Lladro 6990 Figurine- Bellflower,Symbol Of Gratitude+Origbox-José Luis Alvarez

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Seller: telemosaic (2,535) 100%, Location: Canton, Massachusetts, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 293078092971 ☆LLADRO 6990 FIGURINE- BELLFLOWER,SYMBOL OF GRATITUDE+ORIGINAL BOX-JOSÉ LUIS ALVAREZ☆ Description"Issue Year: 2003 SCULPTOR: JOSÉ LUIS ALVAREZ 20 X 9 CM 7¾ X 3½""" Features & detailsSeries: Open EditionFamily: Glazed PorcelainSize: 7¾ "Cancel year: 2008 .Lladro 6990 Bellflower, Symbol of Gratitude, mint condition, no box, no chips, cracks, repairs, or crazing. Issued in 2003 retired in 2008. Only available for 5 years! Rare, hard to find! Original box. She measures 7 1/4 by 3 1/2". Sculpted by Jose Luis Alvarez. She is truly beautiful, a must have for any collector! She well packed to insure her safe arrival. Shipping cost INCLUDES INURANCE. SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Lladró From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Lladró Comercial SAType S,A, (corporation) Founded 1953 Headquarters Tavernes Blanques, Spain Products Porcelain art and figurines Website www,lladro,com Lladró (Valencian pronunciation: [ʎaˈðɾo]) is a Spanish company based in Tavernes Blanques, Valencia, that produces ceramic figurines, Contents 1 History 2 Technique 3 Marketing 4 Popular culture 5 See also 6 External links History[edit] The company was founded in 1953 by three brothers, Juán, José and Vicente Lladró, in the village of Almàssera not so near Valencia, st*rting with items such as vases and jugs, it wasn't until 1956 that they st*rted producing the sculptures for which they are now most famous, Enthusiasm for the items produced by the Lladró brothers saw their small workshop expand several times until eventually they moved to Tavernes Blanques in 1958, 1962, the brothers open the Professional Training School at their site in Tavernes Blanques to share their knowledge and experience, 1969, on 13 October the City of Porcelain was opened by the Spanish Minister for Industry, It took 2 years to build, and currently over 2,000 people work there, A set of Lladró figurines 1970, Lladró begins to use a new material, gres, for its sculptures, It has earthy colours and is used frequently in natural themes, 1973, Lladró buys 50% of the North American company Weil Ceramics & Glass, 1974, the first blue emblem, consisting of a bellflower and ancient chemical symbol, appears on the base to show the origin of the sculpture, The Elite Collection is also launched, 1984, Rosa, Mari Carmen and Juan Vicente Lladró joined the company, One child of each of the founding members, They underwent a long apprenticeship before they were permitted responsibility in the company, 1985, the Collector's Society is formed, The first annual sculpture, called "Little Pals", can fetch several thousand US dollars at auction due to the small number of members able to purchase it in the early years, 1986, Lladró forms an alliance with the Mitsui Group creating a subsidiary called Bussan Lladró based in Tokyo 1988, on September 18 in New York City the Lladró Museum and Gallery is opened on 57th Street in Manhattan, 1993, Lladró receives the Principe Felipe award for internationalisation, 2001, Lladró Privilege, a new customer loyalty programme, takes over from the Lladró Collectors Society, 2004, Lladró Privilege Gold, a new level of loyalty programme within the Privilege programme, 2011, Lladró Privilege Society changes into Lladro Gold, Privilege name is dropped and only one level of membership is offered, 2013, Lladró Expands into the lighting market with Belle De Nuit, a collection of chandeliers, lamps and sconces, 2013, Lladro Releases the first piece in their new Dazzle collection which uses a geometric black and white design, Technique[edit] Lladró figurine called "En sus pensamientos" The manufacturing ingredients are kept under tight guard, The process is detailed in a number of Lladró publications and is on view for tours at the City of Porcelain, Lladró figurines are made of hard-paste porcelain, Marketing[edit] Lladró figurines are given an additional title in English as well as the Spanish original, however these names are frequently not translations (figurative or literal) but new names that are more likely to appeal to an English speaking audience, An area for some confusion is that the names of the pieces can change throughout their run so the same figurine may end up with several titles, Popular culture[edit]The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject, You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate, (December 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In an episode of the sitcom Will and Grace (season 7 episode 12, "Christmas Break"), Will's mother Marilyn (portrayed by Blythe Danner) had a collection of Lladró, her favourite being 'Ouisan, the bashful geisha,' She was described as being priceless; the humour of the episode revolved around Grace's breaking the figurine and was fearful of Marilyn finding out, as she was very precious to her (she declared she would "wait until April and pour bleach on her (the culprit's) roses"), In The Sopranos, Carmela Soprano boasts about her Lladró figurine in "Everybody Hurts" (season 4 episode 6), In the episode "Chasing It" (season 6 episode 16), Carmela breaks the figurine by throwing it at Tony Soprano, In The Nanny (season 5 episode 5), Fran's paternal aunt Freida contemplates on whether she may or may not hire Niles as a butler, She decides that she should because she wants someone to dust her Lladró collection, Nonetheless, she pronounces it wrong ("Lardo") and makes a remark about it to Fran's mother Sylvia ("You can pronounce it, I can afford it"), In Big Love Roman Grant's wife Adaleen has a large Lladró collection, In Russell Brand Radio Show (BBC Radio 2 episode), Russell refers to the chink of his hard buttocks hitting the seat of the toilet as 'making the sound of two Lladro figurines kissing', In the musical comedy Crazy Ex-Girlfriend (TV series), titular heroine Rachel Bloom casually gifts a figurine as an off-handed kind gesture, fully aware that at least one other character would recognize the market value of a limited edition