RARE Unique Real Photo - 1929 Oahu Railway Honolulu Hawaii OR&L Railroad Station

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Seller: dalebooks (8,197) 100%, Location: Rochester, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 263735273197 NICE old Photograph Railroad Depot / Station Oahu Railway Honolulu, Hawaii 1929 For offer, an interesting old photograph! Fresh from a prominent estate in Upstate NY. Never offered on the market until now. Vintage, Old, Original, Antique, NOT a Reproduction - Guaranteed !! This photo came with others of a man who was stationed in Honolulu, Hawaii in the 1920s and early 1930s. Army / military. Before Pearl Harbor attack. Nice scene. In good to very good condition. Light bend to lower left corner. Measures approx. 3 1/2 x 6 inches - a little larger than a RPPC - real photo postcard. Please see photos. If you collect 20th century Americana Hawaiian history, photography, American photos, transportation, RR, etc. this is a treasure you will not see again! Add this to your image or paper / ephemera collection. Important genealogy research importance too. Combine shipping on multiple bid wins! 1582 The Oahu Railway and Land Company, or OR&L, was a 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge common carrier railway that served much of the Hawaiian island of Oahu, and was the largest narrow gauge class one common carrier in the U.S, until its dissolution in 1947. OriginThe OR&L was founded by Benjamin Dillingham, a self-made businessman who arrived in Honolulu as a sailor in 1865. After falling from his horse and breaking his leg while riding in the countryside, Dillingham was forced to stay in Hawaii and recuperate. He decided to make the island kingdom his home. Dillingham had a great deal of business acumen and soon became quite wealthy and influential in the early Honolulu community. Among his development ideas, he conceived in the 1870s of the arid ʻEwa Plain as an excellent location for human settlement. However, there were two problems: a lack of water and, more significantly, a lack of transportation. A trip from Honolulu to the ʻEwa by horse-drawn wagon was an all-day affair. The key was to build a railroad. Around the time Dillingham was dreaming of his railroad, another businessman, James Campbell successfully dug ʻEwa's first artesian well in 1879, effectively solving the water problem. Campbell, who had purchased 40,000 acres (16,200 ha) of ʻEwa land thought he might start a cattle ranch, but quickly realized that ʻEwa's rich volcanic soil (which overlays a massive ancient coral reef) combined with year-round sunshine and a supply of water was ideal for growing sugarcane. Within a couple of years sugarcane plantations were sprouting up in this southwestern part of Oahu. The need for transportation between the harbor and ʻEwa was becoming essential. Early phase of OR&LWhile Dillingham's dream of large-scale settlement on the ʻEwa Plain would have to wait until the last decades of the twentieth century, his plan for a railroad to the area came together quickly. He leased Campbell's ʻEwa and Kahuku land to start two sugarcane plantations and obtained a government railroad charter from King David Kalākaua on September 11, 1888. After securing the capital, Dillingham broke ground in March 1889 with a goal of connecting the 12 miles (19 km) between Honolulu and ʻAiea (as demanded in the charter) by fall 1889. On November 16, 1889, the king's birthday, the OR&L officially opened, giving free rides to more than 4,000 curious people. By 1892 the line was 18.5 miles (29.8 km) long, reaching ʻEwa sugar mill, home of Dillingham's ʻEwa Plantation Company property. Although progress stalled during the chaos of the late Kingdom and early Republican periods, by 1895 the railroad had passed through what would become the junction of Waipahu, traversed the ʻEwa plain, and was skirting the Waiʻanae coast to a sugar mill there. After issuing gold bonds in January 1897 the company extended the railroad around Oahu's rugged Kaʻena Point to Haleiwa on the north shore by June 1897, where Dillingham built a hotel. By December 1898 the main line was complete, stretching past Waimea Bay and Sunset Beach all the way to Kahuku and the Kahuku sugar mill past the island's northernmost tip. Although a circle-island line was proposed, it was never seriously considered. In 1906 an 11-mile (18 km) branch line was constructed from Waipahu up the Waikakalua Gulch to Wahiawa and the pineapple fields of central Oahu. The railroad had taken its final shape. OR&L to World War II OR&L passenger car coach #2, a first class coach sitting at the Hawaiian Railway Society OR&L #19, a 47 tonner GE diesel electric locomotive sits on the Iwilei Turntable in Honolulu. This turntable was electrically operated.The OR&L was not only a sugarcane railroad. While it served several sugar mills and plantations, it also hauled end products, equipment and workers. The sugarcane plantations sometimes had their own lines. As a common carrier, the OR&L carried freight, passengers, mail and parcels. For instance, besides sugar and pineapples, the railroad hauled garbage from Honolulu to a dump on the Waiʻanae Coast, sand from Waiʻanae to Honolulu during the development of Waikiki, and served the major military bases: Pearl Harbor, Hickam Field, Barber's Point Naval Air Station, Schofield Barracks, and Wheeler Army Airfield.[3] In 1927, Dillingham built a new passenger terminal designed by Bertram Goodhue, one of the most famous architects in the country, who had also designed the Honolulu Museum of Art and the C. Brewer Building in a Spanish Mission Revival style that matched that of many other public buildings erected during that era. The OR&L train station was converted to a Honolulu Rapid Transit bus terminal after 1947 (later discontinued), and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.[3] The railroad was profitable, even during the Great Depression, and was a significant mode of communications and transportation until the 1930s. As with railroads in the mainland, private automobiles and public roads led to a decline in traffic, especially passengers. Leading up to World War II the OR&L had all but abandoned its passenger operations, focusing on its profitable freight operations. OR&L and World War IIWorld War II was arguably the OR&L's most important period, but would prove to be the company's undoing. After the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, the OR&L became a major player in wartime transportation. The railroad carried out its regular freight operations as well as handling massive amounts of military-related traffic. The OR&L became the chief transporter of civilian base workers, sailors, soldiers, airmen and marines, both from Honolulu to their bases, or from those bases back to Honolulu for coveted R&R. In 1944 and 1945 the OR&L carried nearly two million riders. Postwar finale OR&L Mikado #70 stops at Waipahu station for a refill of water. The four mikados on the OR&L were near-identical cousins to the D&RGW K-28 locomotives, albeit oil-burning, slightly shorter tender, different compressor location, and different headlamp.Oahu Railway and Land CompanyRight-of-WayU.S. National Register of Historic PlacesOahuRailway&LandCo-switchtrack-signal.JPGA portion of the track is preservedOahu Railway and Land Company is located in Hawaii Oahu Railway and Land CompanyNearest cityNanakuli, HawaiiCoordinates21°21′14″N 158°1′40″WCoordinates: 21°21′14″N 158°1′40″WArea63 acres (25 ha)Built1889Architectural style3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge railroad trackNRHP reference #75000621[4]Added to NRHPDecember 1, 1975By the end of the war most of the rolling stock, right-of-way, and facilities were worn out. The company's executives pondered whether or not to continue operations. With the end of hostilities wartime traffic dried up. Moreover, Oahu's road network had been upgraded significantly, and thus for the first time there was serious road competition. The company plugged along for the remainder of 1945 and into 1946 transporting servicemen. Nevertheless, passenger traffic and gross revenues dropped more than fifty percent. The railroad's fate was sealed by the 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake and the resulting 55-foot (17 m) tsunami that struck on April 1, 1946. Overlooked by most historians is the fact that from September 1, 1946, through November 18, 1946, 22,000 sugar workers at 33 of Hawaii's 34 sugarcane plantations went on strike.