Israel CHUCK NORRIS Film MARTIAL ART MOVIE Hebrew "EYE FOR AN EYE" Golden Gate

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Seller: judaica-bookstore (2,067) 100%, Location: TEL AVIV, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 283477574827 DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is an EXCEPTIONALY RARE and ORIGINAL illustrated POSTER for the ISRAEL premiere release in 1981 of the CHUCK NORRIS MARTIAL ART ACTION film " AN EYE FOR AN EYE " in ISRAEL. Starring together with CHUCK NORRIS - CHRISTOPHER LEE and RICHARD ROUNDTREE . This is an original Israeli Hebrew design , Specificaly made for the Israeli Theatre halls. Depicting a colorful image of fighting NORRIS on the background of the GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE of SAN FRANCISCO. Text in HEBREW and ENGLISH . Quite ARCHAIC HEBREW . The Israeli distributors have given the film a brand new Hebrew-Israeli name " A FIST of a PRO" . Size around 27" x 19" . Printed in vivid colors . The condition is very good . Folded , Very slightly creased , Nothing that a framed glass wouldn't hide. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. AUTHENTICITY : The POSTER is fully guaranteed ORIGINAL from 1981 , It is NOT a reproduction or a recently made reprint or an immitation , It holds a with life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY. PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal . SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmail is $ 18 . Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. Will be sent within 3-5 days after payment . Kindly note that duration of Int'l registered airmail is around 14 days.An Eye for an Eye is a 1981 American action film directed by Steve Carver, and starring Chuck Norris, Christopher Lee, Richard Roundtree, Matt Clark, Mako Iwamatsu, and Maggie Cooper. Contents [hide] · 1Summary · 2Plot · 3Cast · 4References · 5External links Summary[edit] Sean Kane is forced to resign from the San Francisco Police Department's Narcotics Division when he goes berserk after his partner is murdered. He decides to fight alone and follows a trail of mafiosi into unexpected high places. Plot[edit] Undercover San Francisco narcotics cops Sean Kane (Chuck Norris) and Dave Pierce (Terry Kiser) head into a darkalley to meet up with an informant by the name of Tony Montoya (Mel Novak) who promises to break their big investigation wide open by providing the name of the oriental drug ringleader. Minutes later, Pierce is dead after having been shot, hit by a car, and burned. Kane gets into trouble with his boss, Captain Stevens (Richard Roundtree), for sending one of the killers flying out a third story window to his death in full public view right after the incident. Rather than face discipline, and told to keep his distance by his superiors, Kane now decides to quit the force, and sets out to exact vengeance. Kane is not the only one who is angry; Dave’s girlfriend, reporter Linda Chan (Rosalind Chao), is too, and she vows to bring the drug gang down herself by way of investigative reporting and public exposure. However, when Linda uncovers the secret that Kane and Pierce never found, she, too, is killed. Kane sets out for revenge, and so does Linda's grieving father James Chan (Mako Iwamatsu). Together they get to the bottom of things and bring down the drug gang, and its unexpected leader. Cast[edit] · Chuck Norris as Sean Kane · Christopher Lee as Morgan Canfield · Richard Roundtree as Capt. Stevens · Matt Clark as Tom McCoy · Mako Iwamatsu as James Chan · Maggie Cooper as Heather Sullivan · Rosalind Chao as Linda Chan · Professor Toru Tanaka as The Professor · Stuart Pankin as Nicky LaBelle · Terry Kiser as Dave Pierce · Mel Novak as Tony Montoya · Dorothy Dells as Cab Driver (Veterans Cab Company) · Dov Gottesfeld as Doctor (Coroners Office) · Rick Prieto as Stark · Sam Hiona as Ambler · J.E. Freeman as Tow Truck Dude · Joe Bellan as Truck Driver · Daniel Forrest as VW Driver (Accident Victim) · Joe De Nicola as Parlor Manager · Jeffrey Bannister as Man on Walkie-Talkie · Robert Behling as Coroner · Edsel Fung as Chinese Proprietor · Harry Wong as China Shop Owner · Nancy Fish as Reporter #1 · Gary T. New as Reporter #2 · Joe Lerer as Reporter #3 · Michael B. Christy as Reporter #4 · Earl Nichols as Officer Ed · Don Pike as Watcher · Tim Cubertson as Policeman · Kelly Jo Horton as Background Artist · Douglas Meyers as Swat Commander The frequently used title An Eye for an Eye was applied to a Chuck Norris martial-arts festival in 1981.Norris plays Sean Kane, a San Francisco cop whose partner is murdered by an Oriental drug ring. Told to keep his distance by his superiors, Kane quits the force and sets out to exact vengeance. When he's not suffering from traumatic nightmares, our hero is single-handedly decimating every one of villain Morgan Canfield's (Christopher Lee) henchmen. AN EYE FOR AN EYE - Rated R Copyright 1981 Avco-EmbassyFilms Reviewed by Trevor on 22 October 2008 The Characters: · Sean Kane - Chuck Norris! Great cop, lousy listener to his boss. Resigns from the police force after his friend Dave gets fried in a drug bust gone wrong. · Dave Pearce - Terry Kiser! Sean's partner and good friend: steps into wet dog poo, shot, gets turned into a flaming Sambuca and dies horribly. And so, how's your day been so far? · Captain Stevens - Richard Roundtree! Sean's ass-kicking, ass chewin' boss, mean mutha...I'm talkin' 'bout Shaft and we can dig...uhhhh, wrong film. Shut yo' mouth, Trevor! · James Chan - Mako! Righteous ass-kicker, abuser of telephones and sayer of wise sayings like "Warrior is not a mountain goat: it is well to remember this". Goes up against The Professor...bad idea. · Morgan Canfield - Christopher Lee! Newspaper and media magnate whose picture window overlooks Alcatraz Island. His next destination at the end of the film. It doesn't matter that Alcatraz, like Robben Island in South Africa, is now a museum; that is where he's going. Gets his throat gently squeezed by Chuck Norris. · Linda Chan - Rosalind Chao! James' daughter, a high flying investigative reporter for Canfield's station. Gets pursued and finally strangled by the Human Tank. · The Professor - Professor Toru Tanaka! The aforementioned Human Tank. Mute, except for an occasional "Ugga" when he is belted by Chuck Norris. Dies in one on one conflict when he is kicked into an oak table by Mr Norris, giving us an impressive view of his nads. · Heather Sullivan - Maggie Cooper! Linda's friend and Chuck's main squeeze, also user of his snot rag. · MacCoy - Matt Clark! Old Oirish San Franciscan policeman, heavy on the take. Gets completely trashed by Chuck Norris. The Plot: This is the only film I've ever seen where someone gets knocked out cold with a telephone. End of plot. Seriously, although no one believes me, Steve Carver's An Eye For An Eye with Chuck Norris is my favorite film of all time and one of the few that I have seen in a cinema with my late father. It's odd that the movie was rated PG in South Africa in 1981 and was rated R in the USA. It is so much so my favorite film that I have it on VHS and DVD and I have a poster of it on my wall at work. So no one, not even Mr. Norris' webmaster believes me, but it is and remains my favorite film. I tried to recapture the magic of sitting in that same Cape Town cinema a few years back (I had also seen Ghostbusters in the same cinema a few years after that) only to be told that the cinema had closed and that there was now a bank in it's' place. Bummer. Chuck Norris plays Sean Kane, an unorthodox policeman whose friend and partner is killed in a drug bust on the streets of San Francisco. After going berserk Billy Jack style and ruining the investigation as a result, Kane resigns from the police force and swearing revenge, mounts his own investigation, teaming up with his Zen quoting martial arts sensei James Chan when the latter's investigative reporter daughter is murdered by what can only be described as a Sherman tank in a suit. Kane is assisted in his investigations by Heather Sullivan and her media magnate boss Morgan Canfield. Tracking the killers down proves dangerous to Kane and James as they clash with Triad killers for hire and the scary Sherman tank in a suit. Even more dangerous are Kane's erstwhile boss Captain Stevens and the omnipresent McCoy ~ the latter almost always being on crime scenes where Kane's friends have met their ends. Knowing