Roman Silver Coin Unknown Old Rique Naked Woman Prostitute Antique Unresearched

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller anddownthewaterfall (19,278) 99.6%, Location: Manchester, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 362662764942 Roman Brothel Coin ## FREE UK Postage ## I bought this coin as part of a Box of Coins from a Flea Market I don't know a lot about it It has a couple of figures in what appears to be a sexual act The back of the coin has the roman numerals XIIII Someone told me it is a Brothel Token It could be Greek or Roman All I know it is very old Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake Starting at a Penny...With No Reserve..If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! I have a lot more Old Coins on Ebay >>> Check out my other items! Bid with Confidence - Check My Almost 100% Positive Feedback from over 15,000 Satisfied Customers I always combine multiple items and discount postage on them so Why Not Check out my other items! All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. 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The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population[3]) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.[4] In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a Classical Republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics[5][6][7] such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities. By the end of the Republic (27 BC), Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor.[8][9][10] Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Though the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most commonly referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew intoCapitalRome, several others during the late Empire, notably Constantinople and Ravenna.Common languagesLatinGovernmentKingdom (753 BC–509 BC)Republic (509 BC–27 BC)Empire (27 BC–476 AD)Historical eraAncient history• Founding of RomeEstablished753 BC• Overthrow of Tarquin the Proud509 BC• Octavian proclaimed Augustus27 BC• Collapse of the Western Roman Empire476 ADAncient Rome This article is part of a series on thepolitics and government ofancient RomePeriodsRoman Kingdom753–509 BCRoman Republic509–27 BCRoman Empire27 BC – AD 395PrincipateDominateWesternAD 395–476EasternAD 395–1453Empire of TrebizondAD 1204 – 1461TimelineRoman ConstitutionConstitution of the KingdomConstitution of the RepublicConstitution of the EmpireConstitution of the Late EmpireSenateLegislative assembliesExecutive magistratesOrdinary magistratesConsulPraetorQuaestorPromagistrateAedileTribuneCensorGovernorExtraordinary magistratesDictatorMagister equitumConsular tribuneRexTriumviriDecemviriTitles and honoursEmperorLegatusDuxOfficiumPraefectusVicariusVigintisexviriLictorMagister militumImperatorPrinceps senatusPontifex maximusAugustusCaesarTetrarchPrecedent and lawRoman lawIusImperiumMos maiorumCollegialityAuctoritasRoman citizenshipCursus honorumSenatus consultumSenatus consultum ultimumAssembliesCenturiateCuriatePlebeianTribalOther countries Atlas Ancient Rome topicsOutline TimelineEpochsFoundation Kingdom overthrow RepublicEmpirePax Romana Principate Dominate Western Empire fall historiography of the fall Byzantine Empire decline fallConstitutionHistory Kingdom Republic Empire Late Empire Senate Legislative assemblies Curiate Centuriate Tribal Plebeian Executive magistrates SPQRGovernmentCuria Forum Cursus honorum Collegiality Emperor Legatus Dux 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ThermaeCultureArchitecture Art Bathing Calendar Clothing Cosmetics Cuisine Hairstyles Education Literature Music Mythology Religion Romanization Sexuality Theatre WineSocietyPatricians Plebs Conflict of the Orders Secessio plebis Equites Gens Tribes Naming conventions Demography Women Marriage Adoption Slavery BagaudaeLatinHistory Alphabet Versions Old Classical Vulgar Late Medieval Renaissance New Contemporary Ecclesiastical Romance languagesWritersLatinAmmianus Marcellinus Appian Appuleius Asconius Pedianus Augustine Aurelius Victor Ausonius Boëthius Caesar Catullus Cassiodorus Censorinus Cicero Claudian Columella Ennius Eutropius Fabius Pictor Festus Florus Frontinus Fulgentius Gellius Horace Jerome Juvenal Livy Lucan Lucretius Macrobius Marcus Aurelius Martial Orosius Ovid Petronius Phaedrus Plautus Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger Priscian Propertius Quintilian Quintus Curtius Rufus Sallust Seneca the Elder Seneca the Younger Servius Sidonius Apollinaris Statius Suetonius Symmachus Tacitus Terence Tertullian Tibullus Valerius Antias Valerius Maximus Varro Velleius Paterculus Verrius Flaccus Virgil VitruviusGreekArrian Cassius Dio Diodorus Siculus Dionysius of Halicarnassus Dioscorides Eusebius of Caesaria Galen Herodian Josephus Pausanias Philostratus Phlegon of Tralles Photius Plutarch Polybius Porphyrius Procopius Strabo Zonaras ZosimusMajor citiesAlexandria Antioch Aquileia Berytus Bononia Carthage Constantinopolis Eboracum Leptis Magna Londinium Lutetia Mediolanum Pompeii Ravenna Roma Smyrna Vindobona VolubilisLists and othertopicsCities and towns Climate Consuls Distinguished women