[5] Only the Gay & Robinson Plantation on Kauai remained in operation—it was non-union privately owned, and is the only one to remain in operation in Hawai'i today. The strike had a major impact on Hawaii, and OR&L's freight dropped to record lows.[6] Although the OR&L rebuilt the tracks destroyed by the tsunami and continued operations during the strike, the decision was made to shut down the entire operation at the end of that year. On December 31, 1947, a final excursion carrying company President Walter F. Dillingham (Benjamin Dillingham's son), along with numerous guests, departed from Kahuku behind American Locomotive Company steam engine number 70 through 71.4 miles (114.9 km) of countryside back to the Honolulu station.[6] The OR&L was finished after fifty-eight years. The OR&L replaced its railroad with a truck transport operation. Most of the system was dismantled in the years following the company's dissolution, although the double-tracked mainline from Honolulu to ʻAiea remained intact until around 1959. Four of the locomotives, 250 freight cars, and a huge quantity of track and supplies were sold to an El Salvadoran railroad in 1950. The Hibiscus & Heliconia Short Line Railroad (H&HSL RR) was formed in 1948 by local rail fans and modelers. Ben Dillingham gave the group a 1st class coach #47 and an observation car #48, formerly the private parlor car named Pearl. The Kahuku Plantation Co. allowed the group to use their tracks from near Kawela Bay to Punaluu. The group ran excursions infrequently, renting a steam locomotive from Kahuku Plantation. In 1950, the last steam locomotive was retired and the H&HSL RR then used one of two ex-Navy diesels. In 1954, the plantation abandoned its railroad in favor of trucks thus ending the H&HSL RR. Due to a lack of money and enthusiasm the group was unable to remove their two coaches from the property, so a plantation official had them torched. The OR&L's Honolulu harbor branch, renamed the Oahu Railway, was used until December 31, 1971 for industrial operations. It served a Kalihi stockyard (until 1961), but chiefly hauled incoming Molokai pineapples from the wharves to the Libby, McNeil and Libby and California Packing Corporation (Del Monte) canning plants. The final section of the line was taken over by the US Navy in 1950. The Navy, especially during the Korean War and the Vietnam War, ran ammunition trains between the West Loch of the Pearl Harbor Naval Base, through the ʻEwa Plain, to the Lualualei Naval Ammunition Depot on the Waiʻanae coast, preserving one of the most famous and scenic stretches of the railroad. The Navy switched to trucks, and the railroad property was abandoned in 1970. The Oahu Railway & Land Company merged with Hawaiian Dredging to form Dillingham. Historic preservationIn that same year a small group of railroad fans on Oahu learned of the abandonment and petitioned the Navy to turn the line and equipment over to them. This body became the Hawaiian Railway Society (HRS) in 1970. Nicholas Carter, a charter member of the HRS and one of its founders worked with others in the early 1970s, nominating the former OR&L mainline from ʻEwa to Nānākuli to the National Register of Historic Places. On December 1, 1975, U.S. Senator Hiram Fong reported that this had been done. Today the tracks are owned by the State of Hawaii, while the HRS is the line's caretaker. The HRS continues to maintain and extend the right-of-way while running excursion trains from its station in ʻEwa. Currently, trains are scheduled for Saturday afternoons at 1:00 and Sunday afternoons and 1:00 and 3:00, running past the new Second City of Kapolei, through the heart of the Koʻolina golf resort, and up the Waiʻanae Coast, presently only as far as Kahe Point. However, the tracks east of Fort Weaver Road have been pulled up, so trains can only operate on the line west of that. In addition to the ex-Navy flat cars used to haul passengers, three cars are at the Hawaiian Railway Society, Coach #2, excursion car #57, and Benjamin Franklin Dillingham's private coach, parlor car #64. OR&L equipment preserved at Travel Town MuseumThree cars also sit at Travel Town Museum in Griffith Park, California. Coach #1, combination car #36 and caboose #1, all built circa 1900 at the OR&L shops, were donated to the museum by the OR&L in 1953.[7] Steel guitarIt is alleged that the steel guitar was invented by Joseph Kekuku when he picked up a railroad spike and slid along the strings of his guitar whilst walking beside the line in the 1880s, perhaps the line of this very railroad.[citation needed] Honolulu (/ˌhɒnəˈluːluː/;[6] Hawaiian: [honoˈlulu]) is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi. It is an unincorporated part of and the county seat of the City and County of Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu.[a] The city is the main gateway to Hawaiʻi and a major portal into the United States. The city is also a major hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture, cuisine, and traditions. Honolulu is the most remote city of its size in the world[8] and is the westernmost major U.S. city. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau recognizes the approximate area commonly referred to as "City of Honolulu" (not to be confused with the "City and County") as a census county division (CCD).[9] Honolulu is a major financial center of the islands and of the Pacific Ocean. The population of the Honolulu census designated place (CDP) was 359,870 as of the 2017 population estimate,[4] while the Honolulu CCD was 390,738[10] and the population of the consolidated city and county was 953,207. Honolulu means "sheltered harbor"[11] or "calm port".[12] The old name is Kou, a district roughly encompassing the area from Nuʻuanu Avenue to Alakea Street and from Hotel Street to Queen Street which is the heart of the present downtown district.[13] The city has been the capital of the Hawaiian Islands since 1845 and gained historical recognition following the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan near the city on December 7, 1941. As of 2015, Honolulu was ranked high on world livability rankings, and was also ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U.S.[14][15] It is also the most populated Oceanian city outside Australasia and ranks second to Auckland as the most populous city in Polynesia.[16][17] HistorySee also: Timeline of Honolulu Port of Honolulu, as seen by German-Russian artist Louis Choris in 1816 Queen Street, Honolulu, 1856, by George Henry Burgesspeople in street watching fire in distanceThe Great Chinatown FireEvidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts. These indicate that there was a settlement where Honolulu now stands in the 11th century.