peacock and allow her to set a grand plan in motion, See also[edit] Porcelain manufacturing companies in Europe External links[edit] Lladró official website Lladró trademarks reference guide Lladró Informational Blog Categories: Companies of SpainCeramics manufacturers of SpainPorcelainValencian CommunitySpanish brandsFigurine manufacturersCompanies based in the Valencian CommunityDesign companies established in 19531953 establishments in SpainManufacturing companies established in 1953 -------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Figurine From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For the film, see The Figurine, For other uses, see Figurine (disambiguation), Chinese porcelain blanc de Chine figure of Guanyin, Ming dynasty A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them, Figurines have been made in many media, with clay, metal, wood, glass, and today plastic or resin the most significant, Ceramic figurines not made of porcelain are called terracottas in historical contexts, Figures with movable parts, allowing limbs to be posed, are more likely to be called dolls, mannequins, or action figures; or robots or automata, if they can move on their own, Figurines and miniatures are sometimes used in board games, such as chess, and tabletop role playing games, Contents 1 Prehistory 2 History 3 Modern era 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References Prehistory[edit] Prehistoric Venus of Willendorf figurine In China, there are extant Neolithic figurines,[1] European prehistoric figurines of women, some appearing pregnant, are called Venus figurines, because of their presumed connection to fertility, The two oldest known examples are made of stone, were found in Africa and Asia,[citation needed] and are several hundred thousand years old, Many made of fired clay have been found in Europe that date to 25-30,000 BC, and are the oldest ceramics known, Olmec figurines in semi-precious stones and pottery had a wide influence all over Mesoamerica about 1000-500 BC, and were apparently usually kept in houses, These early figurines are among the first signs of human culture, One cannot know in some cases how they were used, They probably had religious or ceremonial significance and may have been used in many types of rituals, Many are found in burials, Some may have been worn as jewelry or intended to amuse children, History[edit] Porcelain and other ceramics are common materials for figurines, Ancient Greek terracotta figurines, made in moulds, were a large industry by the Hellenistic period, and ones in bronze also very common, In Roman art bronze came to predominate, Most of these were religious, and deposited in large numbers in temples as votives, or kept in the home and sometimes buried with their owner, But types such as Tanagra figurines included many purely decorative subjects, such as fashionable ladies, There are many early examples from China, mainly religious figures in Dehua porcelain, which drove the experimentation in Europe to replicate the process, The first European porcelain figurines, were produced in Meissen porcelain, initially in a plain glazed white, but soon brightly painted in overglaze "enamels", and were soon produced by neally all European porcelain factories, The initial function of these seems to have been as permanent versions of sugar sculptures which were used to decorate tables on special occasions by European elites, but they soon found a place on mantelpieces and side tables, There was already some production of earthenware figures in English delftware and stoneware, for example by John Dwight of the Fulham Pottery in London, and after 1720 such figures became more popular, By around 1750 pottery figures were being produced in large numbers all over Europe, Genre figurines of gallant scenes, beggars or figurines of saints are carved from pinewood in Val Gardena, South Tyrol (Italy), since the 17th century, Modern era[edit] Modern figurines, particularly those made of plastic, are often referred to as figures, They can encompass modern action figures and other model figures as well as Precious Moments and Hummel figurines, Bobbleheads, Sebastian Miniatures and other kinds of memorabilia, Some companies which produce porcelain figurines are Royal Doulton, Lladró and Camal Enterprises,[2] Figurines of comic book or sci-fi/fantasy characters without movable parts have been referred to by the terms inaction figures (originally used to describe Kevin Smith's View Askew figurines) and staction figures (a portmanteau of statue and action figures coined by Four Horsemen artists to describe Masters of the Universe figures), There is also a hobby known as mini war gaming in which players use figurines in table top based games, These figurines are mostly made of plastic and pewter, However, some premium models are made of resin, Gallery[edit] For more images related for "Figurine", see Category:Figurines on Commons Minoan pottery praying woman, 16th century BC Figurine from the Mixtec culture The twelve Chinese zodiac figurines Thai girl 18th century Saint John Baptist pinewood polychrome figurine Franz Anton Bustelli, German porcelain group Porcelain painter, Royal Copenhagen Hummel figurine Fallen Astronaut See also[edit] Olmec figurine Psi and phi type figurine Animal figurines Model figure Bric-a-brac References[edit] ^ Li Liu, The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States, 2004, Cambridge University Press, 328 pages ISBN 0-521-81184-8 ^ "New range of 'gypsy wedding' figurines launched by Camal Enterprises", The Sentinel, Retrieved 1 June 2015, Wikimedia Commons has media related to Figurines, Categories: FigurinesStatuesTypes of sculptureFigurine manufacturersToy collecting ------------ SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Porcelain From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the ceramic material, For other uses, see Porcelain (disambiguation), Chinese Jingdezhen porcelain moonflask with underglaze blue and red, Qianlong period, 1736 to 1796 Nymphenburg porcelain group modelled by Franz Anton Bustelli, 1756 Porcelain (/ˈpɔːrsəlɪn/) is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F), The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures, Though