MAUES 125BC Indo-Skythian India ELEPHANT GANESH or BUDDHA Rare Greek Coin i46902

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Seller: highrating_lowprice (20,598) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 231472083944 Item: i46902 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Central Asia Indo-Skythian Kings and Satraps in India Maues - King, circa 125-85 B.C. Bronze 27mm (7.59 grams) Taxila mint, circa 125-85 B.C. Reference: HGC 12, 531; ISCH 2,5.1 and 5.2; Senior 5.1; MIG 707a Rejoicing young elephant with bell (possibly alludes to Ganesha or Buddha Siddhartha Gautama), within the royal bead and reel contour. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ / MAYOY either side of caduceus; monogram in field to left. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. According to some interpretations (Grousset), the baby elephant may symbolize the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama , who took the shape of a small elephant to enter the womb of his mother Queen Maya , a scene often depicted in Greco-Buddhist art . According to other interpretations the elephant was the symbol of the city of Taxila . Legend has it that, on the night Siddhartha was conceived, Queen Maya dreamt that a white elephant with six white tusks entered her right side, and ten months later Siddhartha was born. Queen Māyā's white elephant dream, and the conception of the Buddha. Gandhara , 2-3rd century CE. Buddha's birth (Bharhut) Brahmi text: bhagavato rukdanta A white elephant (also albino elephant) is a rare kind of elephant , but not a distinct species. Although often depicted as snow white, their skin is normally a soft reddish-brown, turning a light pink when wet. They have fair eyelashes and toenails. The traditional "white elephant" is commonly misunderstood as being albino , but the Thai term chang samkhan, actually translates as 'auspicious elephant', being "white" in terms of an aspect of purity. White elephants are only nominally white. Of those currently kept by the Burmese rulers — General Than Shwe regards himself as the heir of the Burmese kings — one is grey and the other three are pinkish, but all are officially white. The king of Thailand also keeps a number of white elephants. Former U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew once presented a white elephant to King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia . Ganesha also known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon . His image is found throughout India . Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations. Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains, Buddhists, and beyond India . Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify. Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom. As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rituals and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions. Several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography. Ganesha emerged as a distinct deity in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta Period , although he inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors. He was formally included among the five primary deities of Smartism (a Hindu denomination) in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the Ganapatya arose, who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity. The principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the Ganesha Purana , the Mudgala Purana , and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa . The caduceus from Greek "herald's staff" is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology . The same staff was also borne by heralds in general, for example by Iris , the messenger of Hera. It is a short staff entwined by two serpents , sometimes surmounted by wings. In Roman iconography it was often depicted being carried in the left hand of Mercury , the messenger of the gods, guide of the dead and protector of merchants, shepherds, gamblers, liars, and thieves. As a symbolic object it represents Hermes (or the Roman Mercury), and by extension trades, occupations or undertakings associated with the god. In later Antiquity the caduceus provided the basis for the astrological symbol representing the planet Mercury . Thus, through its use in astrology and alchemy , it has come to denote the elemental metal of the same name. By extension of its association with Mercury/Hermes, the caduceus is also a recognized symbol of commerce and negotiation, two realms in which balanced exchange and reciprocity are recognized as ideals. This association is ancient, and consistent from the Classical period to modern times. The caduceus is also used as a symbol representing printing, again by extension of the attributes of Mercury (in this case associated with writing and eloquence). The caduceus is sometimes mistakenly used as a symbol of medicine and/or medical practice , especially in North America , because of widespread confusion with the traditional medical symbol, the rod of