[18] However, after Kamehameha I conquered Oʻahu in the Battle of Nuʻuanu at Nuʻuanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiʻi to Waikīkī in 1804. His court relocated in 1809 to what is now downtown Honolulu. The capital was moved back to Kailua-Kona in 1812. In 1794, Captain William Brown of Great Britain was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor.[19] More foreign ships followed, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia. In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu. He and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital,[20] erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, ʻIolani Palace, and Aliʻiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu.[21] Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, such as the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, Hawaiʻi's subsequent annexation by the United States in 1898, followed by a large fire in 1900, and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Honolulu remained the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands.[22] A view of the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 from Japanese planes. The torpedo explosion in the center is on the USS West Virginia.An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiʻi. Modern air travel brings, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the islands, with 62.3% entering at Honolulu International Airport.[23] Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, and Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiʻi, with thousands of hotel rooms. The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.[24] Geography Astronaut photograph of western Honolulu, HNL Airport, and Pearl Harbor taken from the International Space StationAccording to the United States Census Bureau, the Urban Honolulu Census-designated place (CDP) has a total area of 68.4 square miles (177.2 km2). 60.5 square miles (156.7 km2) of it (88.44%) is land, and 7.9 square miles (20.5 km2) of it (11.56%) is water.[25] Honolulu is the most remote major city in the world.[8] The closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arena Lighthouse in California, at 2,045 nautical miles (3,787 km).[26] (Nautical vessels require some additional distance to circumnavigate Makapuʻu Point.) However, islands off the Mexican coast, and part of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska are slightly closer to Honolulu than the mainland. Neighborhoods, boroughs, and districts Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Downtown at Bishop and King streets, with First Hawaiian Center (left) and Bankoh Center (right)Downtown Honolulu is the financial, commercial, and governmental center of Hawaiʻi. On the waterfront is Aloha Tower, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaiʻi. Currently the tallest building is the 438-foot (134 m) tall First Hawaiian Center, located on King and Bishop Streets. The downtown campus of Hawaiʻi Pacific University is also located there.The Arts District Honolulu in downtown/Chinatown is on the eastern edge of Chinatown. It is a 12-block area bounded by Bethel & Smith Streets and Nimitz Highway and Beretania Street – home to numerous arts and cultural institutions. It is located within the Chinatown Historic District, which includes the former Hotel Street Vice District.[27]The Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaiʻi's state government, incorporating the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu Hale (City Hall), State Library, and the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings.Kakaʻako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopment effort in the past decade. It is home to two major shopping areas, Ward Warehouse and Ward Centre. The Howard Hughes Corporation plans to transform Ward Centers into Ward Village over the next decade. The John A. Burns School of Medicine, part of the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, is also located there. A Memorial to the Ehime Maru Incident victims is built at the Kakaʻako Waterfront Park.Ala Moana is a district between Kakaʻako and Waikīkī and the home of Ala Moana Center, the "World's largest open air shopping center" and the largest shopping mall in Hawaiʻi.[28] Ala Moana Center boasts over 300 tenants and is a very popular location among tourists. Also in Ala Moana is the Honolulu Design Center and Ala Moana Beach Park, the second largest park in Honolulu.Waikīkī is the tourist district of Honolulu, located between the Ala Wai Canal and the Pacific Ocean next to Diamond Head. Numerous hotels, shops, and nightlife opportunities are located along Kalākaua and Kuhio Avenues. It is a popular location for visitors and locals alike and attracts millions of visitors every year. A majority of the hotel rooms on Oʻahu are located in Waikīkī.Mānoa and Makiki are residential neighborhoods located in adjacent valleys just inland of downtown and Waikīkī. Mānoa Valley is home to the main campus of the University of Hawaiʻi.Nuʻuanu and Pauoa are upper-middle-class residential districts located inland of downtown Honolulu. The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific is located in Punchbowl Crater fronting Pauoa Valley.Palolo and Kaimuki are neighborhoods east of Mānoa and Makiki, inland from Diamond Head. Palolo Valley parallels Mānoa and is a residential neighborhood. Kaimuki is primarily a residential neighborhood with a commercial strip centered on Waialae Avenue running behind Diamond Head. Chaminade University is located in Kaimuki.Waialae and Kahala are upper-class districts of Honolulu located directly east of Diamond Head, where there are many high-priced homes. Also found in these neighborhoods are the Waialae Country Club and the five-star Kahala Hotel & Resort.East Honolulu includes the residential communities of ʻĀina Haina, Niu Valley, and Hawaiʻi Kai. These are considered upper-middle-class neighborhoods. The upscale gated communities of Waiʻalae ʻiki and Hawaiʻi Loa Ridge are also located here.Kalihi and Palama are working-class neighborhoods with a number of government housing developments. Lower Kalihi, toward the ocean, is a light-industrial district.Salt Lake and Aliamanu are (mostly) residential areas built in extinct tuff cones along the western end of the Honolulu District, not far from the Honolulu International Airport.Moanalua is two neighborhoods and a valley at the western end of Honolulu, and home to Tripler Army Medical Center.ClimateHonolulu experiences a tropical hot semi-arid climate (Köppen classification BSh), with a mostly dry summer season, due to a rain shadow effect.[29] Temperatures vary little throughout the months, with average high temperatures of 80–90 °F (27–32 °C) and average lows of 65–75 °F (18–24 °C) throughout the year. Temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 38 days annually,[30] with lows in the upper 50s °F (14–15 °C) occurring once or twice a year. The highest recorded temperature was 95 °F (35 °C) during a heat wave in September 1994. The highest recorded temperature in the state was also recorded later that day in Niʻihau. The lowest recorded temperature was 52 °F (11 °C) on February 16, 1902, and January 20, 1969. With high temperatures and humidity there is a vast tropical influence on the climate, although rainfall falls short of that classification. Annual average rainfall is 17.05 in (433 mm), which mainly occurs during the winter months of October through early April, with very little rainfall during the summer; similar to California's mediterranean climates. However, both seasons experience a similar number of rainy days. Light showers occur in summer while heavier rain falls during winter. Honolulu has an average of 278 sunny days and 90 rainy days per year. Although the city is situated in the tropics, hurricanes are quite rare. The last recorded hurricane that hit the area was Category 4 Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Tornadoes are also uncommon and usually strike once every 15 years. Waterspouts off the coast are also uncommon, hitting about once every five years.