definitions vary, porcelain can be divided into three main categories: hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china, The category that an object belongs to depends on the composition of the paste used to make the body of the porcelain object and the firing conditions, Porcelain slowly evolved in China and was finally achieved (depending on the definition used) at some point about 2,000 to 1,200 years ago, then slowly spread to other East Asian countries, and finally Europe and the rest of the world, Its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware, the two other main types of pottery, and it has usually been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy, strength, and its white colour, It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tablewares, vessels and figurines, It also has many uses in technology and industry, The European name, porcelain in English, comes from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the surface of the shell,[1] Porcelain is also referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China,[2] Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, toughness, whiteness, translucency and resonance; and a high resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock, Soft-paste porcelain swan tureen, 1752-1756, Chelsea porcelain Flower centrepiece, 18th century, Spain Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant",[3] However, the term "porcelain" lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in an unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common",[4] Traditionally, East Asia only classifies pottery into low-fired wares (earthenware) and high-fired wares (often translated as porcelain), the latter also including what Europeans call stoneware, which is high-fired but not generally white or translucent, Terms such as "proto-porcelain", "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used in cases where the ceramic body approaches whiteness and translucency,[5] Contents 1 Materials 1,1 Methods 1,1,1 Forming 1,1,2 Glazing 1,1,3 Decoration 1,1,4 Firing 2 History 2,1 Chinese porcelain 2,2 Japanese porcelain 2,3 European porcelain 2,3,1 Meissen 2,3,2 Soft paste porcelain 2,3,3 Other developments 3 Types 3,1 Hard paste 3,2 Soft paste 3,3 Bone china 4 Other uses 4,1 Electric insulating material 4,2 Building material 4,3 Bathroom fittings 5 Manufacturers 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Materials[edit] Further information: Pottery Kaolin is the primary material from which porcelain is made, even though clay minerals might account for only a small proportion of the whole, The word paste is an old term for both the unfired and fired materials, A more common terminology for the unfired material is "body"; for example, when buying materials a potter might order an amount of porcelain body from a vendor, The composition of porcelain is highly variable, but the clay mineral kaolinite is often a raw material, Other raw materials can include feldspar, ball clay, glass, bone ash, steatite, quartz, petuntse and alabaster, The clays used are often described as being long or short, depending on their plasticity, Long clays are cohesive (sticky) and have high plasticity; short clays are less cohesive and have lower plasticity, In soil mechanics, plasticity is determined by measuring the increase in content of water required to change a clay from a solid state bordering on the plastic, to a plastic state bordering on the liquid, though the term is also used less formally to describe the ease with which a clay may be worked, Clays used for porcelain are generally of lower plasticity and are shorter than many other pottery clays, They wet very quickly, meaning that small changes in the content of water can produce large changes in workability, Thus, the range of water content within which these clays can be worked is very narrow and consequently must be carefully controlled, Methods[edit] The following section provides background information on the methods used to form, decorate, finish, glaze, and fire ceramic wares, Forming[edit] Main articles: Pottery § Methods of shaping, and Ceramic forming techniques Glazing[edit] Unlike their lower-fired counterparts, porcelain wares do not need glazing to render them impermeable to liquids and for the most part are glazed for decorative purposes and to make them resistant to dirt and staining, Many types of glaze, such as the iron-containing glaze used on the celadon wares of Longquan, were designed specifically for their striking effects on porcelain, Biscuit porcelain is unglazed, Decoration[edit] Song dynasty celadon porcelain with a fenghuang spout, 10th century, China Porcelain wares may be decorated under the glaze using pigments that include cobalt and copper or over the glaze using coloured enamels, Like many earlier wares, modern porcelains are often biscuit-fired at around 1,000 °C (1,830 °F), coated with glaze and then sent for a second glaze-firing at a temperature of about 1,300 °C (2,370 °F) or greater, Another early method is "once-fired", where the glaze is applied to the unfired body and the two fired together in a single operation, Firing[edit] In this process, "green" (unfired) ceramic wares are heated to high temperatures in a kiln to permanently set their shapes, Porcelain is fired at a higher temperature than earthenware so that the body can vitrify and become non-porous, History[edit] Chinese porcelain[edit] Main article: Chinese ceramics Porcelain originated in China, and it took a long time to reach the modern material, Until recent times, almost all East Asian porcelain was of the hard-paste type, There is no precise date to separate the production of proto-porcelain from that of porcelain, Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC), by the time of the Eastern Han dynasty period (206 BC–220 AD), glazed ceramic wares had developed into porcelain, which Chinese defined as high-fired ware,[6][7] By the late Sui dynasty (581–618 AD) and early Tang dynasty (618–907 AD) the additional Western requirements of whiteness and translucency had been achieved,[8] in types such as Ding ware, The wares were already exported to the Islamic world, where they were highly prized,[7][9] Bowl with