who to trust is the difficult part as Kane finds out to his dismay as his main ally on the San Francisco force proves to be up to his neck in skullduggery (this guy gets his reputation totally trashed) and the affable, fatherly, pipe smoking Canfield turns out not only to be the mastermind behind the drug smugglers that James' daughter was investigating but also the driver of the car that turned his friend and partner Dave Pearce into a flaming Sambuca. Canfield also has a very irritating dog which Sean Kane should also have taken out, but that's another story entirely. The Odd Couple, Kane and James mount a two man assault on Canfield's home, using every known, unknown, and slightly weird martial arts trick to defeat the baddies (even Mandarin songs are used as a sleight of hand tactic) while Stevens' men launch their attack on the estate, shooting everything and everyone in sight and causing a limousine to blow up without reason. Almost all of the firefights between the police and Canfield's thugs are shown in slow motion and one particular incident which defies explanation: two limousines blow up for no reason at all. Perhaps they got tired of waiting around. Even the earlier funeral of the fried Dave Pearce is in slow-mo. Despite all this, director Steve Carver couldn't have done better than what he did: turn on the camera and leave Chuck Norris to it. From battles with Chinese Triad terrorists in a San Francisco hillside home, to a one on one battle with bodyguards in an exclusive whorehouse to the final showdown, this is Chuck at his best, minus the beard. The final showdown in the movie provided me with a thrill that has never left me (and also got me interested in the martial arts) where Kane beats the seven colors of crap out of the Professor and kicks him into a solid oak table, killing him. After Canfield is taught a lesson by Kane (and we are given an acting lesson by Christopher Lee: it looked like Chuck Norris was really strangling him) the movie ends with Kane, Heather and James walking away from the estate, smiling and laughing. Thanks, Dad for taking me to see this. Things I Learned From This Movie: · If you keep your eyes on the puddle, you'll probably step in dog poo. · The Chinese language is an excellent device for ambushing someone. · "Excuse me" is not always the right thing to say. · Drug dealers also have annual general meetings: dunno who takes minutes, though. · Nosey old ladies make a very tempting target. · You can shoot two people with the same bullet. · Limousines can sometimes self-destruct without warning. · Smuggling heroin in firecrackers ain't a good idea. · Never assume your house is secure when Chuck Norris is coming to visit. · Telephones (the 1981 variety) can be excellent martial arts weapons. Stuff To Watch For: · 1 min - RANDOM ACT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST CHUCK NORRIS' LUNGS! · 6 mins - RANDOM ACT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST A NOSEY OLD LADY! · 7 mins - I sincerely hope he didn't land on my car there. · 16 mins - That's the guy my landlord sends after me when the rent's due. · 19 mins - RANDOM ACT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST A VW BEETLE! · 40 mins - Not that button either, Chuck: that gets the Playboy Channel! · 76 mins - RANDOM ACT OF VIOLENCE WITH A TELEPHONE! · 79 mins - If Mac doesn't want to kill Sean, he's doing a good job of not trying to. · 80 mins - Someone's reputation just got totally trashed. · 85 mins - RANDOM ACT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST TWO LIMO DRIVERS' HEADS! OW! · 92 mins - Huh? Did he just say "Ugga?" · 93 mins - That is the scene I want to see before I close my eyes permanently. · 94 mins - RANDOM ACT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST CHRISTOPHER LEE'S THROAT! · 97 mins - That guy can't walk too well anymore: maybe his head bandage's on too tight? Quotes: · James Chan: "Warrior is not a mountain goat. It is well to remember this." · Kane: "You're excused." · Stevens: "What do I tell the Commissioner? How do I defend a man like you?" · Canfield: "I wouldn't hesitate to shoot this young lady, you know." Audio clips in wav format SOUNDS Starving actors speak out File Dialog eyeforeyech1.wav Stevens: "Kane, you are a reckless man. You always have been. A police department cannot operate that way." Kane: "We were setup." Stevens: "Oh really? Your undercover operation was the best kept secret this narcotics bureau has ever had. So tell me something, my friend: where was the leak? On this end, someone here?" eyeforeyech2.wav MacCoy: "Two of the vertebra on her neck are completely snapped. I'm telling you, whoever did this got a helluva lot of strength." Kane: "Any ideas, Mack?" MacCoy: "We've got half a dozen witnesses - saw her chased around the Market Street BART station by some guy that they said looked like 'a Sherman tank in a suit.'" eyeforeyech3.wav James Chan: "She was like you: headstrong, willful. She had a great hunger for retribution. It seems, I too I am in need of retribution!" eyeforeyech4.wav Canfield: "I'm sure that you'd agree that the murder of a reporter in pursuit of an investigation is every bit as serious as the murder of a policeman in the line of duty." Theme Song Listen to a clip from the soundtrack. Genre: Action Director: Steve Carver Actor: Chuck Norris, Mako The Good: Chuck Norris, Mako, great villains, terrific action. The Bad: Moustache-less Chuck Norris. The Verdict: 3.5 / 5 - High Octane! Reviewed by: deceptisean Sean Kane (Chuck Norris) is an undercover police officer who stumbles onto a drug smuggling operation controlled by the Chinese Tongs after his partner is killed. Resigning from the San Francisco PD, Kane decides to take matters into his own hands. An Eye For An Eye is one of those movies that captured the over the top flare of 80’s action pictures while effectively showcasing its star (Chuck Norris, of course) as a force in the burgeoning 80’s action pantheon of the Reagan Era. This movie also features Richard Rountree (frickin’ SHAFT!), Christopher Lee (at this point in his career, known for his many turns as Dracula in the Hammer series of films), and, of course, the late great Mako who was turning up in just about everything from Facts of Life and A-Team episodes to movies like Conan the Barbarian, engraining himself into 80’s pop culture. But all that pales in comparison to an image that is almost unthinkable: Chuck Norris without his famous moustache. It’s so strange that I actually found myself believing he still had his moustache even when Norris was on screen. This movie has all of the tropes of classic 80’s action. There’s a henchman called “The Professor”, a huge, mountainous character who can lift people with one hand and overturn cars. Of course, it all builds to a one-on-one fight with Norris which is pretty rad. I loved that Norris’ chief of police is Richard Rountree, chewing Norris out like all police chiefs in action movies. Norris at one point teams up with Mako and the film really picks up with these two constantly ribbing each other on their fighting techniques while dispatching bad guy after bad guy in mere seconds. An Eye For An Eye is a terrific action film with a stellar cast. It’s great to see Mako and Norris banter together and The Professor is a great, classic, intimidating henchman that makes a formidable foe to Chuck Norris. If you can get past the lack of a moustache, An Eye For An Eye is a great action movie with some inventive ideas. REVIEW: "AN EYE FOR AN EYE" (1981) ... Celebrating Films of the 1960s & 1970s REVIEW: "AN EYE FOR AN EYE" (1981) STARRING CHUCK NORRIS AND CHRISTOPHER LEE; BLU-RAY SPECIAL EDITION FROM KINO LORBER BY ERNIE MAGNOTTA After his iconic battle against the legendary Bruce Lee in 1972’s Way of the Dragon (and with the encouragement of cinematic superstar and karate student Steve McQueen), six-time, undefeated world karate champion Chuck Norris felt it was time to move permanently into the world of cinema. In just a few short years, he was already headlining low budget martial arts/action films such as 1974’s Slaughter in San Francisco(as a villain), 1977’s Breaker! Breaker! and 1978’s Good Guys Wear Black(his first box office hit). This success led to Chuck’s 1979 karate classic, A Force of One. The cool and entertaining film really started to get him noticed by action movie fans and was quickly followed by The Octagon(1980), an exciting