[31] Honolulu falls under the USDA 12a Plant Hardiness zone.[32] The average temperature of the sea ranges from 24.3 °C (75.7 °F) in March to 26.9 °C (80.4 °F) in September.[33] Climate data for Honolulu International Airport (1981−2010 normals,[b] extremes 1877−present[c])MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYearRecord high °F (°C)88(31)88(31)89(32)91(33)93(34)92(33)94(34)93(34)95(35)94(34)93(34)89(32)95(35)Mean maximum °F (°C)84.3(29.1)84.4(29.1)85.4(29.7)86.6(30.3)88.7(31.5)89.5(31.9)90.7(32.6)91.3(32.9)91.7(33.2)90.5(32.5)87.6(30.9)85.2(29.6)92.1(33.4)Average high °F (°C)80.1(26.7)80.2(26.8)81.2(27.3)82.7(28.2)84.6(29.2)87.0(30.6)87.9(31.1)88.7(31.5)88.6(31.4)86.7(30.4)83.9(28.8)81.2(27.3)84.4(29.1)Daily mean °F (°C)73.2(22.9)73.1(22.8)74.5(23.6)76.1(24.5)77.8(25.4)80.2(26.8)81.2(27.3)81.9(27.7)81.5(27.5)80.0(26.7)77.6(25.3)74.8(23.8)77.7(25.4)Average low °F (°C)66.3(19.1)66.1(18.9)67.7(19.8)69.4(20.8)70.9(21.6)73.4(23)74.5(23.6)75.1(23.9)74.4(23.6)73.4(23)71.4(21.9)68.3(20.2)70.9(21.6)Mean minimum °F (°C)59.3(15.2)58.6(14.8)61.2(16.2)64.2(17.9)65.3(18.5)69.6(20.9)70.8(21.6)70.8(21.6)70.1(21.2)68.1(20.1)65.4(18.6)61.1(16.2)57.0(13.9)Record low °F (°C)52(11)52(11)53(12)56(13)60(16)63(17)63(17)63(17)65(18)61(16)57(14)54(12)52(11)Average rainfall inches (mm)2.31(58.7)1.99(50.5)2.02(51.3)0.63(16)0.62(15.7)0.26(6.6)0.51(13)0.56(14.2)0.70(17.8)1.84(46.7)2.42(61.5)3.24(82.3)17.10(434.3)Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 inch)8.57.48.87.55.85.77.15.66.97.68.89.789.4Average relative humidity (%)73.370.868.867.366.164.464.664.165.567.570.472.467.9Mean monthly sunshine hours213.5212.7259.2251.8280.6286.1306.2303.1278.8244.0200.4199.53,035.9Percent possible sunshine63666966697174767668605968Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[34][35][36]Climate data for HonoluluMonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYearAverage sea temperature °F (°C)76.5(24.7)75.9(24.4)75.7(24.3)76.9(25.0)77.9(25.5)78.7(25.9)78.9(26.0)79.5(26.4)80.4(26.9)79.8(26.5)78.5(25.9)77.0(25.0)78.0(25.5)Mean daily daylight hours11.011.012.013.013.013.013.013.012.012.011.011.012.1Average Ultraviolet index7911111111+11+11+119769.6Source #1: seatemperature.org [37]Source #2: Weather Atlas [38] Panorama of Honolulu's waterfront in February 2007.DemographicsHistorical populationCensusPop.%±189022,907—190039,30671.6%191052,18332.8%192083,32759.7%1930137,58265.1%1940179,32630.3%1950248,03438.3%1960294,19418.6%1970324,87110.4%1980365,04812.4%1990365,2720.1%2000371,6571.7%2010390,7385.1%Population 1890–2010.[10][39] The Hawaiʻi State Capitol Map of racial distribution in Honolulu, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)The population of Honolulu was 390,738 according to the 2010 U.S. Census. Of those, 192,781 (49.3%) were male and 197,957 (50.7%) were female. The median age for males was 40.0 and 43.0 for females; the overall median age was 41.3. Approximately 84.7% of the total population was 16 years and over; 82.6% were 18 years and over, 78.8% were 21 years and over, 21.4% were 62 years and over, and 17.8% were 65 years and over.[10] In terms of race and ethnicity, 54.8% were Asian, 17.9% were White, 1.5% were Black or African American, 0.2% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 8.4% were Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.8% were from "some other race", and 16.3% were from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 5.4% of the population.[10] In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Honolulu's population as 33.9% white and 53.7% Asian and Pacific Islander.[40] Asian Americans represent the majority of Honolulu's population. The Asian ethnic groups are Japanese (19.9%), Filipinos (13.2%), Chinese (10.4%), Koreans (4.3%), Vietnamese (2.0%), Asian Indians (0.3%), Laotians (0.3%), Thais (0.2%), Cambodians (0.1%), and Indonesians (0.1%). People solely of Native Hawaiian ancestry made up 3.2% of the population. Samoan Americans made up 1.5% of the population, Marshallese people make up 0.5% of the city's population, and Tongan people comprise 0.3% of its population. People of Guamanian or Chamorro descent made up 0.2% of the population and numbered 841 residents.[10] Honolulu's urban area was the fourth densest[8] in the United States according to the 2010 U.S. Census. Economy Honolulu viewed from Diamond Head craterThe largest city and airport in the Hawaiian Islands, Honolulu acts as a natural gateway to the islands' large tourism industry, which brings millions of visitors and contributes $10 billion annually to the local economy. Honolulu's location in the Pacific also makes it a large business and trading hub, particularly between the East and the West. Other important aspects of the city's economy include military defense, research and development, and manufacturing.[41] Among the companies based in Honolulu are: Alexander & BaldwinBank of HawaiiCentral Pacific BankFirst Hawaiian BankHawaii Medical Service AssociationHawaii Pacific HealthHawaiian Electric IndustriesMatson Navigation CompanyThe Queen's Health SystemsHawaiian Airlines,[42] Island Air,[43] and Aloha Air Cargo are headquartered in the city.[44][45] Prior to its dissolution, Aloha Airlines was headquartered in the city.[46] At one time Mid-Pacific Airlines had its headquarters on the property of Honolulu International Airport.[47] In 2009, Honolulu had a 4.5% increase in the average price of rent, maintaining it in the second most expensive rental market ranking among 210 U.S. metropolitan areas.[48] Since no national bank chains have any branches in Hawaiʻi, many visitors and new residents use different banks. First Hawaiian Bank is the largest and oldest bank in Hawaiʻi and their headquarters are at the First Hawaiian Center, the tallest building in the State of Hawaiʻi. Cultural institutions With symbolic native-styled architectural features, First Hawaiian Center is the tallest building in Hawaiʻi and home to a Honolulu Museum of Art Spalding House galleryNatural museumsThe Bishop Museum is the largest of Honolulu's museums. It is endowed with the state's largest collection of natural history specimens and the world's largest collection of Hawaiiana and Pacific culture artifacts.[49] The Honolulu Zoo is the main zoological institution in Hawai'i while the Waikīkī Aquarium is a working marine biology laboratory. The Waikīkī Aquarium is partnered with the University of Hawai'i and other universities worldwide. Established for appreciation and botany, Honolulu is home to several gardens: Foster Botanical Garden, Liliʻuokalani Botanical Garden, Walker Estate, among others. Performing artsEstablished in 1900, the Honolulu Symphony is the second oldest US symphony orchestra west of the Rocky Mountains. Other classical music ensembles include the Hawaiʻi Opera Theatre. Honolulu is also a center for Hawaiian music. The main music venues include the Hawaiʻi Theatre, the Neal Blaisdell Center Concert Hall and Arena, and the Waikīkī Shell. Honolulu also includes several venues for live theater, including the Diamond Head Theatre. Visual artsVarious institutions for the visual arts are located in Honolulu. The Honolulu Museum of Art is endowed with the largest collection of Asian and Western art in Hawaiʻi. It also has the largest collection of Islamic art, housed at the Shangri La estate. Since the merger of the Honolulu Academy of Arts and The Contemporary Museum, Honolulu (now called the Honolulu Museum of Art Spalding House) in 2011, the museum is also the only contemporary art museum in the state. The contemporary collections are housed at main campus (Spalding House) in Makiki and a multi-level gallery in downtown Honolulu at the First Hawaiian Center. The museum hosts a film and video program dedicated to arthouse and world cinema in the museum's Doris Duke Theatre, named for the museum's historic patroness Doris Duke.