dragons, phoenixes, gourds, and characters for happiness, From the Peabody Essex Museum, Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas of East Asia, During the Song dynasty (960–1279 AD), artistry and production had reached new heights, The manufacture of porcelain became highly organised, and the dragon kilns excavated from this period could fire as many as 25,000 pieces at a time,[10] and over 100,000 by the end of the period,[11] While Xing ware is regarded as among the greatest of the Tang dynasty porcelain, Ding ware became the premier porcelain of the Song dynasty,[12] By the time of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644 AD), porcelain wares were being exported to Europe, Some of the most well-known Chinese porcelain art styles arrived in Europe during this era, such as the coveted "blue-and-white" wares,[13] The Ming dynasty controlled much of the porcelain trade, which was expanded to Asia, Africa and Europe via the Silk Road, In 1517, Portuguese merchants began direct trade by sea with the Ming dynasty, and in 1598, Dutch merchants followed,[9] Some porcelains were more highly valued than others in imperial China, The most valued types can be identified by their association with the court, either as tribute offerings, or as products of kilns under imperial supervision,[14] Since the Yuan dynasty, the largest and best centre of production has made Jingdezhen porcelain, During the Ming dynasty, Jingdezhen porcelain become a source of imperial pride, The Yongle emperor erected a white porcelain brick-faced pagoda at Nanjing, and an exceptionally smoothly glazed type of white porcelain is peculiar to his reign, Jingdezhen porcelain's fame came to a peak during the Qing dynasty, Japanese porcelain[edit] Hirado ware okimono (figurine) of a lion with a ball, Japan, 19th century Nabeshima ware dish with hydrangeas, c, 1680-1720, Arita, Okawachi kilns, hard-paste porcelain with cobalt and enamels Although the Japanese elite were keen importers of Chinese porcelain from early on, they were not able to make their own until the arrival of Korean potters that were taken captive during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598), They brought an improved type of kiln, and one of them spotted a source of porcelain clay near Arita, and before long several kilns had st*rted in the region, At first their wares were similar to the cheaper and cruder Chinese porcelains with underglaze blue decoration that were already widely sold in Japan; this style was to continue for cheaper everyday wares until the 20th century,[15] Exports to Europe began around 1660, through the Chinese and the Dutch East India Company, the only Europeans allowed a trading presence, Chinese exports had been seriously disrupted by civil wars as the Ming dynasty fell apart, and the Japanese exports increased rapidly to fill the gap, At first the wares used European shapes and mostly Chinese decoration, as the Chinese had done, but gradually original Japanese styles developed, Nabeshima ware was produced in kilns owned by the families of feudal lords, and were decorated in the Japanese tradition, much of it related to textile design, This was not initially exported, but used for gifts to other aristocratic families, Imari ware and Kakiemon are broad terms for styles of export porcelain with overglaze "enamelled" decoration begun in the early period, both with many sub-types,[16] A great range of styles and manufacturing centres were in use by the st*rt of the 19th century, and as Japan opened to trade in the second half, exports expanded hugely and quality generally declined, Much traditional porcelain continues to replicate older methods of production and styles, and there are several modern industrial manufacturers,[17] European porcelain[edit] The Fonthill vase is the earliest Chinese porcelain object to have reached Europe, It was a Chinese gift for Louis the Great of Hungary in 1338, Section of a letter from Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles about Chinese porcelain manufacturing techniques, 1712, re-published by Jean-Baptiste Du Halde in 1735 These exported Chinese porcelains were held in such great esteem in Europe that in English china became a commonly–used synonym for the Italian term porcelain, The first mention of porcelain in Europe is in Il Milione by Marco Polo in XII sec,[18] Apart from copying Chinese porcelain in faience (tin glazed earthenware), the soft-paste Medici porcelain in 16th-century Florence was the first real European attempt to reproduce it, with little success, Early in the 16th century, Portuguese traders returned home with samples of kaolin, which they discovered in China to be essential in the production of porcelain wares, However, the Chinese techniques and composition used to manufacture porcelain were not yet fully understood,[10] Countless experiments to produce porcelain had unpredictable results and met with failure,[10] In the German state of Saxony, the search concluded in 1708 when Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus produced a hard, white, translucent type of porcelain specimen with a combination of ingredients, including kaolin and alabaster, mined from a Saxon mine in Colditz,[19][20] It was a closely guarded trade secret of the Saxon enterprise,[20][21] In 1712, many of the elaborate Chinese porcelain manufacturing secrets were revealed throughout Europe by the French Jesuit father Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles and soon published in the Lettres édifiantes et curieuses de Chine par des missionnaires jésuites,[22] The secrets, which d'Entrecolles read about and witnessed in China, were now known and began seeing use in Europe,[22] Meissen[edit] Meissen plate from the huge and famous Swan Service, 1737-1742 Von Tschirnhaus and Johann Friedrich Böttger were employed by Augustus II the Strong and worked at Dresden and Meissen in the German state of Saxony, Tschirnhaus had a wide knowledge of science and had been involved in the European quest to perfect porcelain manufacture when, in 1705, Böttger was appointed to assist him in this task, Böttger had originally been trained as a pharmacist; after he turned to alchemical research, he claimed to have known the secret of transmuting dross