were not standardized in weight, and in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests.[12] Many early Lydian and Greek coins were minted under the authority of private individuals and are thus more akin to tokens or badges than to modern coins,[13] though due to their numbers it is evident that some were official state issues, with King Alyattes of Lydia being a frequently mentioned originator of coinage.[14] The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold that was further alloyed with added silver and copper.[15] Most of the early Lydian coins include no writing ("legend" or "inscription"), only an image of a symbolic animal. Therefore the dating of these coins relies primarily on archaeological evidence, with the most commonly cited evidence coming from excavations at the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, also called the Ephesian Artemision (which would later evolve into one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World). Because the oldest lion head "coins" were discovered in that temple, and they do not appear to have been used in commerce, these objects may not have been coins but badges or medals issued by the priests of that temple. Anatolian Artemis was the Πὀτνια Θηρῶν (Potnia Thêrôn, "Mistress of Animals"), whose symbol was the stag. A small percentage of early Lydian/Greek coins have a legend.[16] A famous early electrum coin, the most ancient inscribed coin at present known, is from nearby Caria. This coin has a Greek legend reading phaenos emi sema [17] interpreted variously as "I am the badge of Phanes", or "I am the sign of light",[18] or "I am the tomb of light", or "I am the tomb of Phanes". The coins of Phanes are known to be amongst the earliest of Greek coins, a hemihekte of the issue was found in the foundation deposit of the temple of Artemis at Ephesos (the oldest deposit of electrum coins discovered). One assumption is that Phanes was a wealthy merchant, another that this coin is associated with Apollo-Phanes and, due to the Deer, with Artemis (twin sister of the god of light Apollo-Phaneos). Although only seven Phanes type coins were discovered, it is also notable that 20% of all early electrum coins also have the lion of Artemis and the sun burst of Apollo-Phaneos. Alternatively, Phanes may have been the Halicarnassian mercenary of Amasis mentioned by Herodotus, who escaped to the court of Cambyses, and became his guide in the invasion of Egypt in 527 or 525 BC. According to Herodotus, this Phanes was buried alive by a sandstorm, together with 50,000 Persian soldiers, while trying to conquer the temple of Amun–Zeus in Egypt.[19] The fact that the Greek word "Phanes" also means light (or lamp), and the word "sema" also means tomb makes this coin a famous and controversial one.[20] Another candidate for the site of the earliest coins is Aegina, where Chelone ("turtle") coins were first minted on 700 BC,[21] either by the local Aegina people or by Pheidon king of Argos (who first set the standards of weights and measures). In the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, there is a unique electrum stater of Aegina.[10][22][unreliable source?] Coins from Athens and Corinth appeared shortly thereafter, known to exist at least since the late 6th century BC.[23] Classical Antiquity[edit] Further information: Ancient Greek coinage, Achaemenid coinage, Illyrian coinage, Roman currency, Coinage of India, Aureus, Solidus (coin), Denarius, and Antoninianus Set of three roman aurei depicting the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Top to bottom: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. 69-96 AD. Coinage followed Greek colonization and influence first around the Mediterranean and soon after to North Africa (including Egypt), Syria, Persia, and the Balkans.[24] Coins were minted in the Achaemenid Empire, including the gold darics and silver sigloi. and with the Achemenid conquest of Gandhara under Darius the Great ca. 520 BC, the practice spread to the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana.[25] These earliest Indian coins, however, are unlike those circulated in Persia, which were derived from the Greek/Anatolian type; they not disk-shaped but rather stamped bars of metal, suggesting that the innovation of stamped currency was added to a pre-existing form of token currency which had already been present in the Mahajanapada kingdoms of the Indian Iron Age. Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included Gandhara, Kuntala, Kuru, Panchala, Shakya, Surasena and Surashtra.