[50] The Hawaiʻi State Art Museum (also downtown) boasts pieces by local artists as well as traditional Hawaiian art. The museum is administered by the Hawaiʻi State Foundation on Culture and the Arts. Aerial view of Diamond HeadHonolulu also annually holds the Hawaiʻi International Film Festival (HIFF). It showcases some of the best films from producers all across the Pacific Rim and is the largest "East meets West" style film festival of its sort in the United States. Tourist attractions Diamond Head and Honolulu viewed from Round Top DriveAla Moana CenterAloha TowerBishop MuseumDiamond HeadHanauma BayHonolulu Museum of ArtHonolulu ZooʻIolani PalaceLyon ArboretumNational Memorial Cemetery of the PacificUSS Arizona MemorialWaikīkī AquariumWaikiki BeachWaikīkī TrolleyInternational Market PlaceKapiʻolani ParkSportsHonolulu's tropical climate lends itself to year-round activities. In 2004, Men's Fitness magazine named Honolulu the fittest city in the United States.[51] Honolulu has three large road races: The Great Aloha Run is held annually on Presidents' Day.The Honolulu Marathon, held annually on the second Sunday in December, draws more than 20,000 participants each year, about half to two thirds of them from Japan.The Honolulu Triathlon is an Olympic distance triathlon event governed by USA Triathlon. Held annually in May since 2004, there is an absence of a sprint course.Ironman Hawaiʻi was first held in Honolulu. It was the first ever Ironman triathlon event and is also the world championship. Fans of spectator sports in Honolulu generally support the football, volleyball, basketball, rugby union, rugby league and baseball programs of the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.[52] High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular. Honolulu has no professional sports teams. It was the home of the Hawaiʻi Islanders (Pacific Coast League, 1961–87), The Hawaiians (World Football League, 1974–75), Team Hawaiʻi (North American Soccer League, 1977), and the Hawaiian Islanders (af2, 2002–04). The NCAA football Hawaiʻi Bowl is played in Honolulu. Honolulu has also hosted the NFL's annual Pro Bowl each February from 1980 to 2009. After the 2010 and 2015 games were played in Miami Gardens and Glendale, respectively, the Pro Bowl was once again in Honolulu from 2011 to 2014 with 2016 the most recent.[53][54] From 1993 to 2008, Honolulu hosted Hawaiʻi Winter Baseball, featuring minor league players from Major League Baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Korea Baseball Organization, and independent leagues. VenuesVenues for spectator sports in Honolulu include: Les Murakami Stadium at UH-Mānoa (baseball)Neal S. Blaisdell Center Arena (basketball)Stan Sheriff Center at UH-Mānoa (basketball and volleyball)Aloha Stadium, a venue for American football and soccer, is located in Halawa near Pearl Harbor, just outside Honolulu.[55] Government Completed in 1928, Honolulu Hale is the city and county seatKirk Caldwell was elected mayor of Honolulu County on November 6, 2012, and began serving as the county's 14th mayor on January 2, 2013. The municipal offices of the City and County of Honolulu, including Honolulu Hale, the seat of the city and county, are located in the Capitol District, as are the Hawaiʻi state government buildings.[56] The Capitol District is within the Honolulu census county division (CCD), the urban area commonly regarded as the "City" of Honolulu. The Honolulu CCD is located on the southeast coast of Oʻahu between Makapuu and Halawa. The division boundary follows the Koʻolau crestline, so Makapuʻu Beach is in the Ko'olaupoko District. On the west, the division boundary follows Halawa Stream, then crosses Red Hill and runs just west of Aliamanu Crater, so that Aloha Stadium, Pearl Harbor (with the USS Arizona Memorial), and Hickam Air Force Base are actually all located in the island's Ewa CCD.[57] The Hawaiʻi Department of Public Safety operates the Oʻahu Community Correctional Center, the jail for the island of Oʻahu, in Honolulu CCD.[58] The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Honolulu. The main Honolulu Post Office is located by the international airport at 3600 Aolele Street.[59] Federal Detention Center, Honolulu, operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, is in the CDP.[60] Foreign missions on the islandSeveral countries have consular facilities in Honolulu, due to its strategically important position in the mid-Pacific. They include consulates of Japan,[61] South Korea,[62] Philippines,[63] Federated States of Micronesia,[64] Australia,[65] and the Marshall Islands.[66] Education and ResearchColleges and universitiesSee also: List of colleges and universities in HawaiiColleges and universities in Honolulu include Honolulu Community College, Kapiʻolani Community College, the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Chaminade University, and Hawaiʻi Pacific University.[45] UH Mānoa houses the main offices of the University of Hawaiʻi System.[67] Research institutions Pacific Forum, one of the world’s leading Asia-Pacific policy research institutes, is on Bishop Street.Honolulu is home to three renowned international affairs research institutions. The Pacific Forum, one of the world’s leading Asia-Pacific policy research institutes and one of the first organizations in the United States to focus exclusively on Asia has its main office on Bishop Street in downtown Honolulu. The East–West Center (EWC), an education and research organization established by the U.S. Congress in 1960 to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples and nations of Asia, the Pacific, and the United States, is headquartered in Mānoa, Honolulu. The Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS), a U.S. Department of Defense institute is based in Waikīkī, Honolulu. APCSS addresses regional and global security issues and supports the U.S. Pacific Command by developing and sustaining relationships among security practitioners and national security establishments throughout the region. Public primary and secondary schools Queen Liliuokalani Building, Hawaiʻi Department of Education headquarters in Honolulu CDPHawaiʻi Department of Education operates public schools in Honolulu. Public high schools within the CDP area include Wallace Rider Farrington, Kaiser, Kaimuki, Kalani, Moanalua, William McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt.[45] Private primary and secondary schoolsPrivate schools include Academy of the Pacific, Damien Memorial School, Hawaiʻi Baptist Academy, ʻIolani School, Lutheran High School of Hawaiʻi, Kamehameha Schools, Maryknoll School, Mid-Pacific Institute, La Pietra, Punahou School, Sacred Hearts Academy, St. Andrew's Priory School, Saint Francis School, Saint Louis School, the Education Laboratory School, Saint Patrick School, Trinity Christian School, and Varsity International School. Public libraries Hawaiʻi State LibraryHawaiʻi State Public Library System operates public libraries. The Hawaiʻi State Library in the CDP serves as the main library of the system,[68] while the Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, also in the CDP area, serves handicapped and blind people.