into gold, which attracted the attention of Augustus, Imprisoned by Augustus as an incentive to hasten his research, Böttger was obliged to work with other alchemists in the futile search for transmutation and was eventually assigned to assist Tschirnhaus,[19] One of the first results of the collaboration between the two was the development of a red stoneware that resembled that of Yixing, A workshop note records that the first specimen of hard, white and vitrified European porcelain was produced in 1708, At the time, the research was still being supervised by Tschirnhaus; however, he died in October of that year, It was left to Böttger to report to Augustus in March 1709 that he could make porcelain, For this reason, credit for the European discovery of porcelain is traditionally ascribed to him rather than Tschirnhaus,[23] The Meissen factory was established in 1710 after the development of a kiln and a glaze suitable for use with Böttger's porcelain, which required firing at temperatures of up to 1,400 °C (2,552 °F) to achieve translucence, Meissen porcelain was once-fired, or green-fired, It was noted for its great resistance to thermal shock; a visitor to the factory in Böttger's time reported having seen a white-hot teapot being removed from the kiln and dropped into cold water without damage, Although widely disbelieved this has been replicated in modern times,[24] Soft paste porcelain[edit] Capodimonte porcelain jar with three figures of Pulcinella from the commedia dell'arte, soft-paste, 1745-50, Chantilly porcelain, soft-paste, 1750-1760 Main article: Soft-paste porcelain The pastes produced by combining clay and powdered glass (frit) were called Frittenporzellan in Germany and frita in Spain, In France they were known as pâte tendre and in England as "soft-paste",[25] They appear to have been given this name because they do not easily retain their shape in the wet state, or because they tend to slump in the kiln under high temperature, or because the body and the glaze can be easily scratched, France Experiments at Rouen produced the earliest soft-paste in France, but the first important French soft-paste porcelain was made at the Saint-Cloud factory before 1702, Soft-paste factories were established with the Chantilly manufactory in 1730 and at Mennecy in 1750, The Vincennes porcelain factory was established in 1740, moving to larger premises at Sèvres[26] in 1756, Vincennes soft-paste was whiter and freer of imperfections than any of its French rivals, which put Vincennes/Sèvres porcelain in the leading position in France and throughout the whole of Europe in the second half of the 18th century,[27] Italy Doccia porcelain of Florence was founded in 1735 and remains in production, unlike Capodimonte porcelain which was moved from Naples to Madrid by its royal owner, after producing from 1743-1759, After a gap of 15 years Naples porcelain was produced from 1771 to 1806, specializing in Neoclassical styles, All these were very successful, with large outputs of high-quality wares, In and around Venice, Francesco Vezzi was producing from around 1720 to 1735; survivals are very rare, but less so than from the Hewelke factory, which only lasted from 1758 to 1763, The Cozzi factory fared better, lasting from 1764 to 1812, The Le Nove factory produced from about 1752 to 1773, then was revived from 1781 to 1802,[28] England The first soft-paste in England was demonstrated by Thomas Briand to the Royal Society in 1742 and is believed to have been based on the Saint-Cloud formula, In 1749, Thomas Frye took out a patent on a porcelain containing bone ash, This was the first bone china, subsequently perfected by Josiah Spode, In the twenty-five years after Briand's demonstration, a number of factories were founded in England to make soft-paste tableware and figures: Chelsea (1743)[29][30] Bow (1745)[31][32][33] St James's (1748)[33][34] Bristol porcelain (1748) Longton Hall (1750)[35] Royal Crown Derby (1750 or 1757)[36][37] Royal Worcester (1751) Lowestoft porcelain (1757)[38] Wedgwood (1759) Spode (1767) Other developments[edit] William Cookworthy discovered deposits of kaolin in Cornwall, making a considerable contribution to the development of porcelain and other whiteware ceramics in the United Kingdom, Cookworthy's factory at Plymouth, established in 1768, used kaolin and china stone to make porcelain with a body composition similar to that of the Chinese porcelains of the early 18th century, Types[edit] Chinese Imperial Dish with Flowering Prunus, Famille Rose overglaze enamel, between 1723 and 1735 Demonstration of the translucent quality of porcelain Hard paste[edit] Main article: Hard-paste porcelain Hard-paste porcelain came from East Asia, specifically China, and some of the finest quality porcelain wares are from this category, The earliest European porcelains were produced at the Meissen factory in the early 18th century; they were formed from a paste composed of kaolin and alabaster and fired at temperatures up to 1,400 °C (2,552 °F) in a wood-fired kiln, producing a porcelain of great hardness, translucency, and strength,[20] Later, the composition of the Meissen hard paste was changed and the alabaster was replaced by feldspar and quartz, allowing the pieces to be fired at lower temperatures, Kaolinite, feldspar and quartz (or other forms of silica) continue to constitute the basic ingredients for most continental European hard-paste porcelains, Soft paste[edit] Main article: Soft-paste porcelain Soft-paste porcelains date back from the early attempts by European potters to replicate Chinese porcelain by using mixtures of clay and frit, Soapstone and lime were known to have been included in these compositions, These wares were not yet actual porcelain wares as they were not hard nor vitrified by firing kaolin clay at high temperatures, As these early formulations suffered from high pyroplastic deformation, or slumping in the kiln at high temperatures, they were uneconomic to produce and of low quality, Formulations were later developed based on kaolin with quartz, feldspars, nepheline syenite or other feldspathic rocks, These were technically superior, and continue to be produced, Soft-paste porcelains are fired at lower temperatures than hard-paste