Asclepius , which has only a single snake and no wings. The term kerukeion denoted any herald's staff, not necessarily associated with Hermes in particular. Lewis Richard Farnell (1909) in his study of the cult of Hermes assumed that the two snakes had simply developed out of ornaments of the shepherd's crook used by heralds as their staff. This view has been rejected by later authors pointing to parallel iconography in the Ancient Near East. It has been argued that the staff or wand entwined by two snakes was itself representing a god in the pre-anthropomorphic era. Like the herm or priapus , it would thus be a predecessor of the anthropomorphic Hermes of the classical era. Ancient Near East William Hayes Ward (1910) discovered that symbols similar to the classical caduceus sometimes appeared on Mesopotamian cylinder seals . He suggested the symbol originated some time between 3000 and 4000 BCE, and that it might have been the source of the Greek caduceus.[10] A.L. Frothingham incorporated Dr. Ward's research into his own work, published in 1916, in which he suggested that the prototype of Hermes was an "Oriental deity of Babylonian extraction" represented in his earliest form as a snake god. From this perspective, the caduceus was originally representative of Hermes himself, in his early form as the Underworld god Ningishzida , "messenger" of the "Earth Mother". The caduceus is mentioned in passing by Walter Burkert [12] as "really the image of copulating snakes taken over from Ancient Near Eastern tradition". In Egyptian iconography, the Djed pillar is depicted as containing a snake in a frieze of the Dendera Temple complex . The rod of Moses and the brazen serpent are frequently compared to the caduceus, especially as Moses is acting as a messenger of God to the Pharaoh at the point in the narrative where he changes his staff into a serpent.[13] Classical antiquity Mythology The Homeric hymn to Hermes relates how Hermes offered his lyre fashioned from a tortoise shell as compensation for the cattle he stole from his half brother Apollo . Apollo in return gave Hermes the caduceus as a gesture of friendship. The association with the serpent thus connects Hermes to Apollo , as later the serpent was associated with Asclepius , the "son of Apollo". The association of Apollo with the serpent is a continuation of the older Indo-European dragon -slayer motif. Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (1913) pointed out that the serpent as an attribute of both Hermes and Asclepius is a variant of the "pre-historic semi-chthonic serpent hero known at Delphi as Python ", who in classical mythology is slain by Apollo. One Greek myth of origin of the caduceus is part of the story of Tiresias , who found two snakes copulating and killed the female with his staff. Tiresias was immediately turned into a woman, and so remained until he was able to repeat the act with the male snake seven years later. This staff later came into the possession of the god Hermes, along with its transformative powers. Another myth suggests that Hermes (or Mercury) saw two serpents entwined in mortal combat. Separating them with his wand he brought about peace between them, and as a result the wand with two serpents came to be seen as a sign of peace. In Rome, Livy refers to the caduceator who negotiated peace arrangements under the diplomatic protection of the caduceus he carried. Iconography In some vase paintings ancient depictions of the Greek kerukeion are somewhat different from the commonly seen modern representation. These representations feature the two snakes atop the staff (or rod), crossed to create a circle with the heads of the snakes resembling horns. This old graphic form, with an additional crossbar to the staff, seems to have provided the basis for the graphical sign of Mercury (☿) used in Greek astrology from Late Antiquity. Use in alchemy and occultism As the symbol of both the planet and the metal named for Mercury, the caduceus became an important symbol in alchemy . The crucified serpent was also revived as an alchemical symbol for fixatio , and John Donne (Sermons 10:190) uses "crucified Serpent" as a title of Jesus Christ . Symbol of commerce A simplified variant of the caduceus is to be found in dictionaries, indicating a “commercial term” entirely in keeping with the association of Hermes with commerce. In this form the staff is often depicted with two winglets attached and the snakes are omitted (or reduced to a small ring in the middle). The Customs Service of the former German Democratic Republic employed the caduceus, bringing its implied associations with thresholds, translators, and commerce, in the service medals they issued their staff. Misuse as symbol of medicine It is relatively common, especially in the United States, to find the caduceus, with its two snakes and wings, used as a symbol of medicine instead of the correct rod of Asclepius, with only a single snake. This usage is erroneous, popularised largely as a result of the adoption of the caduceus