[69] Branches in the CDP area include Aiea, Aina Haina, Ewa Beach, Hawaiʻi Kai, Kahuku, Kailua, Kaimuki, Kalihi-Palama, Kaneohe, Kapolei, Liliha, Mānoa, McCully-Moiliili, Mililani, Moanalua, Wahiawa, Waialua, Waianae, Waikīkī-Kapahulu, Waimanalo, and Waipahu.[70] Weekend educational programsThe Hawaiʻi Japanese School – Rainbow Gakuen (ハワイレインボー学園 Hawai Rainbō Gakuen), a supplementary weekend Japanese school, holds its classes in Kaimuki Middle School in Honolulu and has its offices in another building in Honolulu.[71] The school serves overseas Japanese nationals.[72] In addition Honolulu has other weekend programs for the Japanese, Chinese, and Spanish languages.[73] MediaMain article: Media in HonoluluHonolulu is served by one daily newspaper (the Honolulu Star-Advertiser), Honolulu Magazine, several radio stations and television stations, among other media. Local news agency and CNN-affiliate Hawaiʻi News Now broadcasts and is headquartered out of Honolulu. Honolulu and the island of Oʻahu has also been the location for many film and television projects, including Hawaiʻi Five-0 and Lost. TransportationAir Honolulu International Airport old control tower 8R "Reef Runway" of Honolulu International Airport Aerial view of H-1 (looking east) from Honolulu Airport heading into downtown HonoluluLocated at the western end of the CDP, Daniel K. Inouye International Airport (HNL) is the principal aviation gateway to the state of Hawaiʻi. Kalaeloa Airport is primarily a commuter facility used by unscheduled air taxis, general aviation and transient and locally based military aircraft. HighwaysHonolulu has been ranked as having the nation's worst traffic congestion, beating former record holder Los Angeles. Drivers waste on average over 58 hours per year on congested roadways.[74] The following freeways, part of the Interstate Highway System serve Honolulu: I-H1.svg Interstate H-1, which, coming into the city from the west, passes Hickam Air Force Base and Honolulu International Airport, runs just north of Downtown and continues eastward through Makiki and Kaimuki, ending at Waialae/Kahala. H-1 connects to Interstate H-2 from Wahiawa and Interstate H-3 from Kaneohe, west of the CDP.I-H201.svg Interstate H-201—also known as the Moanalua Freeway and sometimes numbered as its former number, Hawaiʻi State Rte. 78—connects two points along H-1: at Aloha Stadium and Fort Shafter. Close to H-1 and Aloha Stadium, H-201 has an exchange with the western terminus of Interstate H-3 to the windward side of Oahu (Kaneohe). This complex of connecting ramps, some directly between H-1 and H-3, is in Halawa.Other major highways that link Honolulu CCD with other parts of the Island of Oahu are: Pali Highway, State Rte. 61, crosses north over the Koolau range via the Pali Tunnels to connect to Kailua and Kaneohe on the windward side of the Island.Likelike Highway, State Rte. 63, also crosses the Koolau to Kaneohe via the Wilson Tunnels.Kalanianaole Highway, State Rte. 72, runs eastward from Waialae/Kahala to Hawaiʻi Kai and around the east end of the island to Waimanalo Beach.Kamehameha Highway, State Rts. 80, 83, 99 and 830, runs westward from near Hickam Air Force Base to Aiea and beyond, eventually running through the center of the island and ending in Kaneohe.Like most major American cities, the Honolulu metropolitan area experiences heavy traffic congestion during rush hours, especially to and from the western suburbs of Kapolei, ʻEwa Beach, Aiea, Pearl City, Waipahu, and Mililani. There is a Hawaiʻi Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (HEVDP).[75] Public transportHonolulu Authority for Rapid TransportationIn November 2010, voters approved a charter amendment to create a public transit authority to oversee the planning, construction, operation and future extensions to Honolulu's future rail system. The Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation (HART) currently includes a 10-member board of directors; three members appointed by the mayor, three members selected by the Honolulu City Council, and the city and state transportation directors.[76] The opening of the Honolulu Rail Transit is delayed until approximately 2018, as HART canceled the initial bids for the first nine stations and intends to rebid the work as three packages of three stations each, and allow more time for construction in the hope that increased competition on smaller contracts will drive down costs;[77] initial bids ranged from $294.5 million to $320.8 million, far surpassing HART's budget of $184 million.[78] BusMain article: TheBus (Honolulu)Established by former Mayor Frank F. Fasi as the replacement for the Honolulu Rapid Transit Company (HRT), Honolulu's TheBus system was honored in 1994–1995 and 2000–2001 by the American Public Transportation Association as "America's Best Transit System". TheBus operates 107 routes serving Honolulu and most major cities and towns on Oʻahu. TheBus comprises a fleet of 531 buses, and is run by the non-profit corporation Oʻahu Transit Services in conjunction with the city Department of Transportation Services. Honolulu is ranked 4th for highest per-capita use of mass transit in the United States.[79] RailMain article: Honolulu Rail TransitCurrently, there is no urban rail transit system in Honolulu, although electric street railways were operated in Honolulu by the now-defunct Honolulu Rapid Transit Company prior to World War II. Predecessors to the Honolulu Rapid Transit Company were the Honolulu Rapid Transit and Land Company (began 1903) and Hawaiian Tramways (began 1888).[80] The City and County of Honolulu is currently constructing a 20-mile (32 km) rail transit line that will connect Honolulu with cities and suburban areas near Pearl Harbor and in the Leeward and West Oahu regions. The Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project is aimed at alleviating traffic congestion for West Oʻahu commuters while being integral in the westward expansion of the metropolitan area. The project, however, has been criticized by opponents of rail for its cost, delays, and potential environmental impacts, but the line is expected to have large ridership. Bicycle sharingSince June 28, 2017, PBSC operates Biki which is bicycle sharing program on Oʻahu. Most Biki stations are located between Chinatown/Downtown and Diamondhead, however, some Biki stations are in Kailua.[81][82][83][84] The GoBiki.org website has a Biki stations map. Modal characteristicsAccording to the 2016 American Community Survey (five-year average), 56 percent of Urban Honolulu residents commuted to work by driving alone, 13.8 percent carpooled, 11.7 used public transportation, and 8.7 percent walked. About 5.7 commuted by bike, taxi, motorcycle or other forms of transportation, while 4.1 percent worked at home.[85] The city of Honolulu has a high percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 16.6 percent of Honolulu households lacked a car, which increased slightly to 17.2 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Honolulu averaged 1.4 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.[86] Hawaii is one of four U.S. states—apart from the original thirteen, along with the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845), and the California Republic (1846)—that were independent nations prior to statehood. Along with Texas, Hawaii had formal, international diplomatic recognition as a nation.[51] The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident American and European capitalists and landholders. Hawaii was an independent republic from 1894 until August 12, 1898, when it officially became a territory of the United States. Hawaii was admitted as a U.S. state on August 21, 1959.