and suspenseful ninja thriller. With Norris and karate/action movie audiences now hungry for more, Chuck immediately started work on his next feature, 1981’s highly enjoyable An Eye for an Eye. After his partner is murdered by powerful international drug lord Morgan Canfield (played by the late, great Christopher Lee), detective Sean Kane (Norris) is berated by his captain (Richard Shaft Roundtree) for using excessive force in his quest for answers. Fed up with how the law works, Sean willingly relinquishes his gun and his badge. However, Sean Kane doesn’t need a weapon. Sean Kane is a weapon! Seething with rage and hell-bent on revenge, Sean, along with a grief-stricken father (the sorely missed Mako from Conan the Barbarian and Chuck’s Sidekicks) of one of Canfield’s recent victims, sets out on a quest to find the mysterious drug kingpin and bring him to his knees. Directed by Steve Carver (Big Bad Mama and Chuck’s Lone WolfMcQuade), An Eye for an Eye, which was the last film to be made by famed independent film studio Avco Embassy Pictures (The Fog, Phantasm, The Exterminator, The Howling), was written by William Gray (Prom Night, Humongous) and James Bruner (Chuck’s Invasion U.S.A. andThe Delta Force), and shot entirely on location in San Francisco, California. The nicely paced, entertaining and well-structured film is filled with solid direction as well as memorable and diverse characters; not to mention wonderful performances. As is usually the case with his engaging action films, Chuck Norris is cool, a bit humorous and totally believable as a courageous, but dangerous hero. It’s also no surprise that the legendary Christopher Lee brings a touch of diabolical class to his villainous role while the great and always reliable Richard Roundtree delivers another solid performance. The rest of the top-notch cast shines as well. Academy Award nominee (for The Sand Pebbles) Mako is extremely lively and witty, making his character the perfect sidekick for the low-key and semi-serious Chuck; Matt Clark (The Outlaw Josey Wales and Chuck’s Walker, Texas Ranger) delivers a wonderfully balanced and subtle performance as fellow cop McCoy; beautiful Maggie Cooper (TV actress turned news commentator) does well with her role as Chuck’s love interest; three time ag Team Champion Professor Toru Tanaka (The Running Man and Chuck’s Missing in Action 2: The Beginning) is completely convincing as a deadly and intimidating Bond-like henchman; the lovely Rosalind Chao (TV’s Star Trek: Deep Space Nine) gives a powerful, but, unfortunately, brief performance as a news reporter; Stuart Pankin (Arachnophobia) is quite comical as an effeminate pimp and, in their brief roles, Terry Kiser (Weekend at Bernie’s, Walker, Texas Ranger) is warm and likeable as a cop while action movie regular Mel Novak (Chuck’s A Force of One) exudes slimy evil as a street snitch. The simple, yet intriguing story moves along at a fast clip and the skillfully directed action sequences (especially the very suspenseful chase scene between Rosalind Chao and Professor Tanaka as well as an exciting helicopter attack that could rival a Bond film) will no doubt keep you watching. Add to all of this a kick-ass musical theme by talented composer William Goldstein (Chuck’s Forced Vengeance) and you have an early 80s action/adventure that is a real joy to watch. An Eye for an Eye has been released on Blu-ray by Kino Lorber in a brand new, HD, anamorphic (1.85:1) widescreen transfer and although the film shows some slight grain in the darker scenes, the movie is otherwise crystal clear and the colors are vibrant. I love this film and this is the absolute best I’ve ever seen it look. Needless to say, it’s a tremendous improvement over the previous DVD release. The region 1 disc also contains a very informative audio commentary with director Steve Carver who not only discusses numerous aspects of the film’s production, but also talks about many interesting things such as working for Avco Embassy and how the late Professor Tanaka was really taking those hits and kicks Chuck was dishing out in the big finale. Carver also has some wonderful and fascinating things to say about Chuck Norris, Christopher Lee, Richard Roundtree, Mako, Toru Tanaka and the rest of the talented cast. The disc features the original theatrical trailer (“White Lightning is back!”) along with a trailer for Chuck’s enjoyable 1988 action-thriller Hero and the Terror(also on Blu-ray by Kino Lorber). If, like me, you’re a fan of Chuck Norris’s early 80s martial arts/action films, I highly recommend this Blu-ray release of An Eye for an Eye. Carlos Ray "Chuck" Norris (born March 10, 1940) is an American martial artist, actor, film producer and screenwriter. After serving in the United States Air Force, he began his rise to fame as a martial artist, and has since founded his own school, Chun Kuk Do. Norris appeared in a number of action films, such as Way of the Dragon, in which he starred alongside Bruce Lee, and was The Cannon Group's leading star in the 1980s.[2][3] He played the starring role in the television seriesWalker, Texas Ranger from 1993 until 2001. Norris is a devout Christian and politically conservative. He has written several books on Christianity and donated to a number of Republican candidates and causes. In 2007 and 2008, he campaigned for former ArkansasGovernor Mike Huckabee, who was running for the Republican nomination for president in 2008.[4] Norris also writes a column for the conservative website WorldNetDaily.[5] Since 2005 Norris has been widely associated with an internet meme which documents fictional and often absurd feats associated with him. Contents [hide] · 1Early life · 2Martial arts career · 3Acting career o 3.1Rise to fame o 3.2Walker, Texas Ranger · 4Product endorsements · 5Chun Kuk Do · 6Personal life o 6.1Family o 6.2Christianity o 6.3Martial arts and personal fitness · 7Activism o 7.1Philanthropy o 7.2Political views · 8Honors · 9Internet meme · 10Filmography · 11References · 12Further reading · 13External links Early life Norris was born in Ryan, Oklahoma on March 10, 1940,[6] the son of Wilma (née Scarberry) and Ray Norris, who was a World War II Army soldier,[7] a mechanic, bus driver, and truck driver.[8] Norris is one half Irish and one halfCherokee Indian, whose paternal grandmother and maternal grandfather were full blooded Cherokees.[7][2][9]Norris was named after Carlos Berry, his father's minister.[7] He has two younger brothers, Wieland (1943-1970; killed in Vietnam) and Aaron (a Hollywood producer). When Norris was sixteen, his parents divorced,[10] and he later relocated to Prairie Village, Kansas, and then to Torrance, California, with his mother and brothers.[2] Norris has described his childhood as downbeat. He was nonathletic, shy, and scholastically mediocre.[11] His father, Ray, worked intermittently as an automobile mechanic, and went on alcohol drinking binges that lasted for months at a time. Embarrassed by his father's behavior and the family's financial plight, Norris developed a debilitating introversion that lasted for his entire childhood.[12] He joined the United States Air Force as an Air Policeman (AP) in 1958 and was sent to Osan Air Base, South Korea. It was there that Norris acquired the nickname Chuck and began his training in Tang Soo Do (tangsudo), an interest that led to black belts in that art and the founding of the Chun Kuk Do ("Universal Way") form.[13] When he returned to the United States, he continued to serve as an AP at March Air Force Base in California. Norris was discharged in August 1962. He worked for the Northrop Corporation and opened a chain of Karate schools including a storefront school in his then-hometown of Torrance on Hawthorne Boulevard. Norris' official website lists celebrity clients at the schools; among them Steve McQueen, Chad McQueen, Bob Barker, Priscilla Presley, Donny Osmond and Marie Osmond.[14] Martial arts career Norris in 1976 Norris on the set of the film The Delta Force (1986) Norris was defeated in his first two tournaments, dropping decisions to Joe Lewis and Allen Steen and three matches at theInternational Karate Championships to Tony Tulleners. By 1967 Norris had improved enough that he scored victories over the likes of Lewis, Skipper Mullins, Arnold Urquidez, Victor Moore, Ron Marchini, and Steve Sanders. Norris would be a two time winner at S. Henry Cho's All American Championship.