Seller: highrating_lowprice (20,576) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 231498323407 Item: i48290 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Constantine X - Byzantine Emperor: 25 December 1059 - 21 May 1067 A.D. - Bronze Follis 32mm (7.92 grams) Struck at the mint of Constantinople circa 1059-1067 A.D. Reference: Sear 1854 ┼ЄMMANOVHΛ. - Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. ┼KWN RACIΛЄVC O ΔOVK - Bust facing, bearded, wearing crown and loros, and holding cross and akakia. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Constantine X Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ι΄ Δούκας, Kōnstantinos X Doukas), (1006 – May, 1067) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067. Reign Constantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia . Constantine gained influence after he married, as his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa , the niece of Patriarch Michael Keroularios . In 1057, Constantine supported the usurpation of Isaac I Komnenos , but gradually sided with the court bureaucracy against the new emperor's reforms. In spite of this tacit opposition, Constantine was chosen as successor by the ailing Isaac in November, 1059, under the influence of Michael Psellos . Isaac abdicated and on November 24 , 1059 , Constantine X Doukas was crowned emperor. The new emperor quickly associated two of his young sons in power, appointed his brother John Doukas as kaisar (Caesar) and embarked on a policy favorable to the interests of the court bureaucracy and the church. Severely undercutting the training and financial support for the armed forces, Constantine X fatally weakened Byzantine defences (by disbanding the Armenian local militia of 50,000 men) at a crucial point of time, coinciding with the westward advance of the Seljuk Turks and their Turcoman allies. Constantine became naturally unpopular with the supporters of Isaac within the military aristocracy, who attempted to assassinate him in 1061; he was also unpopular with the general population, after he raised taxes to try to pay the army at long last. Constantine lost most of Byzantine Italy to the Normans under Robert Guiscard , except for the territory around Bari, though a resurgence of interest in retaining Apulia occurred under his watch and he appointed at least four catepans of Italy : Miriarch , Maruli , Sirianus , and Mabrica . He also suffered invasions from Alp Arslan in Asia Minor in 1064 and the Uzes in the Balkans in 1065. Already old and unhealthy when he came to power, he died on May 22 , 1067 and was succeeded by his young sons under the regency of their mother Eudokia Makrembolitissa. Jesus Jesus depicted as the Good Shepherd (stained glass at St John's Ashfield) Born 7–2 BC Judea, Roman Empire Died 30–36 AD Judea, Roman Empire Cause of death Crucifixion Home town Nazareth, Galilee Jesus (/səziːdʒˈ/; Greek: Ἰησοῦς Iesous; 7–2 BC to 30–36 AD), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God. Christians believe Jesus to be the awaited Messiah of the Old Testament and refer to him as Jesus Christ or simply Christ, a name that is also used by non-Christians. Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that a historical Jesus existed, although there is little agreement on the reliability of the gospel narratives and their assertions of his divinity. Most scholars agree that Jesus was a Jewishteacher from Galilee, was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman prefect, Pontius Pilate. Scholars have constructed various portraits of the historical Jesus, which often depict him as having one or more of the following roles: the leader of an apocalyptic movement, Messiah, a charismatic healer, a sage and philosopher, or an egalitarian social reformer. Scholars have correlated the New Testament accounts with non-Christian historical records to arrive at an estimated chronology of Jesus' life. Most Christians believe that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of a virgin, performed miracles, founded the Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven, from which hewill return. The majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, who is the Second Person of the Holy Trinity. A few Christian groups reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural. In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets. To Muslims, Jesus is a bringer of scripture and the child of a virgin birth, but neither divine nor the victim of crucifixion. Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh. Bahá'í scripture almost never refers to Jesus as the Messiah, but calls him a Manifestation of God. Etymology of names A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes supplemented with the father's name or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the Christian Bible, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth" (Matthew 26:71), "Joseph's son" (Luke 4:12), and "Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph" (John 1:45). The name Jesus, which occurs in a number of languages, is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iesous). The Greek form is a rendition of the Aramaic ישוע (Yeshua), which is derived from the Hebrew יהושע (Yehoshua). The nameYeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus. The first-century works of historian Flavius Josephus refer to at least twenty different people with this name. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is generally given as "Yahwehsaves", "Yahweh will save", or "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ". The word Christ is derived from the Greek Χριστός (Christos), which is a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Masiah), meaning the "anointed" and usually transliterated into English as "Messiah". Christians designate Jesus as Christ because they believe he is the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ"—but originally it was a title. Since the first century, the term "Christian" (meaning "one who owes allegiance to the person of Christ") is used to identify the followers of Jesus. Chronology Judea and Galilee at the time of Jesus Most scholars agree that Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was born around the beginning of the first century and died between 30 and 36 AD in Judea. Amy-Jill Levine states that the general scholarly consensus is that Jesus was a contemporary of John the Baptist and was crucified by Roman governor Pontius Pilate, who reigned from 26 to 36 AD. Most scholars hold that Jesus lived in Galilee and Judea and did not preach or study elsewhere. The gospels offer several clues concerning the year of Jesus' birth. Matthew 2:1 associates the birth of Jesus with the reign of Herod the Great, who died around 4 BC, and Luke 1:5 mentions that Herod was on the throne shortly before the birth of Jesus. Luke's gospel also associates the birth with the Census of Quirinius. Luke 3:23 states that Jesus was "about thirty years of age" at the start of his ministry, which according to Acts 10:37–38 was preceded by John's ministry, which according to Luke 3:1–2 began in the 15th year of Tiberius' reign (28 or 29 AD). By collating the gospel accounts with historical data, along with using various other methods, most scholars arrive a date of birth between 6 and 4 BC, but some propose a wider range between 7 and 2 BC. The years of Jesus' ministry have been estimated using several different approaches. One approach applies the reference in Luke 3:1–2, Acts 10:37–38 and the dates of Tiberius' reign, which are well known. This gives a date of around 28–29 AD for the start of Jesus' ministry. Another approach uses the statement about the temple in John 2:13–20, which states that the temple in Jerusalem was in its 46th year of construction at the start of Jesus' ministry, together withJosephus' statement that the temple's reconstruction was started by Herod in the 18th year of his reign, to estimate a date around 27–29 AD. Another method uses the date of the death of John the Baptist and the marriage of Herod Antipas toHerodias, based on the writings of Josephus, and correlates it with Matthew 14:4 and Mark 6:18. Given that most scholars date the marriage of Herod and Herodias as AD 28–35, this yields a date about 28–29 AD. A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the Crucifixion of Jesus, leading most scholars to agree that he died between 30 and 36 AD. The gospels state that the event occurred during the prefecture of Pilate, who was the Roman governor of Judea from 26 AD until 36 AD. Scholars believe the Crucifixion occurred before the conversion of Paul, which is estimated at around 33–36 AD. Astronomers since Isaac Newton have tried to estimate the precise date of the Crucifixion, the most widely accepted dates being April 7, 30 AD, and April 3, 33 AD (both Julian). Life and teachings in the New Testament The four canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are the main sources for the biography of Jesus, but other parts of the New Testament, such as the Pauline epistles, which were probably written decades before the gospels, also include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23–26. The Acts of the Apostles (10:37–38 and 19:4) refers to the early ministry of Jesus and its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1–11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus (also mentioned in 1 Timothy 3:16) than the canonical gospels do. Canonical gospel accounts A 3rd-century Greek papyrus of Luke Not everything contained in the New Testament gospels is considered to be historically reliable. Elements whose historical authenticity are disputed include the two accounts of the Nativity, as well as the Resurrection and certain details about the Crucifixion. Views on the gospels range from