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Seller: ari.books (149) 100%, Location: Moab, Utah, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 283554668939 THE PERSONAL HISTORY OF DAVID COPPERFIELD!FIRST EDITION.Printed in 1850. FIRST EDITION/FIRST PRINTING! This is the rare First Edition of David Copperfield.This is the First Printing, with the error on page 132, line 20, as shown in the pictures. This is the First Edition/First Printing of Charles Dickens's favorite work. David Copperfield was Dickens' favorite child, as mentioned in the preface to the book. This is the rare and highly desirable FIRST PRINTING.With the error on page 132, line 20. With the erroneous word 'screamed' which was later corrected to 'screwed'.As shown in the picture, of page 132, line 20.---->The word 'screamed' is present, and it was later corrected to the word 'screwed'.This is considered the earliest issue of David Copperfield, and is seldom seen. Printed by Bradbury and Evans, London.1850 This book will be exceptionally well protected for shipping via Priority Mail. Printed in 1850.This book is 170 years old! CONDITION: This book is still bound in the original leather binding from 1850. This is the rare and highly desirable First Issue with the error on page 132. This book has generalized usage wear, scuffing, and abrasion. It is still intact and the leather is still supple. The hinges are strongly attached. Internally there is some foxing and usage wear and some looseness, but still an exceedingly rare and desirable First Edition of David Copperfield. Some bangs and scuffs and abrasions to the binding as is visible in the picture. In presentable albeit rustic condition. A gorgeous and exceedingly rare book. This book will make an excellent gift. This book will be exceptionally well protected for shipping via Priority Mail. I believe this book is lacking one or two of the 20+ points in the Smith Bibliography, as it doesn't have the comma on the Traddles plate. Here are some additional points this book definately has: Title page dated 1850; First issue, with date present on engraved title page The six-line errata leaf on page [xv], p.16, line 1 - 'recal' instead of 'recall'; & p. 225, line 22 - 'recal' instead of 'recall'; p. 19, line 39 or 12 lines from the bottom "cha pter ;ut" shows; The rarest and most desirable point in first state is on p. 132, line 20 "screamed" for "screwed", With Chapter XXVII on p. 282 instead of p. 283 as listed in the Contents; and double end quotes on p. 368, line 24 single quote mark on p. 369 p. 387, 45 or 6 lines from the bottom 'coroboration' instead of 'corroboration'; p. 472, 37 or 13 lines from the bottom-- there is no closing of the quotation marks, I don't have current access to the Smith Bibliography to collate all 20+ points, and seeing as it doesn't have the Traddles plate point there seems no reason to check further. 2333 David CopperfieldFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchThis article is about the novel by Charles Dickens. For the American illusionist, see David Copperfield (illusionist). For other uses, see David Copperfield (disambiguation).David Copperfield Cover, first serial edition of 1849AuthorCharles DickensOriginal titleThe Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone RookeryIllustratorHablot Knight Browne (Phiz)Cover artistHablot Knight Browne (Phiz)CountryUnited KingdomLanguageEnglishGenresNovel, BildungsromanPublishedSerialised May 1849 – November 1850; book format 1850PublisherBradbury & EvansMedia typePrintPages624 (first book edition)[1]Preceded byDombey and Son (1848) Followed byBleak House (1852–3) David Copperfield is the eighth novel by Charles Dickens. The novel's full title is The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery (Which He Never Meant to Publish on Any Account).[N 1] It was first published as a serial in 1849–50, and as a book in 1850.The novel features the character David Copperfield, and is written in the first person, as a description of his life until middle age, with his own adventures and the numerous friends and enemies he meets along his way. It is his journey of change and growth from infancy to maturity, as people enter and leave his life and he passes through the stages of his development.It has been called his masterpiece, "the triumph of the art of Dickens",[2][3] which marks a turning point in his work, the point of separation between the novels of youth and those of maturity.[3][4] Though written in the first person, David Copperfield is considered to be more than an autobiography, going beyond this framework in the richness of its themes and the originality of its writing, which makes it a true autobiographical novel.[4][5] In the words of the author, this novel was "a very complicated weaving of truth and invention".[6] Some elements of the novel follow events in Dickens's own life.[7] It was Dickens' favourite among his own novels. In the preface to the 1867 edition, Dickens wrote, "like many fond parents, I have in my heart of hearts a favourite child. And his name is David Copperfield."[8]Dickens wrote this novel without an outline, unlike the way he wrote Dombey and Son, the previous novel. He wrote chapter summaries after the chapters were completed. Some aspects of the story were fixed in his mind from the start, but others, like the obsession of Mr Dick with Charles I, the profession of David Copperfield as a writer, and the sad fate of Dora, were not decided by Dickens until the serial publications were underway; August 1849, December 1849 and May 1850, respectively, were the dates when those decisions were made.[9]At first glance, the work is modeled in the loose and somewhat disjointed way of "personal histories" that was very popular in the United Kingdom of the 18th century;[N 2] but in reality, David Copperfield is a carefully structured and unified novel. It begins, like other novels by Dickens, with a rather bleak painting of the conditions of childhood in Victorian England, notoriously when the troublesome children are parked in infamous boarding schools, then he strives to trace the slow social and intimate ascent of a young man who, painfully providing for the needs of his good aunt while continuing his studies, ends up becoming a writer; the story, writes Paul Davis, of "a Victorian everyman seeking self-understanding".[4]The novel has a primary theme of growth and the changes that occur on the way to maturity. In addition, Dickens included many aspects of Victorian Era life that he wanted to highlight or wished to change, which were primarily integrated into the story, using satire as one device. The plight of prostitutes and the attitude of middle class society to them, the status of women in marriage, the rigid class structure, are aspects that he highlighted, while the system for handling criminals, the quality of schools, and the employment of children in the fast-spreading factories of the 19th century were aspects he wished to influence, to change for the better. He, among other authors, achieved success in bringing about changes regarding child labor and schooling for more children up to age 12.