[15] In early 1968, Norris suffered the tenth and last loss of his career, losing an upset decision to Louis Delgado. On November 24, 1968, he avenged his defeat to Delgado and by doing so won the Professional Middleweight Karate champion title, which he held for six consecutive years.[10] In 1969, he won Karate's triple crown for the most tournament wins of the year, and the Fighter of the Year award by Black Belt magazine. Norris made history in 1990 when he was the first Westerner in the documented history of Tae Kwon Do to be given the rank of 8th Degree Black Belt Grand Master.[16] In 1999, Norris was inducted into the Martial Arts History Museum's Hall of Fame. On July 1, 2000, Norris was presented the Golden Lifetime Achievement Award by the World Karate Union Hall of Fame. Acting career Rise to fame In 1969, Norris made his acting debut in the Dean Martin film The Wrecking Crew. In June 1970, his younger brother Wieland, a private in the 101st Airborne Division, was killed in Vietnam while on patrol in the defense of Firebase Ripcord.[17] Norris later dedicated hisMissing in Action films to his brother's memory. At a martial arts demonstration in Long Beach, Norris met the martial artist Bruce Lee. In 1972, he acted as Lee's nemesis in the movieWay of the Dragon (titled Return of the Dragon in its U.S. distribution), which is widely credited with launching him toward stardom. In Asia, Norris is still known primarily for this role. In 1974, McQueen encouraged him to begin acting classes at MGM. Norris' first starring role was 1977's Breaker! Breaker!, and subsequent films such as Good Guys Wear Black (1978), The Octagon (1980), An Eye for an Eye (1981), and Lone Wolf McQuade proved his increasing box office bankability. In 1984, Norris starred in Missing in Action, the first of a series of Rambo-inspired POW rescue fantasies themed around the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue that were produced by Israeli cousins Menahem Golan and Yoram Globus and released under theirCannon Films banner. The film, however, was criticized heavily as being a preemptive cash-in on the Rambo film series.[18][19] Over the next four years, Norris became Cannon's most prominent star, appearing in eight films, including Code of Silence,The Delta Force, and Firewalker, in which he co-starred with Academy Award winner Louis Gossett, Jr.. Many of the aforementioned films were produced by Norris' brother Aaron Norris, as were several episodes of Walker, Texas Ranger. In 1986, he was involved in the production of the Ruby-Spears cartoon Karate Kommandos. In October 2014 he revealed that he would be shooting a new film, The Finisher, in March 2015.[20] Walker, Texas Ranger By the end of the 1980s, Cannon Films had faded from prominence, and Norris' star appeal seemed to go with it. He reprised his Delta Force role for MGM, which had acquired the Cannon library after the latter's Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Norris went on to make several more films before making a transition to television.[21] In 1993, he began shooting the series Walker, Texas Ranger, which lasted eight years on CBS and continued in heavy syndication on other channels, notably the Hallmark Channel. Norris receiving the Veteran of the Year award by the U.S. Air Force in 2001 On October 17, 2005, CBS premiered the Sunday Night Movie of the Week, Walker, Texas Ranger: Trial by Fire. The production was a continuation of the series, and not scripted to be a reunion movie. Norris reprised his role as Cordell Walker for the movie. He has stated that future Walker, Texas Ranger Movie of the Week projects are expected; however, this was severely impaired by CBS's 2006–2007 season decision to no longer regularly schedule Movies of the Week on Sunday night. Product endorsements Norris has appeared with Christie Brinkley in a long-running series of cable TV infomercials promoting Total Gym homefitness equipment. In 2010, Norris appeared in advertisements for communications company T-Mobile in the Czech Republic.[22] In 2011, Norris appeared in advertisements for the World of Warcraft video game.[23] In 2012, Norris appeared in a series of commercials for the Polish bank BZ WBK.[24] Norris has also appeared in a commercial for Mountain Dew. Chun Kuk Do Main article: Chun Kuk Do Norris created the martial art Chun Kuk Do, which is based primarily on Tang Soo Do and includes elements from every combat style he knows. Like many other martial arts, Chun Kuk Do includes a code of honor and rules to live by. These rules are from Norris' personal code. They are: [25] 1. I will develop myself to the maximum of my potential in all ways. 2. I will forget the mistakes of the past and press on to greater achievements. 3. I will continually work at developing love, happiness and loyalty in my family. 4. I will look for the good in all people and make them feel worthwhile. 5. If I have nothing good to say about a person, I will say nothing. 6. I will always be as enthusiastic about the success of others as I am about my own. 7. I will maintain an attitude of open-mindedness. 8. I will maintain respect for those in authority and demonstrate this respect at all times. 9. I will always remain loyal to my God, my country, family and my friends. 10. I will remain highly goal-oriented throughout my life because that positive attitude helps my family, my country and myself. Personal life Family Norris married Dianne Holechek in 1958. In 1963 their first child, Mike, was born. His daughter Dina was born in 1964 out of an extramarital affair.[26] Later, he had a second son, Eric, with his wife in 1965. After 30 years of marriage, Norris and Holechek divorced in 1988. On November 28, 1998, he married former model Gena O'Kelley, 23 years Norris' junior. O'Kelley had two children from a previous marriage. She delivered twins on August 30, 2001: Dakota Alan Norris, a boy, and Danilee Kelly Norris, a girl.[27] On September 22, 2004, Norris told Entertainment Tonight's Mary Hart that his daughter Dina was the result of an extramarital affair. He did not meet her until she was 26, although she learned that he was her father when she was 16. She sent a letter informing him of their relationship. After meeting her, Norris said he knew she was his daughter upon seeing her.[28] In 2005, Norris reported in his autobiography that his mother gave birth to him when she was 18 years old. Norris has nine grandchildren.[29] Christianity An outspoken Christian,[30] Norris is the author of several Christian-themed books, such as The Justice Riders. He has also been in a few TV commercials promotingBible study and prayer in public schools, in addition to efforts to reduce drug use. In his WorldNetDaily columns, he has expressed his belief in Biblical creationism,[31]that those who are troubled should turn to Jesus, and is quoted as saying "true patriots" do not stay clear of discussing religion and politics.[32] On April 22, 2008, Norris expressed his support for the intelligent design movement when he reviewed Ben Stein's Expelled for Townhall.com.[33] Martial arts and personal fitness Norris has received a black belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu from the Machado family.[34] In his February 15, 2010 WorldNetDaily column, Norris announced that, starting in the fall of 2010, he will begin a second weekly column for Creators Syndicate. This new column, "C-Force", will focus on personal fitness.[35] Activism Philanthropy He is known for his contribution towards organizations such as Funds for Kids, Veteran's Administration National Salute to Hospitalized Veterans, the United Way, and the Make-A-Wish Foundation in the form of donations as well as fund-raising activities.[36] His time with the U.S. Veterans Administration as a spokesperson was inspired by his experience serving the United States Air Force in Korea. His objective has been to popularize the issues such as Pensions and Health care, that concern hospitalized war veterans. Due to his significant contributions, and continued patriotism, he received the Veteran of the Year award in 2001 at the American Veteran Awards.[36] Norris also established the United Fighting Arts Federation and Kickstart Kids in 1990. As a significant part of his philanthropic contributions, the organization was formed to develop self-esteem and focus in at-risk children as a tactic to keep them away from drug-related pressure by training them in martial arts. Norris hopes that by shifting middle school and high school children's focus towards this positive and strengthening endeavour, these children will have the opportunity to build a better future for themselves.