[52] First human settlement – Ancient Hawaiʻi (800–1778)Main article: Ancient HawaiiBased on archaeological evidence, the earliest habitation of the Hawaiian Islands dates to around 300 CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas Islands.[dubious – discuss] A second wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora took place in the 11th century. The date of the human discovery and habitation of the Hawaiian Islands is the subject of academic debate.[53] Some archaeologists and historians think it was a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti around 1000 CE who introduced a new line of high chiefs, the kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice, and the building of heiau.[citation needed] This later immigration is detailed in Hawaiian mythology (moʻolelo) about Paʻao. Other authors say there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers and that Paʻao must be regarded as a myth.[citation needed] The history of the islands is marked by a slow, steady growth in population and the size of the chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, called aliʻi, ruled their settlements, and launched wars to extend their influence and defend their communities from predatory rivals. Ancient Hawaii was a caste-based society, much like that of Hindus in India.[54] European arrivalDrawing of single-masted sailboat with one spinnaker-shaped sail, carrying dozens of men, accompanied by at least four other canoes.Kalaniʻōpuʻu, King of Hawaiʻi, brings presents to Captain Cook.It is possible that Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century—200 years before Captain James Cook's first documented visit in 1778. Ruy López de Villalobos commanded a fleet of six ships that left Acapulco in 1542 bound for the Philippines with a Spanish sailor named Juan Gaetano aboard as pilot. Depending on the interpretation, Gaetano's reports describe an encounter with either Hawaiʻi or the Marshall Islands.[55][56][better source needed] If de Villalobos' crew spotted Hawaiʻi, Gaetano would be considered the first European to see the islands. Some scholars have dismissed these claims due to a lack of credibility.[57][58] Spanish archives contain a chart that depicts islands at the same latitude as Hawaiʻi but with a longitude ten degrees east of the islands. In this manuscript, the island of Maui is named La Desgraciada (The Unfortunate Island), and what appears to be Hawaiʻi Island is named La Mesa (The Table). Islands resembling Kahoolawe, Lanai, and Molokai are named Los Monjes (The Monks).[59] For two-and-a-half centuries, Spanish galleons crossed the Pacific from Mexico along a route that passed south of Hawaiʻi on their way to Manila. The exact route was kept secret to protect the Spanish trade monopoly against competing powers. The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook was the first documented contact by a European explorer with Hawaii. Cook named the archipelago as the Sandwich Islands in honor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. Cook published the islands' location and rendered the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyhee County, Idaho. It was named after three native Hawaiian members of a trapping party who went missing in that area. The Owyhee Mountains were also named for them.[60] King Kamehameha receiving Otto von Kotzebue's Russian naval expedition. Drawing by Louis Choris in 1816.Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands twice. As he prepared for departure after his second visit in 1779, a quarrel ensued as Cook took temple idols and fencing as "firewood",[61] and a minor chief and his men took a ship's boat. Cook abducted the King of Hawaiʻi Island, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, and held him for ransom aboard his ship in order to gain return of Cook's boat. This tactic had worked in Tahiti and other islands.[62] Instead, Kalaniʻōpuʻu's supporters fought back, killing Cook and four marines as Cook's party retreated along the beach to their ship. They departed without the ship's boat. After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands attracted many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers, who found the islands to be a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the flag of Hawaiʻi, which bears the Union Jack in the top-left corner. These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands, causing the Hawaiian population to drop precipitously.[63] Native Hawaiians had no resistance to Eurasian diseases, such as influenza, smallpox and measles. By 1820, disease, famine and wars between the chiefs killed more than half of the Native Hawaiian population.[64] During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people.[65] Historical records indicated the earliest Chinese immigrants to Hawaii originated from Guangdong Province; a few sailors arrived in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey and more arrived in 1789 with an American trader, who settled in Hawaii in the late 18th century. It appears that leprosy was introduced by Chinese workers by 1830; as with the other new infectious diseases, it proved damaging to the Hawaiians.[citation needed] Kingdom of HawaiʻiMain article: Kingdom of HawaiiHouse of Kamehameha Kamehameha I conquered the Hawaiian Islands and established a unified monarchy across the archipelago.During the 1780s, and 1790s, chiefs often fought for power. After a series of battles that ended in 1795, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler, who became known as King Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872.[66] After Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, American Protestant missionaries to Hawaii converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. They used their influence to end many traditional practices of the people.[67][68] During the reign of King Kamehameha III, Hawai'i turned into a Christian monarchy with the signing of the 1840 Constitution.[69] Hiram Bingham I, a prominent Protestant missionary, was a trusted adviser to the monarchy during this period. Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects.[70] Catholic and Mormon missionaries were also active in the kingdom, but they converted a minority of the Native Hawaiian population.[71][72][73] Missionaries from each major group administered to the leper colony at Kalaupapa on Molokaʻi, which was established in 1866 and operated well into the 20th century. The best known were Father Damien and Mother Marianne Cope, both of whom were canonized in the early 21st century as Roman Catholic saints. The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V—who did not name an heir—resulted in the popular election of Lunalilo over Kalākaua. Lunalilo died the next year, also without naming an heir. In 1874, the election was contested within the legislature between Kalākaua and Emma, Queen Consort of Kamehameha IV. After riots broke out, the United States and Britain landed troops on the islands to restore order. King Kalākaua was chosen as monarch by the Legislative Assembly by a vote of 39 to 6 on February 12, 1874.[74] 1887 Constitution and overthrow preparationsIn 1887, Kalākaua was forced to sign the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Drafted by white businessmen and lawyers, the document stripped the king of much of his authority. It established a property qualification for voting that effectively disenfranchised most Hawaiians and immigrant laborers and favored the wealthier, white elite. Resident whites were allowed to vote but resident Asians were not. As the 1887 Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the Bayonet Constitution. King Kalākaua, reduced to a figurehead, reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Queen Liliʻuokalani, succeeded him; she was the last monarch of Hawaiʻi.