[10]Contents1Plot summary2Characters3Autobiographical novel3.1Fragments of autobiography3.2The autobiographical dimension3.2.1The autobiographical material4Sources and context4.1Dickens's personal past4.2Contemporaneous novels5Development of the novel5.1First inspirations5.2No general plan, but an inspired novel5.3Last incidents in the writing5.4Publication in monthly instalments6Point of view6.1First person narrator6.2Commentary via the illustrations6.3Reader's insight7Recapitulation of plot structure7.1The plot line7.2The necessary summaries7.3Restructuring a posteriori8Themes8.1Bildungsroman8.1.1Different names8.1.2A series of lives8.1.3"Will I be the hero of my own life?"8.1.4The weight of the past8.1.5A series of male models for David8.1.6The hard path to the right balance8.1.7The happiness of maturity with Agnes8.2Social questions8.2.1Victorian child exploitation8.2.2Prison discipline8.2.3Emigration to Australia8.2.4Visions for society8.2.5The middle-class ideology8.2.6Marriage8.2.7The fallen woman8.2.8The exception of Rosa Dartle9Dickens's way of writing9.1Satire and pathos9.1.1Types of character9.1.2Pathos and indulgent humour9.2Theatricality9.3Setting9.4Symbolism9.5Dialect10Literary significance and reception10.1"The privileged child" of Dickens10.2Initial reception10.3Subsequent reputation10.4Opinions of other writers11Illustrations11.1Hablot Knight Browne (Phiz)11.2Other illustrators12Major print editions of David Copperfield12.1Publishing contract12.2Dedication and preface12.3Other editions12.4List of editions13Adaptations13.1Earliest adaptations13.2Radio13.3Film and TV14See also15Notes16References17Bibliography18External linksThe England of David Copperfield.The story follows the life of David Copperfield from childhood to maturity. David was born in Blunderstone, Suffolk, England, six months after the death of his father. David spends his early years in relative happiness with his loving, childish mother and their kindly housekeeper, Clara Peggotty. They call him Davy. When he is seven years old his mother marries Edward Murdstone. To get him out of the way, David is sent to lodge with Peggotty's family in Yarmouth. Her brother, fisherman Mr Peggotty, lives in a house built in an upturned boat on the beach, with his adopted relatives Emily and Ham, and an elderly widow, Mrs Gummidge. "Little Em'ly" is somewhat spoiled by her fond foster father, and David is in love with her. They call him Master Copperfield.On his return, David is given good reason to dislike his stepfather, who believes exclusively in firmness, and has similar feelings for Murdstone's sister Jane, who moves into the house soon afterwards. Between them they tyrannize his poor mother, making her and David's lives miserable, and when, in consequence, David falls behind in his studies, Murdstone attempts to thrash him – partly to further pain his mother. David bites him and soon afterwards is sent away to Salem House, a boarding school, under a ruthless headmaster named Mr Creakle. There he befriends an older boy, James Steerforth, and Tommy Traddles. He develops an impassioned admiration for Steerforth, perceiving him as someone noble, who could do great things if he would, and one who pays attention to him.David goes home for the holidays to learn that his mother has given birth to a baby boy. Shortly after David returns to Salem House, his mother and her baby die, and David returns home immediately. Peggotty marries the local carrier, Mr Barkis. Murdstone sends David to work for a wine merchant in London – a business of which Murdstone is a joint owner. David's landlord, Wilkins Micawber, is arrested for debt and sent to the King's Bench Prison, where he remains for several months, before being released and moving to Plymouth. No one remains to care for David in London, so he decides to run away, with Micawber advising him to head to Dover, to find his only known remaining relative, his eccentric and kind-hearted great-aunt Betsey Trotwood. She had come to Blunderstone at his birth, only to depart in ire upon learning that he was not a girl. However, she takes pity on him and agrees to raise him, despite Murdstone's attempt to regain custody of David, on condition that he always try to 'be as like his sister, Betsey Trotwood' as he can be, meaning that he is to endeavour to emulate the prospective namesake she was disappointed not to have. David's great-aunt renames him "Trotwood Copperfield" and addresses him as "Trot", one of several names David is called by in the novel.David's aunt sends him to a better school than the last he attended. It is run by Dr Strong, whose methods inculcate honour and self-reliance in his pupils. During term, David lodges with the lawyer Mr Wickfield, and his daughter Agnes, who becomes David's friend and confidante. Wickfield's clerk, Uriah Heep, also lives at the house.By devious means, Uriah Heep gradually gains a complete ascendancy over the aging and alcoholic Wickfield, to Agnes's great sorrow. Heep hopes, and maliciously confides to David, that he aspires to marry Agnes. Ultimately with the aid of Micawber, who has been employed by Heep as a secretary, his fraudulent behaviour is revealed. At the end of the book, David encounters him in prison, convicted of attempting to defraud the Bank of England.After completing school, David apprentices to be a proctor. During this time, due to Heep's fraudulent activities, his aunt's fortune has diminished. David toils to make a living. He works mornings and evenings for his former teacher Doctor Strong as a secretary, and also starts to learn shorthand, with the help of his old school-friend Traddles, upon completion reporting parliamentary debate for a newspaper. With considerable moral support from Agnes and his own great diligence and hard work, David ultimately finds fame and fortune as an author, writing fiction.David's romantic but self-serving school friend, Steerforth, also re-acquaints himself with David, but then goes on to seduce and dishonour Emily, offering to marry her off to his manservant Littimer before deserting her in Europe. Her uncle Mr Peggotty manages to find her with the help of Martha, who had grown up in their part of England, and then settled in London. Ham, who had been engaged to marry Emily before the tragedy, dies in a fierce storm off the coast in attempting to succour a ship. Steerforth was aboard the ship and also died. Mr Peggotty takes Emily to a new life in Australia, accompanied by Mrs Gummidge and the Micawbers, where all eventually find security and happiness.David, meanwhile, has fallen completely in love with Dora Spenlow, and then marries her. Their marriage proves troublesome for David in the sense of everyday practical affairs, but he never stops loving her. Dora dies early in their marriage after a miscarriage. After Dora's death, Agnes encourages David to return to normal life and his profession of writing. While living in Switzerland to dispel his grief over so many losses, David realises that he loves Agnes. Upon returning to England, after a failed attempt to conceal his feelings, David finds that Agnes loves him too. They quickly marry and in this marriage, he finds true happiness. David and Agnes then have at least five children, including a daughter named after his great-aunt, Betsey Trotwood.Illustration of David falling in love with Dora Spenlow, by Frank ReynoldsDavid Copperfield – The narrator and protagonist of the novel. David's father, David, Sr, died six months before he was born, and he learns his mother has died when he is at Salem House, on his ninth birthday. He is characterised in the book as having goals in his life, but much to learn to attain maturity.Clara Copperfield – David's affectionate and beautiful mother, described