as its insignia by the US Army medical corps in 1902 at the insistence of a single officer (though there are conflicting claims as to whether this was Capt. Frederick P. Reynolds or Col. John R. van Hoff). The rod of Asclepius is the dominant symbol for professional healthcare associations in the United States. One survey found that 62% of professional healthcare associations used the rod of Asclepius as their symbol. The same survey found that 76% of commercial healthcare organizations used the Caduceus symbol. The author of the study suggests the difference exists because professional associations are more likely to have a real understanding of the two symbols, whereas commercial organizations are more likely to be concerned with the visual impact a symbol will have in selling their products. The initial errors leading to its adoption and the continuing confusion it generates are well known to medical historians. The long-standing and abundantly attested historical associations of the caduceus with commerce, theft, deception, and death are considered by many to be inappropriate in a symbol used by those engaged in the healing arts. This has occasioned significant criticism of the use of the caduceus in a medical context. Maues (Greek (epigraphically): Μαύης; r. 85–60 BCE) was an Indo-Scythian king who invaded the Indo-Greek territories. Conqueror of Gandhara Maues had his capital in Sirkap and minted most of his coins in Taxila . Maues did not manage however to conquer the Punjab territories of the Indo-Greeks east of the Jhelum , which remained under Greek control. After his death the Indo-Greeks regained most of their territory. Maues is mainly known through his coins, which are often very closely inspired from Indo-Greek coinage. He represented Greek and Indian deities, and used Greek and Kharoshti in coin legends. Coin of Maues depicting Balarama , 1st century BCE. British Museum . This tends to be indicative of a level of respect for Greek culture and a wish to assimilate it, rather than destroy it. Maues probably ruled his conquered territories based on his military might, but otherwise maintained cohabitation with local Greek and Indian communities. It has been suggested that Maues may have been a Scythian general hired by the Indo-Greeks, who would have briefly seized power, before the Indo-Greeks managed to take it back ("Crossroads of Asia"). Maues took the tile of "Great King of Kings", an exceeded version of a traditional Persian royal title. One inscription is known which mentions Maues (usually called the "Moga inscription", and starts with: "In the seventy eighth, 78, year the Great King, the Great Moga, on the fifth, 5, day of the month Panemos, on this first, of the Kshaharata and Kshatrapa of Chukhsa - Liaka Kusuluka by name - his son Patika - in the town of Takshasila..." Maues issued joint coins mentioned a queen Machene ("ΜΑΧΗΝΗ"). Machene may have been a daughter of one of the Indo-Greek houses. An Indo-Greek king, Artemidoros also issued coins where he describes himself as "Son of Maues". Maues and Buddhism Indian -standard coin of King Maues. The obverse shows a rejoicing elephant holding a wreath, symbol of victory. The Greek legend reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΜΑΥΟΥ (Great King of Kings Maues). The reverse shows a seated king, or possibly Buddha . Kharoshthi legend: RAJATIRAJASA MAHATASA MOASA (Great King of Kings Maues). A few of the coins of Maues, struck according to the Indian square standard, seemingly depict a King in a cross-legged seated position. This may represent Maues himself, or possibly one of his divinities. It has been suggested that this might also be one of the first representations of the Buddha on a coin, in an area where Buddhism was flourishing at the time. Also, Maues struck some coins incorporating Buddhist symbolism, such as the lion, symbol of Buddhism since the time of the Mauryan king Ashoka . The symbolism of the lion had also been adopted by the Buddhist Indo-Greek king Menander II . Maues therefore probably supported Buddhism , although whether sincerely or for political motives is unclear. His coins also included a variety of other religious symbol such as the cow of Shiva , indicating wide religious tolerance. Preceded by: (In Arachosia , Gandhara and Punjab ) Indo-Greek King Archebios (In Paropamisade ) Indo-Greek King Hermaeus Indo-Scythian Ruler (85–60 BCE) Succeeded by: (In Gandhara ) Indo-Greek king: Artemidoros (In Punjab ) Indo-Greek king: Apollodotus II (In the south) Indo-Scythian ruler: Vonones Frequently Asked d Questionss How long until my order is shipped?: Depending on the volume of sales, it may take up to 5 business days for shipment of your order after the receipt of payment. How will I know when the order was shipped?: After your order has shipped, you will be left positive feedback, and that date should be used as a basis of estimating an arrival date. After you shipped the order, how long will the mail take? 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