their being inerrant descriptions of the life of Jesus to their providing no historical information about his life. Three of the four canonical gospels, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, are known as the Synoptic Gospels, from the Greek σύν (syn "together") and ὄψις (opsis "view"). According to the majority viewpoint, the Synoptic Gospels are the primary sources of historical information about Jesus. They are very similar in content, narrative arrangement, language and paragraph structure. Scholars generally agree that it is impossible to find any direct literary relationship between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John. In general, the authors of the New Testament showed little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus or in synchronizing the episodes of his life with the secular history of the age. As stated in John 21:25, the gospels do not claim to provide an exhaustive list of the events in the life of Jesus. The accounts were primarily written as theological documents in the context of early Christianity, with timelines as a secondary consideration. One manifestation of the gospels as theological documents rather than historical chronicles is that they devote about one third of their text to just seven days, namely the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem, referred to as Passion Week. Although the gospels do not provide enough details to satisfy the demands of modern historians regarding exact dates, it is possible to draw from them a general picture of the life story of Jesus. The gospel accounts sometimes differ in the ordering of the parables, miracles, and other events. While the flow of the some events, such as the Baptism, Transfiguration, and Crucifixion of Jesus, and his interactions with the Apostles, are shared among the Synoptic Gospels, events such as the Transfiguration do not appear in John's Gospel, which also differs on other matters, such as the Cleansing of the Temple. Since the second century, attempts have been made to harmonize the gospel accounts into a single narrative, Tatian's Diatesseron perhaps being the first. The gospels include a number of discourses by Jesus on specific occasions, such as the Sermon on the Mount and the Farewell Discourse. They also include over 30 parables spread throughout the narrative, often with themes that relate to the sermons. John 14:10 stresses the importance of the words of Jesus and attributes them to the authority of God the Father. The gospel descriptions of Jesus' miracles are often accompanied by records of his teachings. Genealogy and Nativity "Adoration of the Shepherds" by Gerard van Honthorst, 1622 Accounts of the genealogy and Nativity of Jesus appear in the New Testament only in the gospels of Luke and Matthew. Outside the New Testament, documents exist that are more or less contemporary with Jesus and the gospels, but few shed any light on biographical details of his life, and these two gospel accounts remain the main sources of information on the genealogy and Nativity. Matthew begins his gospel with the genealogy of Jesus, before giving an account of Jesus' birth. He traces Jesus' ancestry to Abraham through David. Luke 3:22 discusses the genealogy after describing the Baptism of Jesus, when the voice from Heaven addresses Jesus and identifies him as the Son of God. Luke traces Jesus' ancestry through Adam to God. The Nativity is a prominent element in the Gospel of Luke, comprising over 10 percent of the text and being three times as long as Matthew's Nativity text. Luke's account emphasizes events before the birth of Jesus and centers on Mary, while Matthew's mostly covers those after the birth and centers on Joseph. Both accounts state that Jesus was born to Joseph and Mary, his betrothed, in Bethlehem, and both support the doctrine of the virgin birth, according to which Jesus was miraculously conceived by the Holy Spirit in Mary's womb when she was still a virgin. In Luke 1:31–38 Mary learns from the angel Gabriel that she will conceive and bear a child called Jesus through the action of the Holy Spirit. Following his betrothal to Mary, Joseph is troubled (Matthew 1:19–20) because Mary is pregnant, but in the first of Joseph's three dreams an angel assures him not be afraid to take Mary as his wife, because her child was conceived by the Holy Spirit. When Mary is due to give birth, she and Joseph travel from Nazareth to Joseph's ancestral home in Bethlehem to register in the census of Quirinius. There Mary gives birth to Jesus, and as they have found no room in the inn, she places the newborn in a manger (Luke 2:1–7). An angel visits some shepherds and sends them to adore the child (Luke 2:22). After presenting Jesus at the Temple, Joseph and Mary return home to Nazareth. In Matthew 1:1–12, wise men or Magi from the East bring gifts to the young Jesus as the King of the Jews. Herod hears of