as being innocently childish, who dies while David is at Salem House school. She dies a couple of months after the birth of her second son, who dies a day or so later. That baby's father is Edward Murdstone, her second husband.Clara Peggotty – The faithful servant of the Copperfield family and a lifelong companion to David - she is called by her surname Peggotty within David's family, as her given name is Clara, the same as David's mother; she is also referred to at times as Barkis after her marriage to Mr Barkis. After her husband's death, Peggotty helps to put in order David's rooms in London and then returns to Yarmouth to keep house for her nephew, Ham Peggotty. Following Ham's death, she keeps house for David's aunt, Betsey Trotwood.Betsey Trotwood – David's eccentric and temperamental yet kind-hearted great-aunt; she becomes his guardian after he runs away from the Murdstone and Grinby warehouse in Blackfriars, London. She is present on the night of David's birth but leaves after hearing that Clara Copperfield's child is a boy instead of a girl, and is not seen again until David flees to her house in Dover from London. She is portrayed as affectionate towards David, and defends him and his late mother when Mr Murdstone arrives to take custody of David: she confronts the man and rebukes him for his abuse of David and his mother, then threatens him and drives him off the premises. Universally believed to be a widow, she conceals the existence of her ne'er-do-well husband who occasionally bleeds her for money.Mr Chillip – A shy doctor who assists at David's birth and faces the wrath and anger of Betsey Trotwood after he informs her that Clara's baby is a boy instead of a girl. David meets this doctor each time he returns to the neighborhood of his birth. Mr Chillip, met in London when David Copperfield returns from Switzerland, tells David of the fate of Murdstone's second wife, much the same as the fate of David's mother.Mr Barkis – An aloof carter who declares his intention to marry Peggotty. He says to David: "Tell her, 'Barkis is willin'!' Just so." Peggoty married him after Clara Copperfield died. He is a bit of a miser, and hides his surprisingly vast liquid wealth in a plain box labelled "Old Clothes". He bequeaths most (two-thirds) of his money to his wife, from his savings of £3,000 (equivalent to $264,000 in 2018) when he dies about ten years after the marriage. He leaves annuities for Mr Daniel Peggotty, Little Emily and David from the rest.Edward Murdstone – The main antagonist of the first half of the novel, he is Young David's cruel stepfather who beats him for falling behind in his studies. David reacts by biting Mr Murdstone, who then sends him to Salem House, the private school owned by his friend Mr Creakle. After David's mother dies, Mr Murdstone sends him to work in his factory in London, where he has to clean wine bottles. He appears at Betsey Trotwood's house after David runs away. Mr Murdstone appears to show signs of repentance when confronted by Copperfield's aunt about his treatment of Clara and David, but when David works at Doctor's Commons, he meets Murdstone taking out a marriage license for his next young and trusting wife.Jane Murdstone – Mr Murdstone's equally cruel spinster sister, who moves into the Copperfield house shortly after Mr Murdstone marries Clara Copperfield, taking over the housekeeping. She is the "Confidential Friend" of David's first wife, Dora Spenlow, and is the one who found David's letters to Dora, and creates the scene between David Copperfield and Dora's father, Mr Spenlow. Later, she rejoins her brother and his second wife in a marriage much like the one with David's mother.Daniel Peggotty – Peggotty's brother; a humble but generous Yarmouth fisherman who takes his nephew Ham and niece Emily into his custody after each of them has been orphaned. He welcomes David as a child when holidaying to Yarmouth with Peggotty. When Emily is older and runs away with David's friend Steerforth, he travels around the world in search of her. He eventually finds her in London, and after that, they emigrate to Australia.David and Emily on the beach at Yarmouth, by Harold Copping.Emily (Little Em'ly) – The niece of Daniel Peggotty and his sister Clara Peggotty. She is a childhood friend of David Copperfield, who loved her in his childhood days. On the eve of her wedding to her cousin and fiancé, Ham, she abandons him for Steerforth with whom she disappears abroad for several years. After Steerforth deserts her, she does not go back home, now a fallen woman, but she does eventually go to London. With the help of Martha, her uncle finds her there, after Rosa Dartle rants at her, while David watches unseen. She accompanies her uncle to Australia.Ham Peggotty – The good-natured nephew of Mr Peggotty who is tall and strong, and becomes a skilled boat builder. He is the fiancé of Emily before she leaves him for Steerforth. His aunt looks after Ham once Emily is gone. When the fierce storm at sea off Yarmouth dismasts a merchant ship from the south, Ham attempts to rescue the crew, but is drowned by the ferocity of the waves before he can reach anyone. News of his death, a day before the emigration, is withheld from his family to enable them to emigrate without hesitation or remorse.Mrs Gummidge – The widow of Daniel Peggotty's partner, who is taken in and supported by Daniel after his partner's death. She is a self-described "lone, lorn creetur" who spends much of her time pining for "the old 'un" (her late husband). After Emily runs away with Steerforth, she renounces her self-pity and becomes Daniel and Ham's primary caretaker. She too emigrates to Australia with Daniel and Emily. In Australia, when she receives a marriage proposal, she responds by attacking the unlucky suitor with a bucket.Martha Endell – A young woman, once Little Emily's friend, who later gains a bad reputation; it is implied that she engages in some sexually inappropriate behaviour and is thus disgraced. She is stopped from suicide by Daniel Peggotty and David finding her so she might help them. She emigrates with the Peggotty family to Australia. There, she marries and lives happily.Mr Creakle – The harsh headmaster of young David's boarding school who is assisted by the one-legged Tungay. Mr Creakle is a friend of Mr Murdstone. He singles out David for extra torment on Murdstone's request, but later treats him normally when David apologises to Murdstone. With a surprising amount of delicacy, his wife breaks the news to David that his mother has died. Later, he becomes a Middlesex magistrate and is considered 'enlightened' for his day. He runs his prison by the system and is portrayed with great sarcasm, as he thinks that his model inmates, Heep and Littimer, have changed their criminal ways due to the system.James Steerforth – A student at Creakle's school who befriends young David, even as he takes over David's money. He is condescending of other social classes, a snob who unhesitatingly takes advantage of his younger friends and uses his mother's influence, going so far as to get Mr Mell dismissed from the school because Mell's mother lives in almshouse. Although he grows into a charming and handsome young man, he proves to be lacking in character when he seduces and later abandons Little Em'ly. He eventually drowns at Yarmouth in a fierce storm at sea, washing up on the shore after the merchant ship breaks totally apart.Tommy Traddles – David's friend from Salem House. Traddles is one of the few boys who does not trust Steerforth and is notable for drawing skeletons on his slate to cheer himself up with the macabre thought that his predicaments are only temporary. They meet again later and become lifelong friends. Traddles works hard but faces great obstacles because of his lack of money and connections. He succeeds n making a name and a career for himself, becoming a Judge and marrying his true love, Sophy.Wilkins Micawber – A melodramatic, kind-hearted gentleman who has a way with words and eternal optimism. He befriends David as a young boy in London, taking him as a lodger. Micawber suffers from financial difficulty and spends time in a debtors' prison before moving his family briefly to Plymouth. Micawber meets David again, passing by the Heep household in Canterbury when David is taking tea there. Micawber takes a position at Wickford and Heep. Thinking Micawber is weak-minded, Heep makes him an accomplice in several of his schemes, but Micawber turns the tables on his employer and is instrumental in his downfall. Micawber emigrates to Australia, where he enjoys a successful career as a sheep farmer and becomes a magistrate. He is based on Dickens's father, John Dickens, as described in § Autobiographical novel who faced similar financial problems when Dickens was a child, but never emigrated.[7]Emma Micawber – Wilkins Micawber's wife and the mother of their five children. She comes from a moneyed family who disapprove of her husband, but she constantly protests that she will "never leave Micawber!"Mr Dick (Richard Babley) – A slightly deranged, rather childish but amiable man who lives with Betsey Trotwood; they are distant relatives. His madness is amply described; he claims to have the "trouble" of King Charles I in his head. He is fond of making gigantic kites and tries to write a "Memorial" but is unable to focus and finish it. Despite his limitations, Dick is able to see issues with a certain clarity. He proves to be not only a kind and loyal friend but also demonstrates a keen emotional intelligence, particularly when he helps Dr and Mrs Strong through a marriage crisis.Mr Wickfield – The widowed father of Agnes Wickfield and lawyer to Betsey Trotwood. He feels guilty that, through his love, he has hurt his daughter by keeping her too close to himself. This sense of guilt leads him to drink. His apprentice Uriah Heep uses the information to lead Mr Wickfield down a slippery slope, encouraging the alcoholism and feelings of guilt, and eventually convincing him that he has committed improprieties while inebriated, and blackmailing him. He is saved by Mr Micawber, and his friends consider him to have become a better man through the experience.Agnes Wickfield – Mr Wickfield's mature and lovely daughter and close friend of David since he began school at Dr Strong's in Canterbury. Agnes nurtures an unrequited love for David for many years but never tells him, helping and advising him through his infatuation with, and marriage to, Dora. After David returns to England, he realises his feelings for her, and she becomes David's second wife and mother of their children.Uriah Heep – The main antagonist of the novel's second half, Heep serves first as clerk from age 11 or 12, at age 15 he meets Copperfield and a few years later becomes partner to Mr Wickfield. He presents himself as self-deprecating and talks of being "umble", but gradually reveals his wicked and twisted character. He gains power over Wickfield but is exposed by Wilkins Micawber and Traddles, who have gathered evidence that Uriah committed multiple acts of fraud. By forging Mr Wickfield's signature, he has misappropriated the personal wealth of the Wickfield family, together with portfolios entrusted to them by others, including funds belonging to Betsey Trotwood. He fools Wickfield into thinking he has himself committed this act while drunk, and then blackmailed him. Heep is defeated but not prosecuted. He is later imprisoned for a separate fraud on the Bank of England. He nurtures a deep hatred of David Copperfield and of many others, though in some ways he is a mirror to David, wanting to get ahead and to marry the boss's daughter.Mrs Heep – Uriah's mother, who is as sycophantic as her son. She has instilled in him his lifelong tactic of pretending to be subservient to achieve his goals, and even as his schemes fall apart she begs him to save himself by "being 'umble."Dr Strong and Annie Strong – Director and assistant of the school David attends in Canterbury. Dr Strong's main concern is to work on his Greek dictionary, where, at the end of the novel, he has reached the letter D. The Doctor is 62 when David meets him, and married about a year to Annie, considerably younger than her husband. In this happy loving couple, each one cares more about the other than of himself. The depth of their feeling allows them to defeat the efforts of Uriah Heep in trying to break their union.Jack Maldon – A cousin and childhood sweetheart of Annie Strong. He continues to bear affection for her and assunes she will leave Dr Strong for him. Instead, Dr Strong helps Maldon financially and in finding a position. He is charming, and after his time in India, he ends up in London society, married to Julia Mills. They live a life that seems empty to the adult David Copperfield.Julia Mills – She is a friend of Dora who supports Dora's romance with David Copperfield; she moves to India when her father gets a new position. She marries Jack Maldon and lives in London in the end.Mrs Markleham- Annie's mother, nicknamed "The Old Soldier" by her husband's students for her stubbornness. She tries to take pecuniary advantage of her son-in-law Dr Strong in every way possible, to Annie's sorrow.Mrs Steerforth – The wealthy widowed mother of James Steerforth. She dotes on her son to the point of being completely blind to his faults. When Steerforth disgraces his family and the Peggottys by running off with Em'ly, Mrs Steerforth blames Em'ly for corrupting her son, rather than accept that James has disgraced an innocent girl. The news of her son's death destroys her. She lives on, but she never recovers from the shock.Rosa Dartle – Steerforth's cousin, a bitter, sarcastic spinster who lives with Mrs Steerforth. She is secretly in love with Steerforth and blames others such as Emily and Steerforth's mother for corrupting him. She is described as being thin and displays a visible scar on her lip caused by Steerforth in one of his violent rages as a child.Francis Spenlow – A lawyer, employer of David as a proctor and the father of Dora Spenlow. He dies suddenly of a heart attack while driving his phaetonhome. After his death, it is revealed that he is heavily in debt, and left no will.Dora Spenlow – The adorable daughter of Mr Spenlow who becomes David's first wife after a long courtship. She is described as being impractical and has many similarities to David's mother. In their first year of marriage, David learns their differences as to keeping a house in order. Dora does not learn firmness, but remains herself, affectionate with David and attached to her lapdog, Jip. She is not unaware of their differences, and asks David, whom she calls "Doady", to think of her as a "child wife". She suffers a miscarriage, which begins a long illness from which she dies with Agnes Wickfield at her side.Littimer – Steerforth's obsequious valet, who is instrumental