[36][37] In 2005, Norris founded the World Combat League (WCL), a full-contact, team-based martial arts competition, of which part of the proceeds are given to his Kickstart Kids program.[36] Additionally, Norris supports the Vijay Amritraj Foundation, which aims at bringing hope, help and healing to the defenceless and innocent victims of disease, tragedy and circumstance in India. Through his donations, he has helped the foundation support Paediatric HIV/AIDS homes in Delhi, a blind school in Karnataka, and a mission that cares for HIV/AIDS infected adults, as well as mentally ill patients in Cochin.[38] Political views Norris with former Presidential candidate Mike Huckabee inLondonderry, New Hampshire Norris is a Republican and has donated more than $32,000 to Republican candidates and organizations since 1988.[39] Norris supports gun rights and ownership and is against public schools celebrating the Day of Silence.[40] In 2006, Norris began penning a column for the conservative news website WorldNetDaily, sharing his "musings about faith, family, freedom, country, loyalty – maybe even kickboxing." On October 22, 2007, Norris announced his endorsement of Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee for President.[41] Norris said, "I believe the only one who has all of the characteristics to lead America forward into the future is ex-Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee."[42] After the 2008 presidential election, Norris drafted a letter to President-elect Barack Obama, stating that he should "use and cite the Constitution ... protect American life ... learn from the mistakes of your Democratic predecessors ... [and] lead more from the center".[43] On November 18, 2008, Norris became one of the first members of show business to express support for the California Proposition 8 ban on same-sex marriage, and he chided activists for "interfering" with the democratic process and the double standard he perceived in criticizing theLDS Church without criticizing African Americans, who had voted for the measure by a wide margin.[44] During the 2012 presidential election, Norris first recommended Ron Paul, and then later formally endorsed Newt Gingrich as the Republican presidential candidate.[45]After Gingrich suspended his campaign in May 2012, Norris endorsed Republican presumptive nominee Mitt Romney, despite Norris having previously accused Romney of flip-flopping and of trying to buy the nomination for the Republican Party candidacy for 2012.[46][47] On the eve of the election he and his wife Gina made a video warning that if evangelicals didn't show up at the polls and vote out President Obama, "...our country as we know it may be lost forever...".[48][49] Norris also produced the film Answering the Call, which featured his 2007 trip to Iraq to visit the troops.[50][51] Norris endorsed Huckabee again in the 2016 Republican Primary before he dropped out.[52] In March 2016, it was reported that Norris endorsed Republican TexasSenator Ted Cruz and that he would be attending a Cruz rally,[53][54] but two days later, Norris stated he would only endorse the GOP nominee once that nominee has been nominated by the party.[55] Honors Norris during a promotion ceremony at Camp Taqaddum in the Al Anbarprovince of Iraq on November 2, 2006 On March 28, 2007, Commandant Gen. James T. Conway made Norris an honorary United States Marine during a dinner at the commandant's residence in Washington, D.C.[56] On December 2, 2010, he (along with brother Aaron) was given the title honorary Texas Ranger by Texas Governor Rick Perry.[57] Internet meme Main article: Chuck Norris facts In late 2005, Norris became the object of an ironic internet meme known as "Chuck Norris Facts", which document fictional, often absurdly heroic feats and characteristics about Norris. Norris has written his own response to the parody on his website, stating that he does not feel offended by them and finds some of them funny,[58][58] claiming that his personal favorite is that they wanted to add his face to Mount Rushmore, but the granite is not hard enough for his beard.[59] On November 29, 2007, Gotham Books, the adult division of Penguin USA, released a book entitled The Truth About Chuck Norris: 400 facts about the World's Greatest Human based on the Chuck Norris Facts.[60] Norris filed suit in December against Penguin USA and author Ian Spector claiming "trademark infringement, unjust enrichment and privacy rights."[61] Norris dropped the suit in May of the following year.[62] FilmographyThe Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide (1.6 km), three-mile-long (4.8 km) channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The structure links the American city ofSan Francisco, California – the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula – to Marin County, carrying both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1 across the strait. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and the United States. It has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.[7] The Frommers travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as "possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world."[8] It opened in 1937 and was, until 1964, the longest suspension bridge main spanin the world, at 4,200 feet (1,300 m). Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Ferry service 1.2 Conception 1.3 Design 1.4 Finance 1.5 Construction 1.6 Opening festivities, 50th, and 75th anniversaries 2 Structural specifications 3 Aesthetics 4 Traffic 4.1 Usage and tourism 4.2 Tolls 4.3 Congestion pricing 5 Issues 5.1 Suicides 5.2 Wind 5.3 Seismic vulnerability and improvements 6 In popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links History[edit] Ferry service[edit] Golden Gate with Fort Point in foreground, c. 1891 Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco.[9] The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service, launched in 1867, eventually became the Golden Gate Ferry Company, a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s.[9][10] Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacific's automobile ferries became very profitable and important to the regional economy.[11] The ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco and Sausalitoin Marin County took approximately 20 minutes and cost US$1.00 per vehicle, a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge.[12] The trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city's growth rate was below the national average.[13] Many experts said that a bridge could not be built across the 6,700 ft (2,042 m) strait, which had strong, swirling tides and currents, with water 372 ft (113 m) deep[14] at the center of the channel, and frequent strong winds. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation.[13] Conception[edit] Although the idea of a bridge spanning the Golden Gate was not new, the proposal that eventually took hold was made in a 1916 San Francisco Bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins.[15] San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, which would have been $2.12 billion in 2009, and impractical for the time. He asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less.[9] One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an ambitious engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis, designed a 55-mile-long (89 km) railroad bridge acrossthe Bering Strait.[16] At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project.[3] Strauss's initial drawings[15] were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, which Strauss promised could be built for $17 million.[9] Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts.[citation needed] A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy.[9] Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California.[17] The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources. The Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. The navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs. Southern Pacific Railroad, one of the most powerful business interests in California, opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project, leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service.