Jesus' birth and, wanting him killed, orders the murder of young male children in Bethlehem. But an angel warns Joseph in his second dream, and the family flees to Egypt, later to return and settle in Nazareth. Early life and profession Jesus' childhood home is identified in the gospels of Luke and Matthew as the town of Nazareth in Galilee. Mary's husband Joseph appears in descriptions of Jesus' childhood, but no mention is made of him thereafter. The New Testament books of Matthew, Mark, and Galatians mention Jesus' brothers and sisters, but the Greek word adelphos in these verses has also been translated as "kinsman", rather than the more usual "brother". Originally written in Koine Greek, the Gospel of Mark calls Jesus in Mark 6:3 a τέκτων (tekton), usually understood to mean a carpenter, and Matthew 13:55 says he was the son of a tekton. Although traditionally translated as "carpenter", tekton is a rather general word (from the same root that leads to "technical" and "technology") that could cover makers of objects in various materials, even builders. Beyond the New Testament accounts, the association of Jesus with woodworking is a constant in the traditions of the first and second centuries. Justin Martyr (d. ca. 165) wrote that Jesus made yokes and ploughs. Baptism and temptation Trevisani's depiction of the typical baptismal scene with the sky opening and the Holy Spirit descending as a dove, 1723 Gospel accounts of the Baptism of Jesus are always preceded by information about John the Baptist and his ministry. They show John preaching penance and repentance for the remission of sins and encouraging the giving of alms to the poor (Luke 3:11) as he baptized people in the area of the River Jordan around Perea at about the time when Jesus began his ministry. The Gospel of John (1:28) initially specifies "Bethany beyond the Jordan", that is Bethabara in Perea, and later John 3:23 refers to further baptisms in Ænon "because there was much water there". In the gospels, John had been foretelling (Luke 3:16) the arrival of someone "mightier than I", and Paul the Apostle also refers to this (Acts 19:4). In Matthew 3:14, on meeting Jesus, the Baptist says, "I have need to be baptized of thee", but Jesus persuades John to baptize him nonetheless. After he does so and Jesus emerges from the water, the sky opens and a voice from Heaven states, "This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased" (Matthew 3:17). The Holy Spirit then descends upon Jesus as a dove. In John 1:29–33, rather than a direct narrative, the Baptist bears witness to the episode. This is one of two events described in the gospels where a voice from Heaven calls Jesus "Son", the other being the Transfiguration. After the baptism, the Synoptic Gospels describe the Temptation of Christ, in which Jesus resisted temptations from the devil while fasting for forty days and nights in the Judaean Desert. The Gospel of John omits the Temptation and proceeds directly to the first encounter between Jesus and two of his future disciples (John 1:35–37): on the day after the Baptism, the Baptist sees Jesus again and calls him the Lamb of God; two disciples of John the Baptist hear this and follow Jesus. Ministry A 19th-century painting depicting the Sermon on the Mount by Carl Bloch The gospels present John the Baptist's ministry as the precursor of that of Jesus. Starting with his Baptism, Jesus begins his ministry in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan, when he is "about thirty years of age" (Luke 3:23). He then travels, preaches and performs miracles, eventually completing his ministry with the Last Supper with his disciples in Jerusalem. Scholars divide the ministry of Jesus into several stages. The Galilean ministry begins when Jesus returns to Galilee from the Judaean Desert after rebuffing the temptation of Satan. Jesus preaches around Galilee, and in Matthew 4:18–20, his first disciples, who will eventually form the core of the early Church, encounter him and begin to travel with him. This period includes the Sermon on the Mount, one of Jesus' major discourses. This period also includes the Calming the storm, Feeding the 5000, Walking on water, and a number of other miracles and parables. This period ends with the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration. As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Perean ministry, he returns to the area where he was baptized, about one-third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the Jordan (John 10:40–42). The final ministry in Jerusalem begins with the Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday. In the Synoptic Gospels, during that week Jesus drives the money changers from the Temple and Judas bargains to betray him. However, John's Gospel places the Temple incident during the early part of Jesus' ministry, and scholars differ on whether these are one or two separate