in aiding his seduction of Emily. Littimer is always polite and correct but his condescending manner intimidates David, who always feels as if Littimer is reminding him how young he is. He later winds up in prison for embezzlement, and his manners allow him to con his way to the stature of Model Prisoner in Creakle's establishment.Miss Mowcher – a dwarf and Steerforth's hairdresser. Though she participates in Steerforth's circle as a witty and glib gossip, she is strong against the discomfort others might feel associated with her dwarfism. She is later instrumental in Littimer's arrest.Mr Mell – A poor teacher at Salem House. He takes David to Salem House and is the only adult there who is kind to him. His mother lives in a workhouse, and Mell supports her with his wages. When Steerforth discovers this information from David, he uses it to get Creakle to fire Mell. Near the end of the novel, Copperfield discovers in an Australian newspaper that Mell has emigrated and is now Doctor Mell of Colonial Salem-House Grammar School, Port Middlebay, married with children.Sophy Crewler – One of a family of ten daughters, Sophy runs the household and takes care of all her sisters. She and Traddles are engaged to be married, but her family has made Sophy so indispensable that they are do not want her to part from them with Traddles. The pair do eventually marry and settle down happily, and Sophy proves to be an invaluable aid in Traddles's legal career, while still helping her sisters.Mr Sharp – The chief teacher of Salem House, he has more authority than Mr Mell. He looks weak, both in health and character; his head seems to be very heavy for him; he walks on one side, and has a big nose.Mr Jorkins – The rarely seen partner of Mr Spenlow. Spenlow uses him as a scapegoat for any unpopular decision he chooses to make, painting Jorkins as an inflexible tyrant, but Jorkins is, in fact, a meek and timid nonentity who, when confronted, takes the same tack by blaming his inability to act on Mr Spenlow.Between 1845 and 1848, Dickens wrote fragments of autobiography excerpts of which he showed to his wife and John Forster. Then in 1855 he made an attempt at revising it. This was a failure because, as he tells his first love Maria Beadnell (now Mrs Winter), when he began dealing with his youthful love for her, "I lost courage and burned the rest".[11][12] Paul Schlicke points out that in fact not all the pages have gone through the flames and that, as Dickens began writing David Copperfield some pages were unearthed. Proof of this is found in the eleventh chapter of the novel: "I begin Life on my own Account and don't like it", where the story of Dickens' experience at the Warren Shoe Factory are almost verbatim with the only change, "Mr Micawber" instead of "my father".[7] John Forster also published substantial extracts relating to this period in Dickens biography, including a paragraph devoted to Wellington House College, which corresponds with second stage of childhood recounted in the novel.[13] Thus Dickens looks back on his painful past, already evoked by the martyrdom of Little Paul in Dombey and Son, though voiced by an omniscient narrator in that earlier novel.[14] Until Forster published his biography of Dickens in 1872-1874, no one knew that Dickens had worked in a factory as a child, not even his wife, until Dickens wrote it down and gave the papers to Forster in 1847.[15] The first generations of readers did not know this part of David Copperfield's story began like an incident in the author's life.If David Copperfield has come to be Dickens's "darling", it is because it is the most autobiographical of all his novels.[5] Some of the most painful episodes of his life are barely disguised; others appear indirectly, termed oblique revelations as described by Paul Davis.[5] However, Dickens himself wrote to Forster that the book is not a pure autobiography, but "a very complicated weaving of truth and invention".[6]The most important autobiographical material concerns the months that Dickens, still a child, spent at the Warren factory, his diligence with his first love, Maria Beadnell (see Catherine Dickens and Ellen Ternan) finally his career as a journalist and writer. As pointed out by his biographer and friend John Forster, these episodes are essentially factual: the description of forced labor to which David is subjected at Murdstone and Grinby reproduces verbatim the autobiographical fragments entrusted to his friend; David's fascination with Dora Spenlow is similar to that inspired by the capricious Maria; the major stages of his career, from his apprenticeship at Doctors' Commons to writing his first novel, via the shorthand reporting of parliamentary procedures, also follow those of its creator.[5]However, this material, like the other autobiographical aspects of the novel, is not systematically reproduced as such. The cruel Mr Murdstone is very different from the real James Lamert, cousin to Dickens, being the stepson of Mrs Dickens's mother's sister, who lived with the family in Chatham and Camden Town, and who had found for the young Charles the place of tagger in the shoe factory he managed for his brother-in-law George.[16] The end of this episode looks nothing like what happens in the novel; in reality, contrary to the desire of his mother that he continues to work, it is his father who took him out of the warehouse to send him to school. Contrary to Charles's frustrated love for Maria Beadnell, who pushed him back in front of his parents' opposition, David, in the novel, marries Dora Spenlow and, with satisfaction ex post facto, writes Paul Davis, virtually "kills" the recalcitrant stepfather.[5] Finally, David's literary career seems less agitated than that of Dickens, and his results are much less spectacular. David's natural modesty alone does not explain all these changes; Paul Davis expresses the opinion that Dickens recounts his life as he would have liked it, and along with "conscious artistry", Dickens knows how to borrow data, integrate them to his original purpose and transform them according to the novelistic necessities, so that "In the end, Copperfield is David's autobiography, not Dickens's".[5]David Copperfield is the contemporary of two major memory-based works, William Wordsworth's The Prelude (1850),[N 3] an autobiographical poem about the formative experiences of his youth, and Tennyson's In Memoriam (1850) which eulogises the memory of his friend, Arthur Hallam.[17] On the one hand, there's Wordswoth's romantic questioning on the personal development of the individual, on the other hand, there is Tennyson's Victorian confrontation with change and doubt. According to Andrew Sanders, David Copperfield reflects both types of response, which give this novel the privileged position of representing the hinge of the century.[18]The intensely personal memories of Dickens are, according to Paul Schlicke, remarkably transmuted into fiction.[17] The experience Dickens lived, as the son of a brazen impenitent, is celebrated through the comic figure of Wilkins Micawber. Dickens's youthful passion for Maria Beadnell resurfaces with tenderness, in the form of David's impractical marriage with Dora Spenlow. And Dickens's decision to make David a novelist emphasises how he used this book to re-invented himself as a man and artist: "The world would not take another Pickwick from me, but we can be cheerful and merry, and with a little more purpose in us".