[9] In May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction. Deakyne, on behalf of the Secretary of War, approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association" and both San Francisco County and Marin County, pending further bridge plans by Strauss.[18] Another ally was the fledgling automobile industry, which supported the development of roads and bridges to increase demand for automobiles.[12] The bridge's name was first used when the project was initially discussed in 1917 by M.M. O'Shaughnessy, city engineer of San Francisco, and Strauss. The name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the state legislature in 1923, creating a special district to design, build and finance the bridge.[19] San Francisco and most of the counties along the North Coast of California joined the Golden Gate Bridge District, with the exception beingHumboldt County, whose residents opposed the bridge's construction and the traffic it would generate.[20] Design[edit] South tower seen from walkway, with Art Deco elements Strauss was chief engineer in charge of overall design and construction of the bridge project.[13] However, because he had little understanding or experience with cable-suspension designs,[21] responsibility for much of the engineering and architecture fell on other experts. Strauss's initial design proposal (two double cantilever spans linked by a central suspension segment) was unacceptable from a visual standpoint. The final graceful suspension design was conceived and championed by Leon Moisseiff, the architect of the Manhattan Bridge in New York City.[22] Irving Morrow, a relatively unknown residential architect, designed the overall shape of the bridge towers, the lighting scheme, and Art Deco elements, such as the tower decorations, streetlights, railing, and walkways. The famous International Orange color was originally used as a sealant for the bridge.[23] The US Navy had wanted it to be painted with black and yellow stripes to ensure visibility by passing ships.[13] Senior engineer Charles Alton Ellis, collaborating remotely with Moisseiff, was the principal engineer of the project.[24] Moisseiff produced the basic structural design, introducing his "deflection theory" by which a thin, flexible roadway would flex in the wind, greatly reducing stress by transmitting forces via suspension cables to the bridge towers.[24] Although the Golden Gate Bridge design has proved sound, a later Moisseiff design, the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge, collapsed in a strong windstorm soon after it was completed, because of an unexpected aeroelastic flutter.[25] Ellis was also tasked with designing a "bridge within a bridge" in the southern abutment, to avoid the need to demolish Fort Point, a pre-Civil War masonry fortification viewed, even then, as worthy of historic preservation. He penned a graceful steel arch spanning the fort and carrying the roadway to the bridge's southern anchorage.[26] Below Golden Gate Bridge Ellis was a Greek scholar and mathematician who at one time was a University of Illinois professor of engineering despite having no engineering degree. He eventually earned a degree in civil engineering from the University of Illinois prior to designing the Golden Gate Bridge and spent the last twelve years of his career as a professor at Purdue University. He became an expert in structural design, writing the standard textbook of the time.[27] Ellis did much of the technical and theoretical work that built the bridge, but he received none of the credit in his lifetime. In November 1931, Strauss fired Ellis and replaced him with a former subordinate, Clifford Paine, ostensibly for wasting too much money sending telegrams back and forth to Moisseiff.[27] Ellis, obsessed with the project and unable to find work elsewhere during the Depression, continued working 70 hours per week on an unpaid basis, eventually turning in ten volumes of hand calculations.[27] With an eye toward self-promotion and posterity, Strauss downplayed the contributions of his collaborators who, despite receiving little recognition or compensation,[21] are largely responsible for the final form of the bridge. He succeeded in having himself credited as the person most responsible for the design and vision of the bridge.[27] Only much later were the contributions of the others on the design team properly appreciated.[27] In May 2007, the Golden Gate Bridge District issued a formal report on 70 years of stewardship of the famous bridge and decided to give Ellis major credit for the design of the bridge. The height, depth, and length of the span from end to end, looking west The Golden Gate Bridge at sunset, as seen from just north of Alcatraz Island Finance[edit] The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District, authorized by an act of the California Legislature, was incorporated in 1928 as the official entity to design, construct, and finance the Golden Gate Bridge.[13] However, after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the District was unable to raise the construction funds, so it lobbied for a $30 million bond measure. The bonds were approved in November 1930,[16] by votes in the counties affected by the bridge.[28] The construction budget at the time of approval was $27 million. However, the District was unable to sell the bonds until 1932, when Amadeo Giannini, the founder of San Francisco–based Bank of America, agreed on behalf of his bank to buy the entire issue in order to help the local economy.[9] Construction[edit] Construction began on January 5, 1933.[9] The project cost more than $35 million,[29] completing ahead of schedule and under budget.[30] The Golden Gate Bridge construction project was carried out by the McClintic-Marshall Construction Co., a subsidiary of Bethlehem Steel Corporation founded by Howard H. McClintic and Charles D. Marshall, both of Lehigh University. 1.2 million steel rivets hold the bridge together. This is a segment of one of those replaced during the seismic retrofit of the bridge after the1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Strauss remained head of the project, overseeing day-to-day construction and making some groundbreaking contributions. A graduate of the University of Cincinnati, he placed a brick from his alma mater's demolished McMicken Hall in the south anchorage before the concrete was poured. He innovated the use of movable safety netting beneath the construction site, which saved the lives of many otherwise-unprotected ironworkers. Of eleven men killed from falls during construction, ten were killed (when the bridge was near completion on May 27, 1937) when the net failed under the stress of a scaffold that had fallen.[31] According to Travel Channel's Monumental Mysteries, the workers platform that was attached to a rolling hanger on a track collapsed when the bolts that were connected to the track were too small and the amount of weight was too great to bear. The platform fell into the safety net, but was too heavy and the net gave way. Two out of the twelve workers survived the 200-foot (61 m) fall into the icy waters, including the 37-year-old foreman, Slim Lambert. Nineteen others who were saved by the net over the course of construction became members of their Half Way to Hell Club.[32] The project was finished and opened May 27, 1937. It was completed $1.3 million under budget.[9] The Bridge Round Housediner was then included in the southeastern end of the Golden Gate Bridge, adjacent to the tourist plaza which was renovated in 2012.[33] The Bridge Round House, an Art Deco design by Alfred Finnila completed in 1938, has been popular throughout the years as a starting point for various commercial tours of the bridge and an unofficial gift shop.[34] The diner was renovated in 2012[33] and the gift shop was then removed as a new, official gift shop has been included in the adjacent plaza.[34] During the bridge work, the Assistant Civil Engineer of California Alfred Finnila had overseen the entire iron work of the bridge as well as half of the bridge's road work.[35] With the death of Jack Balestreri in April 2012, all workers involved in the original construction are now deceased. Opening festivities, 50th, and 75th anniversaries[edit] The bridge-opening celebration began on May 27, 1937 and lasted for one week. The day before vehicle traffic was allowed, 200,000 people crossed either on foot or on roller skates.