incidents. This period culminates in the Last Supper and the Farewell Discourse. Teachings and preachings Jesus cleansing a leper – medieval mosaic from theMonreale Cathedral Commentaries often discuss the teachings of Jesus in terms of his "words and works". The words include a number of sermons, as well as parables that appear throughout the narrative of the Synoptic Gospels (the Gospel of John includes no narrative parables). The works include the miracles and other acts performed during Jesus' ministry. Although the canonical gospels are the major source of the teachings of Jesus, the Pauline epistles provide some of the earliest written accounts. The New Testament presents the teachings of Jesus not merely as his own preaching, but as divine revelation. John the Baptist, for example, states in John 3:34: "For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for he giveth not the Spirit by measure." In John 7:16 Jesus says, "My teaching is not mine, but his that sent me." He asserts the same thing in John 14:10: "Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I say unto you I speak not from myself: but the Father abiding in me doeth his works." In Matthew 11:27 Jesus claims divine knowledge, stating: "no one knoweth the Son, save the Father; neither doth any know the Father, save the Son". The Kingdom of God (also called the Kingdom of Heaven in Matthew) is one of the key elements of Jesus' teachings in the New Testament. Jesus promises inclusion in the Kingdom for those who accept his message. He calls people to repent their sins and to devote themselves completely to God. Jesus tells his followers to adhere strictly to Jewish law, although he has broken the law himself, especially regarding the Sabbath. When asked what the greatest commandment is, Jesus replies: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind ... And a second like [unto it] is this, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" (Matthew 22:37–39). Other ethical teachings of Jesus include loving one's enemies, refraining from hatred and lust, and turning the other cheek (Matthew 5:21–44). In the gospels, the approximately thirty parables form about one third of Jesus' recorded teachings. The parables appear within longer sermons and at other places in the narrative. They often contain symbolism, and usually relate the physical world to the spiritual. Common themes in these tales include the kindness and generosity of God and the perils of transgression. Some of his parables, such as the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11–32), are relatively simple, while others, such as theGrowing Seed (Mark 4:26–29), are more abstruse. The gospel episodes that include descriptions of the miracles of Jesus also often include teachings, and the miracles themselves involve an element of teaching. Many of the miracles teach the importance of faith. In the cleansing of ten lepers and the raising of Jairus' daughter, for instance, the beneficiaries are told that their healing was due to their faith. When Jesus' opponents accuse him of performing exorcisms by the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons, Jesus counters that he performs miracles by the "Spirit of God" (Matthew 12:28) or "finger of God" (Luke 11:20). Proclamation as Christ and Transfiguration Transfiguration of Jesusdepicting him with Elijah, Mosesand 3 apostles by Carracci, 1594 At about the middle of each of the three Synoptic Gospels, two related episodes mark a turning point in the narrative: the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration of Jesus. They take place near Caesarea Philippi, just north of the Sea of Galilee, at the beginning of the final journey to Jerusalem that ends in the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus. These events mark the beginnings of the gradual disclosure of the identity of Jesus to his disciples and his prediction of his own suffering and death. Peter's Confession begins as a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples in Matthew 16:13, Mark 8:27 and Luke 9:18. Jesus asks his disciples, "who say ye that I am?" Simon Peter answers, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God" (Matthew 16:15–16). Jesus replies, "Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jonah: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father who is in heaven." With this blessing, Jesus affirms that the titles Peter ascribes to him are divinely revealed, thus unequivocally declaring himself to be both Christ and the Son of God. The account of the Transfiguration appears in Matthew 17:1–9, Mark 9:2–8, and Luke 9:28–36. Jesus takes Peter and two other apostles up an unnamed mountain, where "he was transfigured before them; and his face did shine as the sun, and his garments became white as the light." A bright cloud appears around them, and a voice from the cloud says, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him" (Matthew 