[19] In fact, if the preoccupation with the adventures of an individualized hero, associated with a parade of comic or grotesque characters, looks back to Dickens's earlier novels, the interest in personal development, the pessimistic atmosphere, and the complex structure of Copperfield foreshadows the novels to come.[17]In 1847, Jane Eyre, Charlotte Bronte's intense first-person narrative, was acclaimed as soon as it was published. Unlike Thackeray, who adored it, Dickens claims years later to have never read it.[20] True or false, he had encountered Elizabeth Gaskell's Mary Barton a novel that called for understanding and sympathy in a class-eaten society[21] Thackeray's Pendennis was serialised at the same time as David Copperfield, and it depicts its hero's personal and social journey from the countryside to the city. A rivalry existed between these two major writers, though it preoccupied Thackeray more than Dickens. But the most direct literary influence is "obviously Carlyle"[22] who, in a lecture given in 1840, the year of his meeting with Dickens, on "On Heroes, Hero-Worship", and "the Heroic in History",[23] claims that the most important modern character is "the hero as a man of letters".[18] And this is David's destiny, through personal experiences, perseverance and seriousness.[22]Charles Dickens 1850On 7 January 1849, Dickens visited Norfolk county at Norwich and Yarmouth, with two close friends, John Leech (1817-1864) and Mark Lemon (1809-1870).[24] Leech was an illustrator at Punch, a satirical magazine, and the first illustrator for A Christmas Carol by Dickens in 1843. Lemon was a founding editor of the same Punch, and soon a contributor to Household Words, the weekly magazine Dickens was starting up; he co-authored Mr Nightingale's Diary, a farce, with Dickens in 1851.[25][26] The two cities, especially the second, became important in the novel, and Dickens informed Forster that Yarmouth seemed to him to be "the strangest place in the world" and that he would "certainly try my hand at it".[27] During a walk in the vicinity of Yarmouth, Dickens noticed a sign indicating the small locality of Blunderston, which became in his novel the village of "Blunderstone" where David is born and spends his childhood.[14]A week after his arrival in Yarmouth, his sixth son, Henry Fielding Dickens, was named after Henry Fielding, his favorite past author. Per Forster, Dickens refers to Fielding "as a kind of homage to the novel he was about to write".[28]As always with Dickens, when a writing project began, he was agitated, melancholy, "even deeper than the customary birth pangs of other novels";[28] as always, he hesitated about the title, and his working notes contain seventeen variants, "Charles Copperfield" included.[14] After several attempts, he stopped on "The Copperfield Survey of the World as it Rolled", a title that he retained until 19 April.[29] When Forster pointed out that his hero, now called David, has his own initials transposed, Dickens was intrigued and declared that this was a manifestation of his fate.[28] However, he is not yet sure of his pen: "Though I know what I want to do, I am lumbering like a train wagon",[30] he told Forster.Charles I (1600-49) whose decapitation is the obsession of Mr Dick. Charles I in Three Positions by Anthony Van Dyck 1635-1636.Contrary to the method previously used for Dombey and Son, Dickens did not elaborate an overall plan and often wrote the summary of a chapter after completing it. Four character names were found at the last moment: Traddles, Barkis, Creakle and Steerforth;[31] the profession of David remains uncertain until the eighth issue (printed in December 1849, containing Chapters 22–24, in which David chooses to be trained as a proctor); and Paul Schlicke notes that the future of Dora was still not determined on 17 May 1850 (when 37 chapters had been published in the first 12 monthly instalments). Other major aspects of the novel, however, were immediately fixed, such as David's meeting with Aunt Betsey, Emily's fall or Agnes's role as the "real" heroine of the story.[9]Once launched, Dickens becomes "quite confident".[32] The most difficult thing was to insert "what I know so well", his experience at the Warren factory; once the threads were woven, however, the truth mixed with fiction, he exulted and congratulated himself in a letter to Forster [33] From now on, he wrote in this letter, the story "bore him irresistibly along". Never, it seems, was he in the grip of failures of inspiration, so "ardent [is his] sympathy with the creatures of the fancy which always made real to him their sufferings or sorrows."[28]Changes in detail occur during the composition: on 22 August 1849, while staying on the Isle of Wight for a family vacation, he changed on the advice of Forster, the theme of the obsession of Mr Dick, a secondary character in the novel. This theme was originally "a bull in a china shop" and became "King Charles's head" in a nod to the bicentenary of the execution of Charles I of England.[N 4][9]Although plunged into the writing of his novel, Dickens set out to create a new journal, Household Words,[34] the first issue of which appeared on 31 March 1850. This daunting task, however, did not seem to slow down the writing of David Copperfield: I am "busy as a bee", he writes happily to the actor William Macready.[35]A serious incident occurred in December: Mrs Jane Seymour Hill, chiropractor to Mrs Dickens,[36] raised the threat of prosecution, because she recognised herself in the portrait of Miss Mowcher; Dickens did not do badly,[37] gradually modifying the psychology of the character by making her less of a caricature and, at the very end of the novel, by making her a friend of the protagonist, whereas at the beginning she served rather contrary purposes.[36] This was, writes Harry Stone, "the only major departure from his original plans."[38]His third daughter was born on 16 August 1850, called Dora Annie Dickens, the same name as his character's first wife. The baby died nine months later after the last serial was issued and the book was published.[9]Dickens marked the end of his manuscript on 21 October 1850[9] and felt both torn and happy like every time he finished a novel: "Oh, my dear Forster, if I were to say half of what Copperfield makes me feel to-night, how strangely, even to you, I should be turned inside out! I seem to be sending some part of myself into the Shadowy World."[39][9]At first glance, the work is modeled in the loose and somewhat disjointed way of "personal histories" that was very popular in the United Kingdom of the 18th century;[N 2] but in reality, David Copperfield is a carefully structured and unified novel. It begins, like other novels by Dickens, with a rather bleak painting of the conditions of childhood in Victorian England, notoriously when the troublesome children are parked in infamous boarding schools, then he strives to trace the slow social and intimate ascent of a young man who, painfully providing for the needs of his good aunt while continuing his studies, ends up becoming a writer: the story, writes Paul Davis, of "a Victorian everyman seeking self-understanding".