[9] On opening day, Mayor Angelo Rossi and other officials rode the ferry to Marin, then crossed the bridge in a motorcade past three ceremonial "barriers", the last a blockade of beauty queens who required Joseph Strauss to present the bridge to the Highway District before allowing him to pass. An official song, "There's a Silver Moon on the Golden Gate", was chosen to commemorate the event. Strauss wrote a poem that is now on the Golden Gate Bridge entitled "The Mighty Task is Done." The next day, President Roosevelt pushed a button in Washington, D.C. signaling the official start of vehicle traffic over the Bridge at noon. As the celebration got out of hand there was a small riot in the uptown Polk Gulch area. Weeks of civil and cultural activities called "the Fiesta" followed. A statue of Strauss was moved in 1955 to a site near the bridge.[15] In May 1987, as part of the 50th anniversary celebration, the Golden Gate Bridge district again closed the bridge to automobile traffic and allowed pedestrians to cross the bridge. However, this celebration attracted 750,000 to 1,000,000 people, and ineffective crowd control meant the bridge became congested with roughly 300,000 people, causing the center span of the bridge to flatten out under the weight.[36] Although the bridge is designed to flex in that way under heavy loads, and was estimated not to have exceeded 40% of the yielding stress of the suspension cables,[37] bridge officials stated that uncontrolled pedestrian access was not being considered as part of the 75th anniversary on Sunday, May 27, 2012,[38][39][40] because of the additional law enforcement costs required "since 9/11".[41] A pedestrian poses at the old railing on opening day, 1937 Opening of the Golden Gate Bridge Official invitation to the opening of the bridge. This copy was sent to the City of Seattle Structural specifications[edit] On the south side of the bridge a 36.5-inch-wide (93 cm) cross-section of the cable, containing 27,572 wires, is on display. Until 1964, the Golden Gate Bridge had the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet (1,300 m). Since 1964 its main span length has been surpassed by ten bridges; it now has the second-longest main span in the United States, after theVerrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. The total length of the Golden Gate Bridge from abutment to abutment is 8,981 feet (2,737 m). The Golden Gate Bridge's clearance above high water averages 220 feet (67 m) while its towers, at 746 feet (227 m) above the water, were the world's tallest on a suspension bridge until 1998 when bridges in Denmark and Japan were completed. The weight of the roadway is hung from two cables that pass through the two main towers and are fixed in concrete at each end. Each cable is made of 27,572 strands of wire. There are 80,000 miles (130,000 km) of wire in the main cables.[42] The bridge has approximately 1,200,000 total rivets. Aesthetics[edit] The color of the bridge is officially an orange vermilion called international orange.[43] The color was selected by consulting architect Irving Morrow[44] because it complements the natural surroundings and enhances the bridge's visibility in fog. Aesthetics was the foremost reason why the first design of Joseph Strauss was rejected. Upon re-submission of his bridge construction plan, he added details, such as lighting, to outline the bridge's cables and towers.[45] In 1999, it was ranked fifth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. The bridge was originally painted with red lead primer and a lead-based topcoat, which was touched up as required. In the mid-1960s, a program was started to improve corrosion protection by stripping the original paint and repainting the bridge with zinc silicate primer and vinyl topcoats.[46][47] Since 1990 acrylic topcoats have been used instead for air-quality reasons. The program was completed in 1995 and it is now maintained by 38 painters who touch up the paintwork where it becomes seriously corroded.[48] The Golden Gate Bridge by night, with part of downtown San Francisco visible in the background at far left A view of the Golden Gate Bridge from the Marin Headlands on a foggy morning at sunrise View of the northern tower of the bridge Traffic[edit] Installation of the movable median barrier system in January 2015 Testing the newly installed movable barrier. Most maps and signage mark the bridge as part of the concurrency between U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1. Although part of the National Highway System, the bridge is not officially part of California's Highway System.[49] For example, under the California Streets and Highways Code § 401, Route 101 ends at "the approach to the Golden Gate Bridge" and then resumes at "a point in Marin County opposite San Francisco". The Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District has jurisdiction over the segment of highway that crosses the bridge instead of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). The movable median barrier between the lanes is moved several times daily to conform to traffic patterns. On weekday mornings, traffic flows mostly southbound into the city, so four of the six lanes run southbound. Conversely, on weekday afternoons, four lanes run northbound. During off-peak periods and weekends, traffic is split with three lanes in each direction.[50] From 1968 to 2015, opposing traffic was separated by small, plastic pylons, and during that time, there were 16 fatalities resulting from 128 head-on collisions.[51] To improve safety, the speed limit on the Golden Gate Bridge was reduced from 50 to 45 mph (80 to 72 km/h) on October 1, 1989.[52] Although there had been discussion concerning the installation of amovable barrier since the 1980s, only in March 2005 did the Bridge Board of Directors commit to finding funding to complete the $2 million study required prior to the installation of a movable median barrier.[51] Installation of a movable median barrier was completed on January 11, 2015, following a closure of 45.5 hours to private vehicle traffic, the longest in the bridge's history. The new barrier system, including the zipper trucks, cost approximately $30.3 million to purchase and install.[51][53]The movable barrier allows the number of N/S lanes to be reconfigured during the day as traffic requires. Usage and tourism[edit] Looking north with traffic and current flow into the bay with sailboats The bridge is popular with pedestrians and bicyclists, and was built with walkways on either side of the six vehicle traffic lanes. Initially, they were separated from the traffic lanes by only a metal curb, but railings between the walkways and the traffic lanes were added in 2003, primarily as a measure to prevent bicyclists from falling into the roadway.[54] The main walkway is on the eastern side, and is open for use by both pedestrians and bicycles in the morning to mid-afternoon during weekdays (5 am to 3:30 pm), and to pedestrians only for the remaining daylight hours (until 6 pm, or 9 pm during DST). The eastern walkway is reserved for pedestrians on weekends (5 am to 6 pm, or 9 pm during DST), and is open exclusively to bicyclists in the evening and overnight, when it is closed to pedestrians. The western walkway is open only for bicyclists and only during the hours when they are not allowed on the eastern walkway.[55] Bus service across the bridge is provided by two public transportation agencies: San Francisco Muni and Golden Gate Transit. Muni offers Saturday and Sunday service on the Marin Headlands Express bus line, and Golden Gate Transit runs numerous bus lines throughout the week.[56][57] The southern end of the bridge, near the toll plaza and parking lot, is also accessible daily from 5:30 a.m. to midnight by Muni line 28.[58] The Marin Airporter, a private company, also offers service across the bridge between Marin County and San Francisco International Airport.[59] A visitor center and gift shop, dubbed the "Bridge Pavilion", is located on the San Francisco side of the bridge, adjacent to the southeast parking lot. It opened in 2012, in time for the bridge's 75th anniversary celebration. A cafe, outdoor exhibits, and restroom facilities are located nearby.[60] Tolls[edit] The last of the construction bonds were retired in 1971, with $35 million in principal and nearly $39 million in interest raised entirely from bridge tolls.