porcelain, therefore these wares are generally less hard than hard-paste porcelains,[39][40] Bone china[edit] Main article: Bone china Although originally developed in England in 1748[41] in order to compete with imported porcelain, bone china is now made worldwide, The English had read the letters of Jesuit missionary François Xavier d'Entrecolles, which described Chinese porcelain manufacturing secrets in detail,[42] One writer has speculated that a misunderstanding of the text could possibly have been responsible for the first attempts to use bone-ash as an ingredient of English porcelain,[42] although this is not supported by researchers and historians,[43][44][45][46][47] Traditionally, English bone china was made from two parts of bone ash, one part of kaolin and one part china stone, although this has largely been replaced by feldspars from non-UK sources,[48] Other uses[edit] Electric insulating material[edit] Porcelain insulator for medium-high voltage Porcelain and other ceramic materials have many applications in engineering, especially ceramic engineering, Porcelain is an excellent insulator for use at high voltage, especially in outdoor applications, see Insulator (electricity)#Material, Examples include: terminals for high-voltage cables, bushings of power transformers, insulation of high frequency antennas and many other components, Building material[edit] Dakin Building, Brisbane, California using porcelain panels Porcelain can be used as a building material, usually in the form of tiles or large rectangular panels, Modern porcelain tiles are generally produced by a number of recognised international standards and definitions,[49][50] Manufacturers are found across the world[51] with Italy being the global leader, producing over 380 million square metres in 2006,[52] Historic examples of rooms decorated entirely in porcelain tiles can be found in several European palaces including ones at Galleria Sabauda in Turin, Museo di Doccia in Sesto Fiorentino, Museo di Capodimonte in Naples, the Royal Palace of Madrid and the nearby Royal Palace of Aranjuez,[53] and the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, More recent noteworthy examples include the Dakin Building in Brisbane, California, and the Gulf Building in Houston, Texas, which when constructed in 1929 had a 21-metre-long (69 ft) porcelain logo on its exterior,[54] A more detailed description of the history, manufacture and properties of porcelain tiles is given in the article “Porcelain Tile: The Revolution Is Only Beginning,”[54] Bathroom fittings[edit] Porcelain Chamber Pots from Vienna, Because of its durability, inability to rust and impermeability, glazed porcelain has been in use for personal hygiene since at least the third quarter of the 17th century, During this period, porcelain chamber pots were commonly found in higher-class European households, and the term "bourdaloue" was used as the name for the pot,[55] However bath tubs are not made of porcelain, but of porcelain enamel on a metal base, usually of cast iron, Porcelain enamel is a marketing term used in the US, and is not porcelain but vitreous enamel,[56] Manufacturers[edit] Porcelain wares, such as those similar to these Yongle-era porcelain flasks, were often presented as trade goods during the 15th-century Chinese maritime expeditions, (British Museum) Porcelain Chinese 瓷 show Transcriptions This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness, You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries, Europe Austria Vienna Porcelain Manufactory, 1718–1864 Vienna Porcelain Manufactory Augarten, 1923 - present Czech Republic Haas & Czjzek, Horní Slavkov, (1792–2011) Thun 1794, Klášterec nad Ohří, (1794–present) Český porcelán a,s,, Dubí, Eichwelder Porzellan und Ofenfabriken Bloch & Co, Böhmen, (1864–present) Rudolf Kämpf, Nové Sedlo (Sokolov District), (1907–present) Denmark Aluminia Bing & Grøndahl Danmark porcelain P, Ipsens Enke Kastrup Vaerk Kronjyden Porcelænshaven Royal Copenhagen (1775–present) Finland Arabia France Rouen porcelain, (1673–1696), faience Nevers porcelain, (1600–1789), faience Saint-Cloud porcelain, (1693–1766) Strasbourg faience, (1721–1784) Chantilly porcelain, (1730–1800) Vincennes porcelain, (1740–1756) Mennecy-Villeroy porcelain, (1745–1765) Sèvres porcelain, (1756–present) Revol porcelain, (1789–present) Limoges porcelain Haviland porcelain Germany Current porcelain manufacturers in Germany Hungary Hollóháza Porcelain Manufactory, (1777-present) Herend Porcelain Manufacture, (1826–present) Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture, (1853–present) Italy Richard-Ginori 1735 Manifattura di Doccia, (1735–present)[57] Capodimonte porcelain, (1743–1759) Naples porcelain, 1771-1806 Manifattura Italiana Porcellane Artistiche Fabris, (1922–1972) Mangani SRL, Porcellane d'Arte (Florence) Lithuania Jiesia Netherlands Boerenbont Gouda Koninklijke Porcelyne Fles Loodsrechts Porselein Regina Royal Tichelaar Weesp Porselein Norway Egersund porcelain Figgjo (1941–present) Herrebøe porcelain Porsgrund Stavangerflint Poland Polskie Fabryki Porcelany “Ćmielów” i "Chodzież" S,A,[58] Kristoff Porcelana[59] Lubiana S,A,[60] Portugal Vista Alegre Sociedade Porcelanas de Alcobaça Costa Verde (company), located in the district of Aveiro Russia Imperial Porcelain Factory, Saint Petersburg (1744-present) Verbilki Porcelain (1766–present), Verbilki near Taldom Gzhel ceramics (1802-present), Gzhel Dulevo Farfor (1832–present), Likino-Dulyovo Spain Buen Retiro Royal Porcelain Factory (1760–1812) Real Fábrica de Sargadelos (1808-Present, intermitently) Switzerland Suisse Langenthal Sweden Rörstrand Gustavsberg porcelain Gefle porcelain Göteborgs porcelain Hackefors porcelain Karlskrona porcelain Lidköpings porcelain Mariebergs porcelain Stralsunds porcelain Upsala-Ekeby AB United Kingdom Aynsley China, (1775–present) Belleek, (1884–present) Bow porcelain factory, (1747-1776) Caughley porcelain Chelsea porcelain factory, (c, 1745, merged with Derby in 1770) Coalport porcelain Davenport Goss crested china Liverpool porcelain Longton Hall porcelain Lowestoft Porcelain Factory Mintons Ltd, (1793–1968, merged with Royal Doulton) Nantgarw Pottery New Hall porcelain Plymouth Porcelain Rockingham Pottery Royal Crown