[75] In 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani announced plans for a new constitution to proclaim herself an absolute monarch. On January 14, 1893, a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders and residents formed the Committee of Safety to stage a coup d'état against the kingdom and seek annexation by the United States. United States Government Minister John L. Stevens, responding to a request from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of U.S. Marines. The Queen's soldiers did not resist. According to historian William Russ, the monarchy was unable to protect itself.[76] Overthrow of 1893 – the Republic of Hawaii (1894–1898)Main articles: Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and Republic of HawaiiSee also: List of Hawaiian sovereignty movement groups § Historical – Royalist Organizations (from 1880s)Queen Liliʻuokalani, seated inside ʻIolani Palace.Queen Liliʻuokalani, the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom. The ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii.In January 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani was overthrown and replaced by a provisional government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. Lawyer Sanford B. Dole, a citizen of Hawaii, became President of the Republic when the Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894. Controversy ensued in the following years as the Queen tried to regain her throne. The administration of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of Liliʻuokalani had been illegal. The U.S. government first demanded that Queen Liliʻuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused. Congress conducted an independent investigation, and on February 26, 1894, submitted the Morgan Report, which found all parties, including Minister Stevens—with the exception of the Queen—"not guilty" and not responsible for the coup.[77] Partisans on both sides of the debate questioned the accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports over the events of 1893.[76][78][79][80] In 1993, the US Congress passed a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow; it was signed by President Bill Clinton. The resolution did not apologize and did not say the overthrow was illegal. It "acknowledges that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with the active participation of agents and citizens of the United States and further acknowledges that the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum". [80] Annexation – the Territory of Hawaii (1898–1959)Main article: Territory of Hawaii In 1899 Uncle Sam balances his new possessions, which are depicted as savage children. The figures are Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Cuba, Philippines and "Ladrones" (the Mariana Islands).After William McKinley won the 1896 U.S. presidential election, advocates pressed to annex the Republic of Hawaii. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliʻuokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. expansionists and by annexationists from Hawaiʻi. He met with three annexationists: Lorrin A. Thurston, Francis March Hatch and William Ansel Kinney. After negotiations in June 1897, Secretary of State John Sherman agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[81] The U.S. Senate never ratified the treaty. Despite the opposition of most native Hawaiians,[82] the Newlands Resolution was used to annex the Republic to the U.S.; it became the Territory of Hawaii. The Newlands Resolution was passed by the House on June 15, 1898, by 209 votes in favor to 91 against, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21.[83][84][85] In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained ʻIolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for 60 years. Plantation owners and capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions such as the Big Five, found territorial status convenient because they remained able to import cheap, foreign labor. Such immigration and labor practices were prohibited in many states.[86][87] The USS Shaw explodes during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 was the primary event that caused the United States to enter World War II.Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began in 1899, when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes, causing a worldwide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for sugar from Hawaii. Hawaiian sugarcane plantation owners began to recruit experienced, unemployed laborers in Puerto Rico. Two waves of Korean immigration to Hawaii occurred in the 20th century. The first wave arrived between 1903 and 1924; the second wave began in 1965 after President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which removed racial and national barriers and resulted in significantly altering the demographic mix in the U.S.[88] Oʻahu was the target of a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Imperial Japan on December 7, 1941. The attack on Pearl Harbor and other military and naval installations, carried out by aircraft and by midget submarines, brought the United States into World War II. Political changes of 1954 – the State of Hawaii (1959–present)Main article: Democratic Revolution of 1954 (Hawaii)See also: List of Hawaiian sovereignty movement groups § Modern – Sovereignty Organizations (1960s–present)Three young women pack pineapples into cans in 1928.Prior to the postwar labor movement, Hawaii was governed by plantation owners. Here, three young women pack pineapples into cans in 1928.In the 1950s, the power of the plantation owners was broken by the descendants of immigrant laborers, who were born in Hawaii and were U.S. citizens. They voted against the Hawaii Republican Party, strongly supported by plantation owners. The new majority voted for the Democratic Party of Hawaii, which dominated territorial and state politics for more than 40 years. Eager to gain full representation in Congress and the Electoral College, residents actively campaigned for statehood. In Washington there was talk that Hawaii would be a Republican Party stronghold so it was matched with the admission of Alaska, seen as a Democratic Party stronghold. These predictions turned out to be inaccurate; today, Hawaii votes Democratic predominately, while Alaska votes Republican.[89][90][91][92] In March 1959, Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act, which U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law.[93] The act excluded Palmyra Atoll from statehood; it had been part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii. On June 27, 1959, a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill; 94.3% voted in favor of statehood and 5.7% opposed it.[94] The referendum asked voters to choose between accepting the Act and remaining a U.S. territory. The United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from its list of non-self-governing territories. After attaining statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized through construction and a rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture.[which?] The Hawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 created institutions such as the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote indigenous language and culture.[citation needed] Condition: Used, Condition: Good to very good condition - see description., Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

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