17:1–9). The Transfiguration reaffirms that Jesus is the Son of God (as in his Baptism), and the command "hear ye him" identifies him as God's messenger and mouthpiece. Final week: betrayal, arrest, trial, and death The description of the last week of the life of Jesus (often called Passion Week) occupies about one third of the narrative in the canonical gospels, starting with a description of the Triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his Crucifixion.The last week in Jerusalem is the conclusion of the journey through Perea and Judea that Jesus began in Galilee. Just before the entry into Jerusalem, the Gospel of John includes the Raising of Lazarus, which increases the tension between Jesus and the authorities. Final entry into Jerusalem A painting of Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem, by Jean-Léon Gérôme in 1897 In the four canonical gospels, Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem takes place at the beginning of the last week of his life, a few days before the Last Supper, marking the beginning of the Passion narrative. The day of entry into Jerusalem is identified by Mark and John as Sunday and by Matthew as Monday; Luke does not identify the day. After leaving Bethany Jesus rides a young donkey into Jerusalem. People along the way lay cloaks and small branches of trees in front of him and sing part of Psalm 118:25–26. The cheering crowds greeting Jesus as he enters Jerusalem add to the tension between him and the authorities. In the three Synoptic Gospels, entry into Jerusalem is followed by the Cleansing of the Temple, in which Jesus expels the money changers from the temple, accusing them of turning it into a den of thieves through their commercial activities. This is the only account of Jesus using physical force in any of the gospels. John 2:13–16 includes a similar narrative much earlier, and scholars debate whether the passage refers to the same episode. The Synoptics include a number of well-known parables and sermons, such as the Widow's mite and the Second Coming Prophecy, during the week that follows. The Synoptics record conflicts that took place between Jesus and the Jewish elders during Passion Week in episodes such as the Authority of Jesus questioned and the Woes of the Pharisees, in which Jesus criticizes their hypocrisy. Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve apostles, approaches the Jewish elders and strikes a bargain with them, in which he undertakes to betray Jesus and hand him over to them for a reward of thirty silver coins. Last Supper The Last Supper, depicted in this 16th-century painting by Joan de Joanes. The Last Supper is the final meal that Jesus shares with his twelve apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is mentioned in all four canonical gospels, and Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians (11:23–26) also refers to it. During the meal, Jesus predicts that one of his apostles will betray him. Despite each Apostle's assertion that he would not betray him, Jesus reiterates that the betrayer would be one of those present. Matthew 26:23–25 and John 13:26–27 specifically identify Judas as the traitor. In the Synoptics, Jesus takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the disciples, saying, "This is my body which is given for you". He then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood" (Luke 22:19–20). Although the Gospel of John does not include a description of the bread-and-wine ritual during the Last Supper, most scholars agree that John 6:58–59 (the Bread of Life Discourse) has a eucharistic character and resonates with the institution narratives in the Synoptic Gospels and in the Pauline writings on the Last Supper. In all four gospels, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him three times before the rooster crows the next morning. In Luke and John, the prediction is made during the Supper (Luke 22:34, John 22:34). In Matthew and Mark, the prediction is made after the Supper, and Jesus also predicts that all his disciples will desert him (Matthew 26:31–34, Mark 14:27–30). The Gospel of John provides the only account of Jesus washing his disciples' feet before the meal. John also includes a long sermon by Jesus, preparing his disciples (now without Judas) for his departure. Chapters 14–17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse and are a significant source of Christological content. Agony in the Garden, betrayal and arrest A 17th-century depiction of the kiss of Judas and the arrest of Jesus byCaravaggio After the Last Supper, Jesus, accompanied by his disciples, takes a walk to pray. Matthew and Mark identify the place as the garden of Gethsemane, while Luke identifies it as the Mount of Olives. Judas appears in the garden, accompanied by a crowd that includes the Jewish priests and elders and people with weapons. He kisses Jesus to