Derby, (1750/57–present) Royal Doulton, (1815–2009 acquired by Fiskars) Royal Worcester, (1751–2008 acquired by Portmeirion Pottery) Spode, (1767–2008 acquired by Portmeirion Pottery) Saint James's Factory (or "Girl-in-a-Swing", 1750s) Swansea porcelain Vauxhall porcelain Wedgwood, (factory 1759–present, porcelain 1812-1829, and modern, Acquired by Fiskars) Brazil Germer Porcelanas Finas pt:Porcelana Schmidt Iran Maghsoud Factories Group, (1993–present)[61] Zarin Iran porcelain Industries, (1881–present)[62] Japan Hirado ware Kakiemon Nabeshima ware Narumi Noritake Taiwan Franz Collection Malaysia Royal Selangor South Korea Haengnam Chinaware Hankook Chinaware Sri Lanka Dankotuwa Porcelain Noritake Lanka Porcelain Royal Fernwood Porcelain Turkey Yildiz Porselen (1890- 1936 / 1994–present) Kütahya Porselen (1970–present) Güral Porselen (1989–present) Porland Porselen (1976–present) Istanbul Porselen (1963- early 1990's) Sümerbank Porselen (1957-1994) United Arab Emirates RAK Porcelain United States Blue Ridge CoorsTek, Inc, Franciscan Lenox Lotus Ware Pickard China Vietnam Minh Long I porcelain, (1970–present)[63] See also[edit] Blue and white porcelain (Qinghua, 青花) Lithophane Sea pottery Faience Notes[edit] ^ "Porcelain, n, and adj", Oxford English Dictionary, Retrieved 18 Jun 2018, ^ OED, "China"; An Introduction to Pottery, 2nd edition, Rado P, Institute of Ceramic / Pergamon Press, 1988, Usage of "china" in this sense is inconsistent, & it may be used of other types of ceramics also, ^ Harmonized commodity description and coding system: explanatory notes, Volume 3, 1986, Customs Co-operation Council, U,S, Customs Service, U,S, Department of the Treasury ^ Definition in The Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities defines, Burton, 1906 ^ Valenstein, S, (1998), A handbook of Chinese ceramics Archived September 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, pp, 22, 59-60, 72, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780870995149 ^ Kelun, Chen (2004), Chinese porcelain: Art, elegance, and appreciation, San Francisco: Long River Press, p, 3, ISBN 978-1-59265-012-5, Archived from the original on 2013-05-28, ^ Jump up to: a b "Porcelain", Columbia Encyclopedia Sixth Edition, 2008, Archived from the original on 2009-03-02, Retrieved 2008-06-27, ^ Vainker, 66 ^ Jump up to: a b Te-k'un, Cheng (1984), Studies in Chinese ceramics, Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, pp, 92–93, ISBN 978-962-201-308-7, Archived from the original on 2017-12-02, ^ Jump up to: a b c Temple, Robert K,G, (2007), The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention (3rd edition), London: André Deutsch, pp, 104-5, ISBN 978-0-233-00202-6 ^ Kerr, Rose, Needham, Joseph, Wood, Nigel, Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 12, Ceramic Technology, 2004, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-83833-7, Google books ^ Wood, Nigel (2011), Chinese Glazes: Their Origins, Chemistry, and Recreation, London: A, & C, Black, ISBN 978-1-4081-4025-3, ^ Cohen, David Harris; Hess, Catherine (1993), Looking at European ceramics : a guide to technical terms, Malibu: The J, Paul Getty Museum Journal, p, 59, ISBN 978-0-89236-216-5, Archived from the original on 2014-07-06, ^ Rawson, Jessica "Chinese Art", 2007, publisher:the British Museum Press, London, ISBN 978-0-7141-2446-9 ^ Smith, Harris, & Clark, 163-164; Watson, 260 ^ Smith, Harris, & Clark, 164-165; Watson, 261 ^ Smith, Harris, & Clark, 165; Watson, 261 ^ cap, CLVIII dell'edizione a cura di L,F, Benedetto, 1928; cap, 153 dell'edizione a cura di V, Pizzorusso Bertolucci ^ Jump up to: a b Burns, William E, (2003), Science in the enlightenment: An encyclopedia, Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, pp, 38–39, ISBN 978-1-57607-886-0, Archived from the original on 2015-11-20, ^ Jump up to: a b c Richards, Sarah (1999), Eighteenth-century ceramic: Products for a civilised society, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp, 23–26, ISBN 978-0-7190-4465-6, Archived from the original on 2013-05-28, ^ Wardropper, Ian (1992), News from a radiant future: Soviet porcelain from the collection of Craig H, and Kay A, Tuber, Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, ISBN 978-0-86559-106-6, Archived from the original on 2017-12-02, ^ Jump up to: a b • Baghdiantz McAbe, Ina (2008), Orientalism in Early Modern France, Oxford: Berg Publishing, p, 220, ISBN 978-1-84520-374-0 • Finley, Robert (2010), The pilgrim art, Cultures of porcelain in world history, University of California Press, p, 18, ISBN 978-0-520-24468-9 • Kerr, R, & Wood, N, (2004), Joseph Needham : Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 5 Chemistry and Chemical Technology : Part 12 Ceramic Technology Archived August 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Cambridge University Press, p, 36-7, ISBN 0-521-83833-9 • Zhang, Xiping (2006), Following the steps of Matteo Ricci to China, Beijing: China Intercontinental Press, p, 168, ISBN 978-7-5085-0982-2, Archived from the original on 2013-05-28, • Burton, William (1906), Porcelain, Its Nature, Art and Manufacture, London, pp, 47–48, ^ Gleeson, Janet, The Arcanum, an accurate historic novel on the greed, obsession, murder and betrayal that led to the creation of Meissen porcelain, Bantam Books, London, 1998, ^ BBC4 How it works: Ep 3, Ceramics how they work 16 Apr 2012 ^ Honey, W,B,, European Ceramic Art, Faber and Faber, 1952, p,533 ^ Munger, Jeffrey (October 2004), "Sèvres Porcelain in the Nineteenth Century Archived September 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine", In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Retrieved 31 October 2011 ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art Archived May 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ^ Battie, 102-105: Le Corbellier, 1-29 ^ ‘Science Of Early English Porcelain,’ I,C, Freestone, Sixth Conference and Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society, Vol,1 Brighton, 20–24 June 1999, p,11-17 ^ ‘The Sites Of The Chelsea Porcelain Factory,’ E,Adams, Ceramics (1), 55, 1986, ^ "Bow", Museum of London, Archived from the original on 3 December 2011, Retrieved 31 October 2011, ^ "Bow porcelain bowl, painted by Thomas Craft", British