Emperors Generals Gentes Geographers Institutions Laws Legacy Legions Nomina Tribunes Wars and battlesFiction FilmsvteColonies of Ancient RomeWith correspondence to modern geographyEuropeBritannia SuperiorCamulodunum Lindum Colonia LondiniumBritannia InferiorEboracumRoman DaciaUlpia Traiana SarmizegetusaGallia LugdunensisLugdunumGallia NarbonensisNarbo MartiusGermania 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Samandağ: Seleucia1 UNESCO World Heritage Sites; 2 Proposed; 3 in Danger See also: Legacy of the Roman EmpirevteItaly articlesHistoryChronology Prehistory Italic peoples Ancient Italian peoples Pre-Nuragic Sardinia Nuragic peoples Etruscan civilization Nuragic civilization Phoenician/Carthaginian colonies Magna Graecia Ancient Rome Kingdom Republic Empire Middle Ages Italy under Odoacer Ostrogoths Byzantium Lombards the Holy Roman Empire the Sardinian Judgedoms Arabs Normans Guelphs and Ghibellines Italian city-states Maritime republics Renaissance Italian Wars Early Modern period Unification Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848 Sicilian revolution of 1848 First War of Independence Crimean War Second War of Independence Expedition of the Thousand Third War of Independence Capture of Rome Monarchy and the World Wars Kingdom of Italy Colonial Empire World War I Fascist Italy World War II Resistance Civil War Republic Economic Boom Years of Lead Years of Mud Mani 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Roman Servile Wars (First Second Third) Social War (90–88 BC) Sulla's civil wars (First Second) Mithridatic Wars (First Second Third) Gallic Wars Julius Caesar's civil war Augustus' rise to power (Battle of Mutina Liberators' civil war Sicilian revolt Perusine War (Fulvia's civil war) Final War of the Roman Republic)Roman EmpireGermanic Wars (Marcomannic Alemannic Gothic Visigothic) Conquest of Britain Wars of Boudica Armenian War Four Emperors Jewish wars Domitian's Dacian War Trajan's Dacian Wars Parthian Wars Wars against Persia Third-century civil wars Decline and fall of the Western EmpireMilitary historyvteRoman and Byzantine emperorsPrincipate27 BC – 235 ADAugustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla with Geta Macrinus with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus AlexanderCrisis235–284Maximinus Thrax Gordian I and Gordian II Pupienus and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab with Philip II Decius with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus and NumerianGallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I with Tetricus II as CaesarDominate284–395Diocletian (whole empire) Diocletian (East) and Maximian (West) Diocletian (East) and Maximian (West) with Galerius (East) and Constantius Chlorus (West) as Caesares Galerius (East) and Constantius Chlorus (West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius (East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius (East) and Maxentius (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius (East) and Licinius I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius (alone) Licinius I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius I (East) and Constantine the Great (West) with Licinius II, Constantine II, and Crispus as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great (whole empire) with son Crispus as Caesar Constantine II Constans I Magnentius with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)Western Empire395–480Honorius Constantine III with son Constans II Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus AugustulusEastern/Byzantine Empire395–1204Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans II Constantine IV with brothers Heraclius and Tiberius and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II (first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II (second reign) with son Tiberius as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos (sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V DoukasEmpire of Nicaea1204–1261Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV LaskarisEastern/Byzantine Empire1261–1453Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos with Michael IX Palaiologos as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos with John V Palaiologos and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI PalaiologosItalics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.vteFormer states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and MaltaEtruscancivilizationLega dei popoli Etruscan dodecapolisAncientRomeRoman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC) Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC) Italy (4th/3rd century BC-476 AD) Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) Corsica and Sardinia (238 BC–455 AD) Roman Empire (27 BC–395 AD) Western Roman Empire (285 AD–476 AD) Praetorian prefecture of Italy (337 AD–584 AD)MedievalandEarly ModernstatesEarlyItalianKingdom(476-774)Odoacer's rule (476–493) Ostrogothic rule (493–553) Vandal rule (435–534) Lombard rule (568–774) Duchy of Benevento Duchy of Friuli Duchy of Ivrea Duchy of Spoleto Duchy of TridentumByzantineEmpire(584-751) Exarchate of Ravenna (584–751) Duchy of Rome (533–751) Duchy of Perugia (554–752) Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752) Exarchate of Africa (585–698)Holy Roman Empire(774/962–1806)and Papal Statesand otherindependentstatesBishopric of Bressanone Duchy of Castro Commune of Rome Republic of Cospaia City of Fiume and its District Duchy of Ferrara Republic of Florence Duchy of Florence Republic of Genoa Republic of Noli County of Gorizia Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca County of Guastalla Duchy of Guastalla Kingdom of Italy Ancona Ceva Finale March of Friuli Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia) Ivrea Istria Mantua Milan March of Montferrat Duchy of Montferrat Tyrol Trieste Turin Tuscany Verona Duchy of Ivrea Republic of Lucca Duchy of Mantua Duchy of Massa and Carrara Duchy of Merania Duchy of Mirandola Duchy of Modena and Reggio Duchy of Parma Principality of Piombino Republic of Pisa Duchy of Reggio Marquisate of Saluzzo Republic of Siena Duchy of Spoleto Terra Sancti Benedicti Bishopric of Trento Grand Duchy of Tuscany Duchy of UrbinoRepublic of Venice(697–1797) Dogado Stato da Màr Domini di TerrafermaSouthern Italy(774–1139)ByzantineDuchy of Amalfi Duchy of Gaeta Catepanate of Italy Longobardia Theme of Lucania Duchy of Naples Theme of Sicily and Byzantine Sicily Duchy of SorrentoArabEmirate of Bari Emirate of SicilyLombardPrincipality of Benevento Principality of Salerno Principality of CapuaNormanCounty of Apulia and Calabria County of Aversa County of Sicily Principality of TarantoSardinia and Corsica(9th century–1420)Giudicati Agugliastra Arborea Cagliari Gallura Logudoro Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica Corsican Republic (1755–1769)Kingdom of Sicily(1130–1816) andKingdom of Naples(1282–1816)State of the Presidi Duke of San Donato Duchy of Sora Principality of Taranto Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) Malta under the Order Gozo Malta Protectorate Crown Colony of MaltaSavoy and the Savoyard state(from the 10th century)Savoy County of Savoy County of Geneva Duchy of Chablais Barony of Faucigny Piedmont Duchy of Aosta County of Nice Sicily (1713-1720) Sardinia (1720-1861)French Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras(1792–1815) RepublicsAlba Ancona Bergamo Bologna Brescia Cisalpinia Cispadania Crema Italy Liguria Lucca Parthenopea Piedmont Rome Subalpinia Tiberinia TranspadaniaMonarchiesBenevento Etruria Guastalla Italy Lucca and Piombino Massa and Carrara Naples Pontecorvo Tuscany Elba CorsicaPost-NapoleonicstatesDuchy of Genoa (1815–1848) Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847) Duchy of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) Duchy of Modena and Reggio (1814–1859) Duchy of Parma (1814–1859) Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1815–1859) Italian United Provinces (1831) Provisional Government of Milan (1848) Republic of San Marco (1848–1849) Roman Republic (1849) United Provinces of Central Italy (1859–1860) Kingdom of Sardinia (1814–1860) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816–1861) Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (1815–1866) Papal States (1814–1870)Post-unificationKingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Julian March Italian Empire (1869–1946) Free State of Fiume (1920–1924) Italian Social Republic (1943–1945) Free Territory of Trieste (1947-1954) A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes,[1] who are sometimes referred to as sex workers. Technically, any premises where prostitution commonly takes place qualifies as a brothel. However, for legal or cultural reasons, establishments sometimes describe themselves as massage parlors, bars, strip clubs, body rub parlours, studios, or by some other description. Sex work in a brothel is considered safer than street prostitution.[2] Coins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes: these coins are usually worth less than banknotes: usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, or the general public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law). Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g. C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not. Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e.g. porcelain) have been used to produce coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment: bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1] Today, the term coin can also be used in reference to digital currencies which are not issued by a state. As of 2013, examples include BitCoin and LiteCoin, among others. As coins have long been used as money, in some languages the same word is used for "coin" and "currency".Numismatics Claudius II coin (colourised).png Currency Coins ·Banknotes ·ForgeryCommunity currencies Company scrip ·Coal scrip ·LETS ·Time dollarsFictional currenciesHistoryAncient currencies Greek ·Roman ·China ·IndiaByzantineMedieval currenciesModern currencies Africa ·The Americas ·Europe ·Asia ·OceaniaProduction Mint ·Designers ·Coining · Milling ·Hammering ·CastExonumia Credit cards ·Medals ·Tokens ·ChequesNotaphily BanknotesScripophily Stocks ·Bonds The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, India & China around 600-700 BC. Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.[2] Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire. Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius). Ancient and early medieval coins in theory had the value of their metal content, although there have been many instances throughout history of the metal content of coins being debased, so that the inferior coins were worth less in metal than their face value. Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the jiaozi paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the later Middle Ages, but some coins continued to have the value of the gold or silver they contained throughout the Early Modern period. The penny was mint (coin)ed as a silver coin until the 17th century. The first copper pennies were minted in the United States in the 1790s.[3][citation needed] Silver content was reduced in many coins in the 19th century (use of billon), and the first coins made entirely of base metal (e.g. nickel, cupronickel, aluminium bronze), representing values higher than the value of their metal, were minted in the mid 19th century. Bronze Age predecessors[edit] An Oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values.Coins were an evolution of "currency" systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made, such as those discovered in a tomb near Anyang.[4][5] These were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese money, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell.[6][7][8] These, as well as later Chinese bronzes, were replicas of knives, spades, and hoes, but not "coins" in the narrow sense, as they did not carry a mark or marks certifying them to be of a definite exchange value.[9] Iron Age[edit] Further information: Archaic period of ancient Greek coinage 1/3rd stater from Lydia, 6th century BC.Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620-600 BC. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch.Anatolian gold coin from 4th century BC Mysia.Greek drachma of Aegina. Obverse: Land Chelone / Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin. The oldest Aegina Chelone coins depicted sea turtles and were minted ca. 700 BC.[10]The earliest coins are mostly associated with Iron Age Anatolia, especially with the kingdom of Lydia.[11] Early electrum coins were not standardized in weight, and in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests.[12] Many early Lydian and Greek coins were minted under the authority of private individuals and are thus more akin to tokens or badges than to modern coins,[13] though due to their numbers it is evident that some were official state issues, with King Alyattes of Lydia being a frequently mentioned originator of coinage.[14] The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold that was further alloyed with added silver and copper.[15] Most of the early Lydian coins include no writing ("legend" or "inscription"), only an image of a symbolic animal. Therefore the dating of these coins relies primarily on archaeological evidence, with the most commonly cited evidence coming from excavations at the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, also called the Ephesian Artemision (which would later evolve into one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World). Because the oldest lion head "coins" were discovered in that temple, and they do not appear to have been used in commerce, these objects may not have been coins but badges or medals issued by the priests of that temple. Anatolian Artemis was the Πὀτνια Θηρῶν (Potnia Thêrôn, "Mistress of Animals"), whose symbol was the stag. A small percentage of early Lydian/Greek coins have a legend.[16] A famous early electrum coin, the most ancient inscribed coin at present known, is from nearby Caria. This coin has a Greek legend reading phaenos emi sema [17] interpreted variously as "I am the badge of Phanes", or "I am the sign of light",[18] or "I am the tomb of light", or "I am the tomb of Phanes". The coins of Phanes are known to be amongst the earliest of Greek coins, a hemihekte of the issue was found in the foundation deposit of the temple of Artemis at Ephesos (the oldest deposit of electrum coins discovered). One assumption is that Phanes was a wealthy merchant, another that this coin is associated with Apollo-Phanes and, due to the Deer, with Artemis (twin sister of the god of light Apollo-Phaneos). Although only seven Phanes type coins were discovered, it is also notable that 20% of all early electrum coins also have the lion of Artemis and the sun burst of Apollo-Phaneos. Alternatively, Phanes may have been the Halicarnassian mercenary of Amasis mentioned by Herodotus, who escaped to the court of Cambyses, and became his guide in the invasion of Egypt in 527 or 525 BC. According to Herodotus, this Phanes was buried alive by a sandstorm, together with 50,000 Persian soldiers, while trying to conquer the temple of Amun–Zeus in Egypt.[19] The fact that the Greek word "Phanes" also means light (or lamp), and the word "sema" also means tomb makes this coin a famous and controversial one.