identify him to the crowd, which then arrests Jesus. In an attempt to stop them, one of Jesus' disciples uses a sword to cut off the ear a man in the crowd. Luke states that Jesus miraculously heals the wound, and John and Matthew report that Jesus criticizes the violent act, enjoining his disciples not to resist his arrest. In Matthew 26:52 Jesus says, "all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword". After Jesus' arrest, his disciples go into hiding, and Peter, when questioned, thrice denies knowing Jesus. After the third denial, he hears the rooster crow and recalls the prediction as Jesus turns to look at him. Peter then weeps bitterly. Trials by the Sanhedrin, Herod and Pilate Jesus in the upper right hand corner, his hands bound behind, is being tried at the high priest's house and turns to look at Peter, in Rembrandt's 1660 depiction ofPeter's denial. After his arrest, Jesus is taken to the Sanhedrin, a Jewish judicial body. The gospel accounts differ on the details of the trials. In Matthew 26:57, Mark 14:53 and Luke 22:54, Jesus is taken to the high priest's house, where he is mocked and beaten that night. Early next morning, the chief priests and scribes lead Jesus away into their council. John 18:12–14 states that Jesus is first taken to Annas, the father-in-law of Caiaphas, and then to Caiaphas. All four gospels report the Denial of Peter, where Peter denies knowing Jesus three times before the rooster crows, as predicted by Jesus. During the trials Jesus speaks very little, mounts no defense and gives very infrequent and indirect answers to the questions of the priests, prompting an officer to slap him. In Matthew 26:62 Jesus' unresponsiveness leads the high priest to ask him, "Answerest thou nothing?" In Mark 14:61 the high priest then asks Jesus, "Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?". Jesus replies "I am" and then predicts the coming of the Son of Man. This provokes the high priest to tear his own robe in anger and to accuse Jesus of blasphemy. In Matthew and Luke, Jesus' answer is less direct. In Matthew 26:64 he responds "Thou hast said", and in Luke 22:70 he says, "Ye say that I am". Taking Jesus to Pilate's Court, the Jewish elders ask Roman governor Pontius Pilate to judge and condemn Jesus, accusing him of claiming to be the King of the Jews. The use of the word "king" is central to the discussion between Jesus and Pilate. In John 18:36 Jesus states, "My kingdom is not of this world", but he does not directly deny being the King of the Jews. In Luke 23:7–15 Pilate realizes that Jesus is a Galilean, thus coming under the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas. Pilate sends Jesus to Herod to be tried, but Jesus says almost nothing in response to Herod's questions. Herod and his soldiers mock Jesus, put a gorgeous robe on him to make him look like a king, and send him back to Pilate. Pilate then calls together the Jewish elders and says that he has "found no fault in this man". As a Passover custom, Pilate allows one prisoner chosen by the crowd to be released. He gives the crowd a choice between Jesus and a murderer called Barabbas. Persuaded by the elders (Matthew 27:20), the mob chooses to release Barabbas and crucify Jesus. Pilate writes a sign that reads "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" (abbreviated as INRI in depictions) to be affixed to the cross of Jesus (John 19:19). He then scourges Jesus and send him to be cricified. The soldiers mock Jesus as the King of Jews by clothing him in a purple robe (which signifies royal status) and placing a Crown of Thorns on his head. They beat and taunt him before taking him to Calvary, also called Golgotha, for crucifixion. Crucifixion and burial Pietro Perugino's depiction of the Crucifixion as Stabat Mater, 1482 Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four canonical gospels. After the trials, Jesus makes his way to Calvary by a route known traditionally as the Via Dolorosa. The three Synoptic Gospels indicate that Simon of Cyrene assists him, having been compelled by the Romans to do so. In Luke 23:27–28 Jesus tells the women in the multitude of people following him not to weep for him but for themselves and their children. At Calvary Jesus is offered wine mixed with gall, a concoction usually offered as a painkiller. Matthew and Mark state that he refuses it. The soldiers then crucify Jesus and cast lots for his clothes. Above Jesus' head on the cross is Pilate's inscription "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews", and the soldiers and passers-by mock him about it. Jesus is crucified between two convicted thieves, one of whom rebukes Jesus, while the other defends him. The Roman soldiers break the two thieves' legs (a procedure designed to hasten death in a crucifixion), but they do not break those of Jesus, as he is already dead. One soldier, traditionally identified as Saint