[61] In November 2006, the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District recommended a corporate sponsorship program for the bridge to address its operating deficit, projected at $80 million over five years. The District promised that the proposal, which it called a "partnership program," would not include changing the name of the bridge or placing advertising on the bridge itself. In October 2007, the Board unanimously voted to discontinue the proposal and seek additional revenue through other means, most likely a toll increase.[62][63] In an effort to save $19.2 million over the following 10 years, the Golden Gate District voted in January 2011 to eliminate all toll takers by 2012 and use only open road tolling.[64] Subsequently, this was delayed and toll taker elimination occurred in March 2013. The cost savings have been revised to $19 million over an eight-year period. In addition to the FasTrak electronic toll collection system, the Golden Gate District implemented the use of license plate tolling (branded as "Pay-by-Plate"), and also a one time payment system for drivers to pay before or after their trip on the bridge. Twenty-eight positions were eliminated as part of this plan.[65] On April 7, 2014, the toll for users of FasTrak was increased from $5 to $6, while the toll for drivers using either the license plate tolling or the one time payment system was raised from $6 to $7. Bicycle, pedestrian, and northbound motor vehicle traffic remain toll free. For vehicles with more than two axles, the toll rate is $7 per axle for those using license plate tolling or the one time payment system, and $6 per axle for FasTrak users. During peak traffic hours, carpool vehicles carrying two or more people and motorcycles pay a discounted toll of $4; drivers must have Fastrak to take advantage of this carpool rate.[66] The Golden Gate Transportation District then planned to increase the tolls by 25 cents in July 2015, and then by another 25 cents each of the next three years.[67] Golden Gate Bridge toll increases (2014–18)[67][68] Effective date FasTrak Toll-by-plate Carpool Multi-axle vehicle April 7, 2014 $6.00 $7.00 $4.00 $7.00 per axle July 1, 2015 $6.25 $7.25 $4.25 $7.25 per axle July 1, 2016 $6.50 $7.50 $4.50 $7.50 per axle July 1, 2017 $6.75 $7.75 $4.75 $7.75 per axle July 1, 2018 $7.00 $8.00 $5.00 $8.00 per axle Congestion pricing[edit] Further information: San Francisco congestion pricing Looking south In March 2008, the Golden Gate Bridge District board approved a resolution to start congestion pricing at the Golden Gate Bridge, charging higher tolls during the peak hours, but rising and falling depending on traffic levels. This decision allowed the Bay Area to meet the federal requirement to receive $158 million in federal transportation funds from USDOT Urban Partnership grant.[69] As a condition of the grant, the congestion toll was to be in place by September 2009.[70][71] The first results of the study, called the Mobility, Access and Pricing Study (MAPS), showed that a congestion pricing program is feasible.[72] The different pricing scenarios considered were presented in public meetings in December 2008.[73] In August 2008, transportation officials ended the congestion pricing program in favor of varying rates for metered parking along the route to the bridge including on Lombard Street and Van Ness Avenue.[74] Issues[edit] Suicides[edit] As a suicide prevention initiative, this sign promotes a special telephone available on the bridge that connects to a crisis hotline. Main article: Suicides at the Golden Gate Bridge The Golden Gate Bridge is the second-most used suicide site/suicide bridge in the world, after the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge.[75] The deck is about 245 feet (75 m) above the water.[76] After a fall of four seconds,jumpers hit the water at around 75 mph or about 120 km/h. Most of the jumpers die from impact trauma. About 5% of the jumpers survive the initial impact but generally drown or die of hypothermia in the cold water.[77][78] Wind[edit] Air race near the Golden Gate Bridge Since its completion, the Golden Gate Bridge has been closed because of weather conditions only three times: on December 1, 1951, because of gusts of 69 mph (111 km/h); on December 23, 1982, because of winds of 70 mph (113 km/h); and on December 3, 1983, because of wind gusts of 75 mph (121 km/h).[79] An anemometer, placed midway between the two towers on the west side of the bridge, has been used to measure wind speeds. Another anemometer was placed on one of the towers. Seismic vulnerability and improvements[edit] Modern knowledge of the effect of earthquakes on structures led to a program to retrofit the Golden Gate to better resist seismic events. The proximity of the bridge to the San Andreas Fault places it at risk for a significant earthquake. Once thought to have been able to withstand any magnitude of foreseeable earthquake, the bridge was actually vulnerable to complete structural failure (i.e., collapse) triggered by the failure of supports on the 320-foot (98 m) arch over Fort Point.[80] A $392 million program was initiated to improve the structure's ability to withstand such an event with only minimal (repairable) damage. One challenging undertaking is completing this program without disrupting traffic. A complex electro-hydraulic synchronous lift system was custom built for construction of temporary support towers and a series of intricate lifts, transferring the loads from the existing bridge onto the temporary supports. This was completed with engineers from Balfour Beatty and Enerpac, accomplishing this task without disrupting day-to-day San Francisco commuter traffic.[81][82] The retrofit was planned to be completed in 2012.[83][84] Doyle Drive Replacement Project progress in October 2013 The former elevated approach to the Golden Gate Bridge through the San Francisco Presidio, known as Doyle Drive, dated to 1933 and was named after Frank P. Doyle, President and son of the founder of the Exchange Bank in Santa Rosa, and the man who, more than any other person, made it possible to build the Golden Gate Bridge.[85] The highway carried about 91,000 vehicles each weekday between downtown San Francisco and the North Bay and points north.[86] The road was deemed "vulnerable to earthquake damage", had a problematic 4-lane design, and lacked shoulders, and a San Francisco County Transportation Authority study recommended that it be replaced. Construction on the $1 billion[87] replacement, temporarily known as the Presidio Parkway, began in December 2009.[88] The elevated Doyle Drive was demolished on the weekend of April 27–30, 2012, and traffic used a part of the partially completed Presidio Parkway, until it was switched onto the finished Presidio Parkway on the weekend of July 9–12, 2015. As of May 2012, an official at Caltrans said there is no plan to permanently rename the portion known as Doyle Drive.[89] In popular culture[edit] Main article: Golden Gate Bridge in popular culture As a prominent American landmark, the Golden Gate Bridge has been used in numerous media which includes books, films and video games. San Francisco with two bridges (Western section of Bay Bridge in the left background), Coit Tower (in background to the left of north tower), and Fort Mason (on the San Francisco waterfront in the background behind the north tower) from Marin Golden Gate Bridge at night, with San Francisco in the background Comparison of the side elevations of the Golden Gate Bridge and some notable bridges at the same scale. (click for interactive version) See also[edit] San Francisco Bay Area portal 25 de Abril Bridge, a bridge with a similar design in Portugal Golden Gate Bridge in popular culture List of Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks List of longest suspension bridge spans List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks List of tallest bridges in the world San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge Suicide bridge Suspension bridge The Bridge, a 2006 documentary on suicides from the Bridge ebay3489 Condition: Used, Condition: The condition is very good . Folded , Very slightly creased , Nothing that a framed glass wouldn't hide. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ), Size: Size around 27" x 19", Country//Region of Manufacture: Israel

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