[20] Another candidate for the site of the earliest coins is Aegina, where Chelone ("turtle") coins were first minted on 700 BC,[21] either by the local Aegina people or by Pheidon king of Argos (who first set the standards of weights and measures). In the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, there is a unique electrum stater of Aegina.[10][22][unreliable source?] Coins from Athens and Corinth appeared shortly thereafter, known to exist at least since the late 6th century BC.[23] Classical Antiquity[edit] Further information: Ancient Greek coinage, Achaemenid coinage, Illyrian coinage, Roman currency, Coinage of India, Aureus, Solidus (coin), Denarius, and Antoninianus Set of three roman aurei depicting the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Top to bottom: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. 69-96 AD.Coinage followed Greek colonization and influence first around the Mediterranean and soon after to North Africa (including Egypt), Syria, Persia, and the Balkans.[24] Coins were minted in the Achaemenid Empire, including the gold darics and silver sigloi. and with the Achemenid conquest of Gandhara under Darius the Great ca. 520 BC, the practice spread to the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana.[25] These earliest Indian coins, however, are unlike those circulated in Persia, which were derived from the Greek/Anatolian type; they not disk-shaped but rather stamped bars of metal, suggesting that the innovation of stamped currency was added to a pre-existing form of token currency which had already been present in the Mahajanapada kingdoms of the Indian Iron Age. Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included Gandhara, Kuntala, Kuru, Panchala, Shakya, Surasena and Surashtra.[26] In China, early round coins appear in the 4th century BC. The first Roman coins, which were crude, heavy cast bronzes, were issued ca. 289 B Most coins presently are made of a base metal, and their value comes from their status as fiat money. This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat (law), and thus is determined by the free market only inasmuch as national currencies are used in domestic trade and also traded internationally on foreign exchange markets. Thus these coins are monetary tokens, just as paper currency is: they are usually not backed by metal, but rather by some form of government guarantee. Some have suggested that such coins not be considered to be "true coins" (see below). Thus there is very little economic difference between notes and coins of equivalent face value. Coins may be in circulation with fiat values lower than the value of their component metals, but they are never initially issued with such value, and the shortfall only arises over time due to inflation, as market values for the metal overtake the fiat declared face value of the coin. Examples are the pre-1965 US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar, US nickel, and pre-1982 US penny. As a result of the increase in the value of copper, the United States greatly reduced the amount of copper in each penny. Since mid-1982, United States pennies are made of 97.5% zinc, with the remaining 2.5% being a coating of copper. Extreme differences between fiat values and metal values of coins causes coins to be hoarded or removed from circulation by illicit smelters in order to realise the value of their metal content. This is an example of Gresham's law. The United States Mint, in an attempt to avoid this, implemented new interim rules on December 14, 2006, subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalized the melting and export of pennies and nickels.[30] Violators can be fined up to $10,000 and/or imprisoned for up to five years. A coin's value as a collector's item or as an investment generally depends on its condition, specific historical significance, rarity, quality/beauty of the design and general popularity with collectors. If a coin is greatly lacking in all of these, it is unlikely to be worth much. The value of bullion coins is also influenced to some extent by those factors, but is largely based on the value of their gold, silver, or platinum content. Sometimes non-monetized bullion coins such as the Canadian Maple Leaf and the American Gold Eagle are minted with nominal face values less than the value of the metal in them, but as such coins are never intended for circulation, these face values have no relevance. Coins can be used as creative medium of expression – from fine art sculpture to the penny machines that can be found in most amusement parks. In the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in the United States there are some regulations specific to nickels and pennies that are informative on this topic. 31 CFR § 82.1 foroffers unauthorized persons from exporting, melting, or treating any 5 or 1 cent coins. This has been a particular problem with nickels and dimes (and with some comparable coins in other currencies) because of their relatively low face value and unstable commodity prices. For a while the copper in US pennies was worth more than one cent, so people would hoard pennies then melt them down for their metal value. It costs more than face value to manufacture pennies or nickels, so any widespread loss of the coins in circulation could be expensive for the Treasury. This was more of a problem when coins were still made of precious metals like silver and gold, so historically strict laws against alteration make more sense. 