[4]"The Personal History, Adventures, Experience, and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger, of Blunderstone Rookery"[N 5] was published from 1 May 1849 to 1 November 1850 in 19 monthly one-shilling instalments, containing 32 pages of text and two illustrations by Hablot Knight Browne ("Phiz"), with a title cover simplified to The Personal History of David Copperfield. The last instalment was a double-number.On the other side of the Atlantic, John Wiley & Sons and G P Putnam published a monthly edition, then a two-volume book version.Title page of the first edition by Bradbury & Evans, signed by DickensI – May 1849 (chapters 1–3);II – June 1849 (chapters 4–6);III – July 1849 (chapters 7–9);IV – August 1849 (chapters 10–12);V – September 1849 (chapters 13–15);VI – October 1849 (chapters 16–18);VII – November 1849 (chapters 19–21);VIII – December 1849 (chapters 22–24);IX – January 1850 (chapters 25–27);X – February 1850 (chapters 28–31);XI – March 1850 (chapters 32–34);XII – April 1850 (chapters 35–37);XIII – May 1850 (chapters 38–40);XIV – June 1850 (chapters 41–43);XV – July 1850 (chapters 44–46);XVI – August 1850 (chapters 47–50);XVII – September 1850 (chapters 51–53);XVIII – October 1850 (chapters 54–57);XIX-XX – November 1850 (chapters 58–64).Whatever the borrowings from Dickens's own life, the reader knows as an essential precondition, that David Copperfield is a novel and not an autobiography; a work with fictional events and characters–including the hero-narrator–who are creations of Dickens' imagination.The use of the first person determines the point of view: the narrator Copperfield, is a recognised writer, married to Agnes for more than ten years, who has decided to speak in public about his past life. This recreation, in itself an important act, can only be partial and also biased, since, a priori, Copperfield is the only viewpoint and the only voice; not enjoying the prerogatives of the third person, omnipotence, ubiquity, clairvoyance, he relates only what he witnessed or participated in:[40] all the characters appear in his presence or, failing that, he learns through hearsay, before being subjected to his pen through the prism of his conscience, deformed by the natural deficit of his perception and accentuated by the selective filter of memory.[41] Story teller and teacher, Copperfield does not let the facts speak for themselves, but constantly asserts himself as master of the narrative game, and he intervenes, explains, interprets and comments. His point of view is that of the adult he has become, as he expresses himself just as he is writing. At the end of his book, he feels a writer's pride to evoke "the thread[s] in the web I have spun"[42]Gareth Cordery writes that "if David Copperfield is the paradigmatic Bildungsroman, it is also the quintessential novel of memory"[43] and as such, according to Angus Wilson, the equal of Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time (À la recherche du temps perdu).[44] The memory of the hero engages so intensely with his memories that the past seems present:In such passages, which punctuate the retrospective chapters, the relived moment replaces the lived, the historical present seals the collapse of the original experience and the recreation of a here and now that seizes the entire field of consciousness.[46] Sometimes this resuurected experience is more vivid than reality; so, in Chapter 41, about Traddles' face, he says: "His honest face, he looked at me with a serio-comic shake of his head impresses me more in the remembrance than it did in the reality."[47] These are "sacred moments", writes Gareth Cordery, which Copperfield has carefully guarded in "the treasure chambers"[N 6] of his memory, where sings "the music of time":[46] "secret prose, that sense of a mind speaking to itself with no one there to listen".[48]Sudden arrival at the Peggotty home by PhizWithout being Dickens, this narrator, Copperfield, is very like him and often becomes his spokesperson. It adds to his point of view, directly or indirectly, that of the author, without there necessarily being total match between the two. As such, Copperfield serves as "medium", mirror and also screen, Dickens sometimes subverting his speech to get to the forefront or, on the contrary, hide behind this elegant delegate to the nimble pen. Dickens' voice, however, is in general well concealed and, according to Gareth Cordery, the most difficult to detect because mostly present by implication.[49] To help hear his voice, he adds, it is advisable to turn to Phiz, whose illustrations bring a point of view which is not always in agreement with that of Copperfield. For example, in chapter 21, the two friends arrive by surprise at the Peggotty home, and Copperfield presents Steerforth to Emily at the very moment when her betrothal with Ham has just been announced. This sudden intrusion stops the girl as she has just jumped from Ham's arms to nestle in those of Mr Peggotty, a sign, says Cordery in passing, that the promise of marriage is as much for the uncle as for the nephew. The text remains brief but Phiz interprets, anticipates the events, denounces even the future guilt of Copperfield: all eyes are on the girl, her bonnet, emblem of her social aspirations and her next wanderings with Steerforth, is ready to be seized. Copperfield, dressed as a gentleman, stands in the doorway, one finger pointing at Steerforth who is taller by one head, the other measuring the gap between Ham and Dan Peggotty, as if offering Emily to his friend. Emily, meanwhile, still has her head turned to Ham but the body is withdrawn and the look has become both challenging and provocative. Phiz brings together in a single image a whole bunch of unwritten information, which Dickens approved and probably even suggested.[50]The Wanderer, Mr Peggotty talks to David as Martha overhears, by Phiz.A third perspective is the point of view of the discerning reader who, although generally carried away by sympathy for the narrator's self-interested pleading, does not remain blissfully ignorant and ends up recognizing the faults of the man and of the writer, just as he also learns to identify and gauge the covert interventions of the author.The discerning reader listens to the adult Copperfield and hears what this adult wants or does not want them to hear. "Even though this manuscript is intended for no eyes but mine", (chapter 42)[51] the book exists, and the reader becomes ipso facto a "father-confessor",[46] knowing how to judge and even, at times, to doubt the sincerity of the emotion expressed. So, when Dora dies, the reader sees that the topic of grief is dropped in a hurry, as if Copperfield had more important things to do than to indulge in sorrow: "this is not the time at which I am to enter a state of mind beneath its load of sorrow",[52] which creates a question and an embarrassment: is Copperfield protecting himself from his confusion, or does he shed some crocodile tears for form?Copperfield also examines some of his most culpable weaknesses, such as unconscious connivance (his "own unconscious part") in the defilement of the Peggotty home by Steerforth, which he remains forever incapable of opposing: "I believe that if I had been brought face to face with him, I could not have uttered one reproach."(chapter 32)[53] The same treatment is given to his childhood love, his so much idealized Emily, who, once "fallen", is expelled from his consciousness to the point where his last comment, when he stealthily sees her aboard the ship leaving for Australia, is "a masterpiece of narrative duplicity": far from seeing in her what she has become, a real woman, he takes refuge behind the image of a pathetic religious icon elegantly allowing him to remove his own guilt for betraying her.