Longinus, pierces Jesus' side with a lance, and water flows out. In Mark 15:39, impressed by the events, the Roman centurion affirms that Jesus was the Son of God. On the same day, Joseph of Arimathea, with Pilate's permission and with Nicodemus' help, removes Jesus' body from the cross, wraps him in a clean cloth and buries him in a new rock-hewn tomb. In Matthew 27:62–66, on the following day the Jews ask Pilate for the tomb to be sealed with a stone and placed under guard to ensure the body will remain there. Resurrection and ascension New Testament accounts of Jesus' resurrection state that on the first day of the week after the crucifixion (typically interpreted as a Sunday), his tomb is discovered to be empty and his followers encounter him risen from the dead. His followers arrive at the tomb early in the morning and meet either one or two beings (men or angels) dressed in bright robes. Mark 16:9 and John 20:15 indicate that Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene first, and Luke 16:9 states that she is one of themyrrhbearers. Mary Magdalene's encounter with Jesus after his resurrection, depicted byAlexander Andreyevich Ivanov in 1835 After the discovery of the empty tomb, Jesus makes a series of appearances to the disciples. These include the Doubting Thomas episode and the appearance on the road to Emmaus, where Jesus meets two disciples. The catch of 153 fish is a miracle by the Sea of Galilee, after which Jesus encourages Peter to serve his followers. Before he ascends into heaven, Jesus commissions his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. Luke 24:51 states that Jesus is then "carried up into heaven". The Ascension account is elaborated in Acts 1:1–11 and mentioned 1 Timothy 3:16. In Acts, forty days after the Resurrection, as the disciples look on, "he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight". 1 Peter 3:22 describes Jesus as being on "the right hand of God, having gone into heaven". The Acts of the Apostles describe several appearances by Jesus after his Ascension. Acts 7:55 describes a vision experienced by Stephen just before his death. On the road to Damascus, the Apostle Paul is converted to Christianity after seeing a blinding light and hearing a voice saying, "I am Jesus whom thou persecutest". In Acts 9:10–18, Ananias of Damascus is instructed to heal Paul. It is the last conversation with Jesus reported in the Bible until the Book of Revelation, in which a man named John receives a revelation from Jesus concerning the end times. Constantine X Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ι΄ Δούκας, Kōnstantinos X Doukas), (1006 – May, 1067) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067. Reign Constantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia . Constantine gained influence after he married, as his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa , the niece of Patriarch Michael Keroularios . In 1057, Constantine supported the usurpation of Isaac I Komnenos , but gradually sided with the court bureaucracy against the new emperor's reforms. In spite of this tacit opposition, Constantine was chosen as successor by the ailing Isaac in November, 1059, under the influence of Michael Psellos . Isaac abdicated and on November 24 , 1059 , Constantine X Doukas was crowned emperor. The new emperor quickly associated two of his young sons in power, appointed his brother John Doukas as kaisar (Caesar) and embarked on a policy favorable to the interests of the court bureaucracy and the church. Severely undercutting the training and financial support for the armed forces, Constantine X fatally weakened Byzantine defences (by disbanding the Armenian local militia of 50,000 men) at a crucial point of time, coinciding with the westward advance of the Seljuk Turks and their Turcoman allies. Constantine became naturally unpopular with the supporters of Isaac within the military aristocracy, who attempted to assassinate him in 1061; he was also unpopular with the general population, after he raised taxes to try to pay the army at long last. Constantine lost most of Byzantine Italy to the Normans under Robert Guiscard , except for the territory around Bari, though a resurgence of interest in retaining Apulia occurred under his watch and he appointed at least four catepans of Italy : Miriarch , Maruli , Sirianus , and Mabrica . He also suffered invasions from Alp Arslan in Asia Minor in 1064 and the Uzes in the Balkans in 1065. Already old and unhealthy when he came to power, he died on May 22 , 1067 and was succeeded by his young sons under the regency of their mother Eudokia Makrembolitissa. Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped? Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped? After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. After you shipped the order, how long will the mail take? 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