[26] In China, early round coins appear in the 4th century BC. The first Roman coins, which were crude, heavy cast bronzes, were issued ca. 289 B Most coins presently are made of a base metal, and their value comes from their status as fiat money. This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat (law), and thus is determined by the free market only inasmuch as national currencies are used in domestic trade and also traded internationally on foreign exchange markets. Thus these coins are monetary tokens, just as paper currency is: they are usually not backed by metal, but rather by some form of government guarantee. Some have suggested that such coins not be considered to be "true coins" (see below). Thus there is very little economic difference between notes and coins of equivalent face value. Coins may be in circulation with fiat values lower than the value of their component metals, but they are never initially issued with such value, and the shortfall only arises over time due to inflation, as market values for the metal overtake the fiat declared face value of the coin. Examples are the pre-1965 US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar, US nickel, and pre-1982 US penny. As a result of the increase in the value of copper, the United States greatly reduced the amount of copper in each penny. Since mid-1982, United States pennies are made of 97.5% zinc, with the remaining 2.5% being a coating of copper. Extreme differences between fiat values and metal values of coins causes coins to be hoarded or removed from circulation by illicit smelters in order to realise the value of their metal content. This is an example of Gresham's law. The United States Mint, in an attempt to avoid this, implemented new interim rules on December 14, 2006, subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalized the melting and export of pennies and nickels.[30] Violators can be fined up to $10,000 and/or imprisoned for up to five years. A coin's value as a collector's item or as an investment generally depends on its condition, specific historical significance, rarity, quality/beauty of the design and general popularity with collectors. If a coin is greatly lacking in all of these, it is unlikely to be worth much. The value of bullion coins is also influenced to some extent by those factors, but is largely based on the value of their gold, silver, or platinum content. Sometimes non-monetized bullion coins such as the Canadian Maple Leaf and the American Gold Eagle are minted with nominal face values less than the value of the metal in them, but as such coins are never intended for circulation, these face values have no relevance. Coins can be used as creative medium of expression – from fine art sculpture to the penny machines that can be found in most amusement parks. In the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in the United States there are some regulations specific to nickels and pennies that are informative on this topic. 31 CFR § 82.1 forbids unauthorized persons from exporting, melting, or treating any 5 or 1 cent coins. This has been a particular problem with nickels and dimes (and with some comparable coins in other currencies) because of their relatively low face value and unstable commodity prices. For a while the copper in US pennies was worth more than one cent, so people would hoard pennies then melt them down for their metal value. It costs more than face value to manufacture pennies or nickels, so any widespread loss of the coins in circulation could be expensive for the Treasury. This was more of a problem when coins were still made of precious metals like silver and gold, so historically strict laws against alteration make more sense. 31 CFR § 82.2 goes on to state that: "(b) The prohibition contained in § 82.1 against the treatment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins shall not apply to the treatment of these coins for educational, amusement, novelty, jewelry, and similar purposes as long as the volumes treated and the nature of the treatment makes it clear that such treatment is not intended as a means by which to profit solely from the value of the metal content of the coins." Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world[1] with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population[2][3][4]) and covering 6.5 million square kilometers (2.5 million sq mi) during its height between the first and second centuries AD.[5][6][7] In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, parts of Northern Europe, and parts of Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into "Classical Antiquity" together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. The Romans are still remembered today, including names such as Julius Caesar, Cicero, and Augustus. Ancient Roman society contributed greatly to government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, society and more in the Western world. A civilization highly developed for its time, Rome professionalized and greatly expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics[8][9][10] such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as large monuments, palaces, and public facilities. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged under the leadership of Augustus Caesar. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common ritual for a new emperor's rise.[11][12][13] States, such as Palmyra, temporarily divided the Empire in a third-century crisis. Soldier emperors reunified it, by dividing the empire between Western and Eastern halves. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-mediaeval "Dark Ages" of Europe. The Eastern Roman Empire survived this crisis and was governed from Constantinople after the division of the Empire. It comprised Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt. Despite the later loss of Syria and Egypt to the Arab-Islamic Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire continued for another millennium, until its remnants were annexed by the emerging Turkish Ottoman Empire. This eastern, Christian, medieval stage of the Empire is usually called the Byzantine Empire by historians. Ancient Rome topics Outline · Timeline Epochs Foundation · Monarchy (Revolution) · Republic · Empire (Timeline, Pax Romana, Principate, Dominate, Decline, Fall) · Western Empire / Eastern Empire Constitution History · Kingdom · Republic · Empire · Late Empire · Senate · Legislative assemblies (Curiate · Century · Tribal · Plebeian) · Executive magistrates Government Curia · Forum · Cursus honorum · Collegiality · Emperor · Legatus · Dux · Officium · Praefectus · Vicarius · Vigintisexviri · Lictor · Magister militum · Imperator · Princeps senatus · Pontifex Maximus · Augustus · Caesar · Tetrarch · Optimates · Populares · Province Magistrates Ordinary Tribune · Quaestor · Aedile · Praetor · Consul · Censor · Promagistrate · Governor Extraordinary Dictator · Magister Equitum · Decemviri · Consular Tribune · Triumvir · Rex · Interrex Law Twelve Tables · Mos maiorum · Citizenship · Auctoritas · Imperium · Status · Litigation Military Borders · Establishment · Structure · Campaigns · Political control · Strategy · Engineering · Frontiers and fortifications (Castra) · Technology · Army (Legion · Infantry tactics · Personal equipment · Siege engines) · Navy (fleets) · Auxiliaries · Decorations and punishments · Hippika gymnasia Economy Agriculture · Deforestation · Commerce · Finance · Currency · Republican currency · Imperial currency · SPQR Technology Abacus · Numerals · Civil engineering · Military engineering · Military technology · Aqueducts · Bridges · Circus · Concrete · Forum · Metallurgy · Roads · Sanitation · Thermae Culture Architecture · Art · Bathing · Calendar · Clothing · Cosmetics · Cuisine · Hairstyles · Education · Literature · Music · Mythology · Religion · Romanization · Sexuality · Theatre · Wine Society Patricians · Plebs · Conflict of the Orders · Secessio plebis · Equestrian order · Gens · Tribes · Naming conventions · Women · Marriage · Adoption · Slavery · Bagaudae Language (Latin) History · Alphabet · Romance languages Versions Old · Classical · Vulgar · Late · Medieval · Renaissance · New · Contemporary · Ecclesiastical Writers Apuleius · Caesar · Catullus · Cicero · Ennius · Horace · Juvenal · Livy · Lucan · Lucretius · Martial · Ovid · Petronius · Plautus · Pliny the Elder · Pliny the Younger · Propertius · Quintilian · Sallust · Seneca · Statius · Suetonius · Tacitus · Terence · Tibullus · Varro · Virgil · Vitruvius Lists Wars · Battles · Generals · Legions · Emperors · Geographers · Institutions · Laws · Consuls · Distinguished women Major cities Alexandria · Antioch · Aquileia · Bononia · Carthage · Constantinople · Leptis Magna · Londinium · Mediolanum · Pompeii · Ravenna · Rome · Smyrna Other topics Fiction set in ancient Rome (films · video games) Portal [hide] v · t · e Roman Constitution Ancient Rome History · Constitution · Senate · Assemblies (Curiate · Century · Tribal · Plebeian) · Magistrates Roman Kingdom History · Constitution · Senate · Assemblies · Magistrates Roman Republic History · Constitution (reforms of Sulla • reforms of Caesar • reforms of Augustus) · Senate · Assemblies · Magistrates Roman Empire History · (post Diocletian) · Constitution · (post Diocletian) · Senate · Assemblies · Magistrates Miscellaneous Sulla's Constitutional Reforms · Caesar's Constitutional Reforms · Conflict of the Orders · Roman law Portal Portal [hide] v · t · e Roman mythology and religion Deities Apollo · Bona Dea · Castor and Pollux · Ceres · Cupid · Diana · Dis Pater · Fauna · Faunus · Flora · Genius · Hercules · Janus · Juno · Jupiter · Lares · Liber · Mars · Mercury · Minerva · Orcus · Neptune · Penates · Pluto · Pomona · Priapus · Proserpina · Quirinus · Saturn · Silvanus · Sol · Venus · Vesta · Vulcan She-wolf suckles Romulus and Remus.jpg Abstract deities Concordia · Fides · Fortuna · Pietas · Spes · Roma · Victoria · Terra Legendary founders Aeneas · Romulus and Remus · Numa Pompilius · Servius Tullius · Ancus Marcius Texts Vergil (Aeneid) · Ovid (Metamorphoses · Fasti) · Propertius · Apuleius (The Golden Ass) Concepts and practices Religion in ancient Rome · Festivals · interpretatio graeca · Imperial cult · Temples See also Glossary of ancient Roman religion · Greek mythology · myth and ritual · classical mythology [hide] v · t · e Ancient Greek and Roman wars Wars of ancient Greece Trojan War · First Messenian War · Second Messenian War · Lelantine War · Sicilian Wars · Greco-Persian Wars · Aeginetan War · Wars of the Delian League · Samian War · Peloponnesian War · Corinthian War · Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) · Social War (357–355 BC) · Rise of Macedon · Wars of Alexander the Great · Wars over Alexander's empire · Lamian War · Chremonidean War · Cleomenean War · Social War (220–217 BC) · Cretan War · Aetolian War · War against Nabis · Maccabean Revolt Wars of the Roman Republic Roman-Latin wars (First Latin War (Battle of Lake Regillus) · Second Latin War) · Samnite Wars · Pyrrhic War · Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) · Macedonian Wars (Illyrian · First Macedonian · Second Macedonian · Seleucid · Third Macedonian · Fourth Macedonian) · Jugurthine War · Cimbrian War · Roman Servile Wars (First · Second · Third) · Social War · Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (First · Second) · Mithridatic Wars (First · Second · Third) · Gallic Wars · Julius Caesar's civil war · End of the Republic (Post-Caesarian · Liberators' · Sicilian · Fulvia's · Final) Wars of the Roman Empire Germanic Wars (Marcomannic · Alamannic · Gothic · Visigothic) · Wars in Britain · Wars of Boudica · Armenian War · Civil War of 69 · Jewish Wars · Domitian's Dacian War · Trajan's Dacian Wars · Parthian Wars · Roman–Persian Wars · Civil Wars of the Third Century · Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Military history [hide] v · t · e Roman emperors Principate 27 BC – 235 AD Augustus · Tiberius · Caligula · Claudius · Nero · Galba · Otho · Vitellius · Vespasian · Titus · Domitian · Nerva · Trajan · Hadrian · Antoninus Pius · Marcus Aurelius with Lucius Verus · Commodus · Pertinax · Didius Julianus · Septimius Severus · Caracalla · Geta · Macrinus with Diadumenian · Elagabalus · Alexander Severus Crisis 235–284 Maximinus Thrax · Gordian I and Gordian II · Pupienus and Balbinus · Gordian III · Philip the Arab · Decius with Herennius Etruscus · Hostilian · Trebonianus Gallus with Volusianus · Aemilianus · Valerian · Gallienus with Saloninus · Claudius Gothicus · Quintillus · Aurelian · Tacitus · Florianus · Probus · Carus · Carinus · Numerian Dominate 284–395 Diocletian · Maximian · Constantius Chlorus · Galerius · Severus · Maxentius · Maximinus Daia · Licinius with Valerius Valens and Martinianus · Constantine the Great · Constantine II · Constans I · Constantius II with Vetranio · Julian · Jovian · Valentinian I · Valens · Gratian · Valentinian II · Theodosius I Western Empire 395–480 Honorius with Constantine III · Constantius III · Joannes · Valentinian III · Petronius Maximus · Avitus · Majorian · Libius Severus · Anthemius · Olybrius · Glycerius · Julius Nepos · Romulus Augustulus Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204 Arcadius · Theodosius II · Marcian · Leo I the Thracian · Leo II · Zeno · Basiliscus · Anastasius I · Justin I · Justinian I · Justin II · Tiberius II Constantine · Maurice · Phocas · Heraclius · Constantine III · Heraklonas · Constans II · Constantine IV · Justinian II · Leontios · Tiberios III · Philippikos · Anastasios II · Theodosios III · Leo III the Isaurian · Constantine V · Artabasdos · Leo IV the Khazar · Constantine VI · Irene · Nikephoros I · Staurakios · Michael I Rangabe · Leo V the Armenian · Michael II the Amorian · Theophilos · Michael III · Basil I the Macedonian · Leo VI the Wise · Alexander · Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos · Romanos I Lekapenos · Romanos II · Nikephoros II Phokas · John I Tzimiskes · Basil II · Constantine VIII · Zoe · Romanos III Argyros · Michael IV the Paphlagonian · Michael V Kalaphates · Constantine IX Monomachos · Theodora · Michael VI Bringas · Isaac I Komnenos · Constantine X Doukas · Romanos IV Diogenes · Michael VII Doukas · Nikephoros III Botaneiates · Alexios I Komnenos · John II Komnenos · Manuel I Komnenos · Alexios II Komnenos · Andronikos I Komnenos · Isaac II Angelos · Alexios III Angelos · Alexios IV Angelos · Alexios V Doukas Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261 Constantine Laskaris · Theodore I Laskaris · John III Doukas Vatatzes · Theodore II Laskaris · John IV Laskaris Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453 Michael VIII Palaiologos · Andronikos II Palaiologos · Michael IX Palaiologos · Andronikos III Palaiologos · John V Palaiologos · John VI Kantakouzenos · Matthew Kantakouzenos · Andronikos IV Palaiologos · John VII Palaiologos · Andronikos V Palaiologos · Manuel II Palaiologos · John VIII Palaiologos · Constantine XI Palaiologos Ancient Greece was a Greek civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period[citation needed] of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era.[1] Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and Europe, for which reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture.[ Ancient Greece Outline · Timeline Periods Cycladic civilization · Minoan civilization · Mycenaean civilization · Greek Dark Ages · Archaic period · Classical Greece · Hellenistic Greece · Roman Greece Geography Aegean Sea · Aeolis · Alexandria · Antioch · Crete · Cyprus · Cappadocia · Doris · Hellespont · Ephesus · Epirus · Ionian Sea · Ionia · Macedonia · Magna Graecia · Miletus · Pergamon · Peloponnesus · Pontus · Ancient Greek colonies City states Argos · Athens · Byzantium · Chalkis · Corinth · Megalopolis · Rhodes · Syracuse · Sparta · Thebes Politics Athenian democracy (Agora · Areopagus · Ecclesia · Graphē paranómōn · Heliaia · Ostracism) · Boeotarch · Boule · 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Anaximenes · Antisthenes · Aristotle · Democritus · Diogenes of Sinope · Epicurus · Empedocles · Heraclitus · Hypatia · Leucippus · Gorgias · Parmenides · Plato · Protagoras · Pythagoras · Socrates · Thales · Zeno Authors Aeschylus · Aesop · Alcaeus · Archilochus · Aristophanes · Bacchylides · Euripides · Herodotus · Hesiod · Hipponax · Homer · Ibycus · Lucian · Menander · Mimnermus · Pindar · Plutarch · Polybius · Sappho · Simonides · Sophocles · Stesichorus · Thucydides · Theognis · Timocreon · Tyrtaeus · Xenophon Others Agesilaus II · Agis II · Alexander the Great · Alcibiades · Aratus · Archimedes · Aspasia · Demosthenes · Epaminondas · Euclid · Hipparchus · Hippocrates · Leonidas · Lycurgus · Lysander · Milo of Croton · Miltiades · Pausanias · Pericles · Philip of Macedon · Philopoemen · Ptolemy · Pyrrhus · Solon · Themistocles Groups Playwrights · Poets · Philosophers · Tyrants Cultures Ancient Greek tribes · Greeks · Thracian Greeks · Ancient Macedonians Arts Architecture · 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WikiProject WikiProject [hide] v · t · e Classical antiquity by region Europa Graecia · Italia · Gallia · Dacia · Thracia · Illyria · Hispania · Britannia · Germania Asia Scythia · Anatolia · Syria · Arabia Africa Libya · Aegyptus [hide] v · t · e Ancient Greek and Roman wars Wars of ancient Greece Trojan War · First Messenian War · Second Messenian War · Lelantine War · Sicilian Wars · Greco-Persian Wars · Aeginetan War · Wars of the Delian League · Samian War · Peloponnesian War · Corinthian War · Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) · Social War (357–355 BC) · Rise of Macedon · Wars of Alexander the Great · Wars over Alexander's empire · Lamian War · Chremonidean War · Cleomenean War · Social War (220–217 BC) · Cretan War · Aetolian War · War against Nabis · Maccabean Revolt Wars of the Roman Republic Roman-Latin wars (First Latin War (Battle of Lake Regillus) · Second Latin War) · Samnite Wars · Pyrrhic War · Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) · Macedonian Wars (Illyrian · First Macedonian · Second Macedonian · Seleucid · Third Macedonian · Fourth Macedonian) · Jugurthine War · Cimbrian War · Roman Servile Wars (First · Second · Third) · Social War · Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (First · Second) · Mithridatic Wars (First · Second · Third) · Gallic Wars · Julius Caesar's civil war · End of the Republic (Post-Caesarian · Liberators' · Sicilian · Fulvia's · Final) Wars of the Roman Empire Germanic Wars (Marcomannic · Alamannic · Gothic · Visigothic) · Wars in Britain · Wars of Boudica · Armenian War · Civil War of 69 · Jewish Wars · Domitian's Dacian War · Trajan's Dacian Wars · Parthian Wars · Roman–Persian Wars · Civil Wars of the Third Century · Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Condition: In Good Condition for their age almost 200 years old, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Year of Issue: 1825 1826, Denomination: Shilling, Collections/ Bulk Lots: 4 Georgian Shillings, Era: Milled (1816-1837)

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