[54]These underground currents are thus revealed in David's psychological struggle, Gareth Cordery concludes, currents that his narrative unconsciously attempts to disguise.[55]The story is a road from which different paths leave. The road is that of David's life, the main plot; the branches are born of meetings with him and lead to several secondary intrigues taken more or less far along. Each is represented by an important figure: Mr Micawber, Steerforth, little Emily, Uriah Heep; there are side stories, that of Martha Endell, Rosa Dartle, and, along the main road, stretch some parallel paths on which the reader is from time to time invited: the Traddles, Betsey Trotwood, the Peggotty family, Dan and Ham in particular, Peggotty herself remaining from start to finish intimately related to David. The different tracks do not move away from the main avenue, and when they do, a narrative "forceps" brings them together again. Hence the retrospective chapters and the ultimate recapitulation were written.[56]Mr Peggotty finds young Emily, by Phiz.The narrative is linear in appearance, as is usual in traditional first-person form. It covers the narrator's life until the day he decides to put an end to his literary endeavor. However, whole sections of his life are summarized in a few paragraphs, or sometimes just a sentence or two, indicating that three or ten years have passed, or that Dora is dead, necessary to keep the story moving along. Thus, the long stay of reflection in Switzerland which leads to the recognition of love for Agnes, or the lapse of time before the final chapter, are all blanks in the story. Besides the hero, this story concerns important secondary characters such as Mr Micawber or Uriah Heep, or Betsey Trotwood and Traddles, the few facts necessary for a believable story are parsimoniously distilled in the final chapters: an impromptu visit to a prison, the unexpected return of Dan Peggotty from the Antipodes; so many false surprises for the narrator who needs them to complete each person's personal story. As such, the epilogue that represents the last chapter (Ch 64) is a model of the genre, a systematic review, presumably inspired by his memory, without true connection. There is the desire to finish with each one, with forced exclamations and ecstatic observations, scrolling through the lives of those who are frozen in time: Dick with his "Memorial" and his kite, Dr Strong and his dictionary, and as a bonus, the news of David's "least child", which implies that there have been other children between him and eldest child Agnes of whom the reader has never heard by name. So also goes the story of Dan Peggotty relating the sad tale of his niece. The four chapters called "Retrospect" (Ch 18 A Retrospect, Ch 43 Another Retrospect, Ch 53 Another Retrospect and Ch 64 A Last Retrospect) are placed at strategic moments of the general discourse, which play a catch-up role more than one of meditation by the narrator, without venturing into event details. Here, the narration has disappeared, it has given way to a list, an enumeration of events.[57]Dickens' approach, as shown in David Copperfield, does not escape what fr:Georges Gusdorf calls "the original sin of autobiography", that is to say a restructuring a posteriori and in this, paradoxically, it demonstrates its authenticity.[58] It consists of splitting one's life into parts, choosing decisive phases, identifying an evolution and endowing them with a direction and then a meaning, whereas, from day to day, existence has been lived as a cluster of shapeless perceptions requiring an immediate adaptation, that captures at best in the novel the use of the historical present generally adopted by Dickens. It is a succession of autonomous moments which do not end up amalgamating in a coherent whole and that connect the tenuous thread of the "I" recognizing each other. In this reconstruction, one part of truth and the other of poetry, the famous Dichtung und Wahrheit (From my Life: Poetry and Truth; 1811–1833), autobiography of Goethe, there is the obligatory absence of objectivity, the promotion of oblivion as an integral part of memory, the ruling power of the subjectivity of time found.[59]Thus, to use George Gusdorf's words again, David Copperfield appears as a "second reading of a man's experience", in this case, Charles Dickens, when he reached the fullness of his career, tried to give "a meaning to his legend".[60]This novel's main theme arises from the fact that it is a bildungsroman, a literary genre that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood, which is common in Dickens's novels,[61] and in which character change is extremely important.[62][63] The changes involve David leaving past selves behind on the way to maturity. Other important themes relate especially to Dickens's social concerns, and his desire for reform. This includes the plight of so-called 'fallen women', and prostitutes, as well as the attitude of middle-class society to these women; the status of women in marriage; the rigid class structure; the prison system; educational standards, and emigration to the colonies of what was becoming the British Empire. The latter was a way for individuals to escape some of the rigidity of British society and start anew. Some of these subjects are directly satirized, while others are worked into the novel in more complex ways by Dickens.David reaches Canterbury, from David Copperfield, by Frank ReynoldsCopperfield's path to maturity is marked by the different names assigned to him: his mother calls him "Davy"; Murdstone calls him as "Brooks of Sheffield"; for Peggotty's family, he is "Mas'r Davy"; en route to boarding school from Yarmouth, he appears as "Master Murdstone"; at Murdstone and Grinby, he is known as "Master Copperfield"; Mr Micawber is content with "Copperfield"; for Steerforth he is "Daisy"; he becomes "Mister Copperfield" with Uriah Heep; and "Trotwood", soon shortened to "Trot" for Aunt Betsey; Mrs Crupp deforms his name into "Mr Copperfull"; and for Dora he is "Doady".[64] While striving to earn his real name once and for all, this plethora of names reflects the fluidity of Copperfield's personal and social relationships, and obscure his real identity. It is by writing his own story, and giving him his name in the title, that Copperfield can finally assert who he is.[64] Condition: This book is still bound in the original leather binding from 1850. This is the rare and highly desirable First Edition with the error on page 132, as is shown in the pictures. This book has generalized usage wear, scuffing, and abrasion. It is still intact and the leather is still supple. The hinges are strongly attached. Internally there is some foxing and usage wear and some looseness, but still an exceedingly rare and desirable First Edition of David Copperfield. Some bangs and scuffs and abrasions to the binding as is visible in the picture. In presentable albeit rustic condition. A gorgeous and exceedingly rare book. This book will make an excellent gift., Publisher: Bradbury and Evans, Modified Item: No, Subject: Literature & Fiction, Place of Publication: London, Topic: classics, Author: Charles Dickens, Year Printed: 1850, Language: English, Special Attributes: First Edition, Original/Facsimile: Original, Binding: leather

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