Museum, Archived from the original on 4 February 2012, Retrieved 31 October 2011, ^ Jump up to: a b "Bow porcelain", British History Online, University of London & History of Parliament Trust, Archived from the original on 3 December 2011, Retrieved 31 October 2011, ^ "St James's (Charles Gouyn)", Museum of London, Archived from the original on 3 December 2011, Retrieved 31 October 2011, ^ Ceramic Figureheads, Pt, 3, William Littler And The Origins Of Porcelain In Staffordshire, Cookson Mon, Bull, Ceram, Ind, (550), 1986, ^ "History", Royal Crown Derby, Archived from the original on 4 June 2011, Retrieved 1 November 2011, ^ History of Royal Crown Derby Co Ltd, from "British Potters and Potteries Today", publ 1956 ^ 'The Lowestoft Porcelain Factory, and the Chinese Porcelain Made for the European Market during the Eighteenth Century,' L, Solon, The Burlington Magazine, No, 6, Vol,II, August 1906, ^ Reed, Cleota; Skoczen; Stan (1997), Syracuse China, Syracuse, N,Y,: Syracuse University Press, pp, 51–52, ISBN 978-0-8156-0474-7, Archived from the original on 2014-01-07, ^ N, Hudson Moore (1903), The Old China Book, p, 7, ISBN 978-1-4344-7727-9, Archived from the original on 2013-05-28, ^ Strumpf, Faye (2000), Limoges boxes: A complete guide, Iola, WI: Krause Publications, p, 125, ISBN 978-0-87341-837-9, Archived from the original on 2017-12-02, ^ Jump up to: a b Burton, William, Porcelain, Its Nature, Art and Manufacture, London, pp, 18–19, ^ Science Of Early English Porcelain, Freestone I C, Sixth Conference and Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society, Extended Abstracts, Vol,1 Brighton, 20–24 June 1999, pg,11-17 ^ The Special Appeal Of Bone China, Cubbon R C P,Tableware Int, 11, (9), 30, 1981 ^ All About Bone China, Cubbon R C P, Tableware Int, 10, (9), 34, 1980 ^ Spode's Bone China – Progress In Processing Without Compromise In Quality, George R T; Forbes D; Plant P, Ceram, Ind, 115, (6), 32, 1980 ^ An Introduction To The Technology Of Pottery, Paul Rado, Institute of Ceramics & Pergamon Press, 1988 ^ Changes & Developments Of Non-plastic Raw Materials, Sugden A, International Ceramics Issue 2 2001, ^ “New American Standard Defines Polished Porcelain By The Porcelain Tile Certification Agency,” Tile Today No,56, 2007, ^ Porcelain tile as defined in ASTM C242 – 01(2007) Standard Terminology of Ceramic Whitewares and Related Products published by ASTM International, ^ ’Manufacturers Of Porcelain Tiles’ Ceram,World Rev, 6, No,19, 1996 … ‘The main manufacturers of porcelain tiles in Italy, Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas are listed,’ ^ ”Italian Porcelain Tile Production At The Top” Ind,Ceram, 27, No,2, 2007, ^ Porcelain Room, Aranjuez[dead link] Comprehensive but shaky video ^ Jump up to: a b “Porcelain Tile: The Revolution Is Only Beginning,” Tile Decorative Surf, 42, No,11, 1992, ^ "What is a Bourdaloue?", wisegeek,com, 2014, Archived from the original on 13 December 2014, Retrieved 27 March 2014, ^ "Buick made bathtubs before he built cars | Las Vegas Review-Journal", reviewjournal,com, 2014, Archived from the original on 4 October 2014, Retrieved 27 March 2014, ^ Richard Ginori: Gucci firma l'accordo per l'acquisizione | Il Sito di Firenze ^ "Polskie Fabryki Porcelany "Ćmielów" i "Chodzież" S,A," Polskie Fabryki Porcelany Ćmielów i Chodziez S,A, Archived from the original on 19 November 2016, Retrieved 31 January 2017, ^ "Kristoff Porcelain", Kristoff Porcelain, Archived from the original on 24 July 2016, Retrieved 26 July 2016, ^ "Lubiana S,A, - polski producent porcelany dla domu i rynku horeca", Lubiana S,A, - polski producent porcelany dla domu i rynku horeca, Archived from the original on 10 December 2016, Retrieved 31 January 2017, ^ "Maghsoud Factories Group", Maghsoud Factories Group, Archived from the original on 13 July 2016, Retrieved 26 July 2016, ^ "History", Zarin Iran Porcelain Industries, Zarin Iran Porcelain Industries, Archived from the original on 5 February 2017, Retrieved 5 February 2017, ^ "Archived copy", Archived from the original on 2017-02-23, Retrieved 2017-02-22, References[edit] Battie, David, ed,, Sotheby's Concise Encyclopedia of Porcelain, 1990, Conran Octopus, ISBN 1850292515 Le Corbellier, Clare, Eighteenth-century Italian porcelain, 1985, Metropolitan Museum of Art, (fully available online as PDF) Smith, Lawrence, Harris, Victor and Clark, Timothy, Japanese Art: Masterpieces in the British Museum, 1990, British Museum Publications, ISBN 0714114464 Vainker, S,J,, Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, 1991, British Museum Press, 9780714114705 Watson, William ed,, The Great Japan Exhibition: Art of the Edo Period 1600–1868, 1981, Royal Academy of Arts/Weidenfeld & Nicolson Further reading[edit] Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities – EC Commission in Luxembourg, 1987 , Burton, William (1906), Porcelain, its Nature, Art and Manufacture, Batsford, London Finlay, Robert (2010), The Pilgrim Art: Cultures of Porcelain in World History, Volume 11 of California World History Library (illustrated ed,), University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-94538-7, Retrieved 24 April 2014, Guy, John (1986), Guy, John (ed,), Oriental trade ceramics in South-East Asia, ninth to sixteenth centuries: with a catalogue of Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai wares in Australian collections (illustrated, revised ed,), Oxford University Press, Retrieved 24 April 2014, Valenstein, S, (1998), A handbook of Chinese ceramics, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 978-0-87099-514-9 External links[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Porcelain, How porcelain is made How bisque porcelain is made ArtLex Art Dictionary – Porcelain Rackham, Bernard, A Book of Porcelain at Project Gutenberg show vte Porcelain show vte Pottery and claywork Categories: PorcelainCeramic materialsChinese cultureChinese inventionsDielectricsMaterials with minor glass phasePotteryTableware THANKS FOR LOOKING!!!! Condition: Used, Condition: Mint Condition Figurine in Original Box! See pictures., Brand: Lladró, Format: Porcelain Figurine, Country/Region of Manufacture: Spain, Skill Level: COLLECTOR, MPN: 6990

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