31 CFR § 82.2 goes on to state that: "(b) The prohibition contained in § 82.1 against the treatment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins shall not apply to the treatment of these coins for educational, amusement, novelty, jewelry, and similar purposes as long as the volumes treated and the nature of the treatment makes it clear that such treatment is not intended as a means by which to profit solely from the value of the metal content of the coins." Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world[1] with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population[2][3][4]) and covering 6.5 million square kilometers (2.5 million sq mi) during its height between the first and second centuries AD.[5][6][7] In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, parts of Northern Europe, and parts of Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into "Classical Antiquity" together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. The Romans are still remembered today, including names such as Julius Caesar, Cicero, and Augustus. Ancient Roman society contributed greatly to government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, society and more in the Western world. A civilization highly developed for its time, Rome professionalized and greatly expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics[8][9][10] such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as large monuments, palaces, and public facilities. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged under the leadership of Augustus Caesar. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common ritual for a new emperor's rise.[11][12][13] States, such as Palmyra, temporarily divided the Empire in a third-century crisis. Soldier emperors reunified it, by dividing the empire between Western and Eastern halves. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-mediaeval "Dark Ages" of Europe. The Eastern Roman Empire survived this crisis and was governed from Constantinople after the division of the Empire. It comprised Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt. Despite the later loss of Syria and Egypt to the Arab-Islamic Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire continued for another millennium, until its remnants were annexed by the emerging Turkish Ottoman Empire. This eastern, Christian, medieval stage of the Empire is usually called the Byzantine Empire by historians.Ancient Rome topics Outline ·Timeline Epochs Foundation ·Monarchy (Revolution)·Republic ·Empire (Timeline, Pax Romana, Principate, Dominate, Decline, Fall)·Western Empire / Eastern Empire Constitution History ·Kingdom ·Republic ·Empire ·Late Empire ·Senate ·Legislative assemblies (Curiate ·Century ·Tribal ·Plebeian)·Executive magistrates Government Curia ·Forum ·Cursus honorum ·Collegiality ·Emperor ·Legatus ·Dux ·Officium ·Praefectus ·Vicarius ·Vigintisexviri ·Lictor ·Magister militum ·Imperator ·Princeps senatus ·Pontifex Maximus ·Augustus ·Caesar ·Tetrarch ·Optimates ·Populares ·Province Magistrates Ordinary Tribune ·Quaestor ·Aedile ·Praetor ·Consul ·Censor ·Promagistrate ·Governor Extraordinary Dictator ·Magister Equitum ·Decemviri ·Consular Tribune ·Triumvir ·Rex ·Interrex Law Twelve Tables ·Mos maiorum ·Citizenship ·Auctoritas ·Imperium ·Status ·Litigation Military Borders ·Establishment ·Structure ·Campaigns ·Political control ·Strategy ·Engineering ·Frontiers and fortifications (Castra)·Technology ·Army (Legion ·Infantry tactics ·Personal equipment ·Siege engines)·Navy (fleets)·Auxiliaries ·Decorations and punishments ·Hippika gymnasia Economy Agriculture ·Deforestation ·Commerce ·Finance ·Currency ·Republican currency ·Imperial currency ·SPQR Technology Abacus ·Numerals ·Civil engineering ·Military engineering ·Military technology ·Aqueducts ·Bridges ·Circus ·Concrete ·Forum ·Metallurgy ·Roads ·Sanitation ·Thermae Culture Architecture ·Art ·Bathing ·Calendar ·Clothing ·Cosmetics ·Cuisine ·Hairstyles ·Education ·Literature ·Music ·Mythology ·Religion ·Romanization ·Sexuality ·Theatre ·Wine Society Patricians ·Plebs ·Conflict of the Orders ·Secessio plebis ·Equestrian order ·Gens ·Tribes ·Naming conventions ·Women ·Marriage ·Adoption ·Slavery ·Bagaudae Language(Latin) History ·Alphabet ·Romance languages Versions Old ·Classical ·Vulgar ·Late ·Medieval ·Renaissance ·New ·Contemporary ·Ecclesiastical Writers Apuleius ·Caesar ·Catullus ·Cicero ·Ennius ·Horace ·Juvenal ·Livy ·Lucan ·Lucretius ·Martial ·Ovid ·Petronius ·Plautus ·Pliny the Elder ·Pliny the Younger ·Propertius ·Quintilian ·Sallust ·Seneca ·Statius ·Suetonius ·Tacitus ·Terence ·Tibullus ·Varro ·Virgil ·Vitruvius Lists Wars ·Battles ·Generals ·Legions ·Emperors ·Geographers ·Institutions ·Laws ·Consuls ·Distinguished women Major cities Alexandria ·Antioch ·Aquileia ·Bononia ·Carthage ·Constantinople ·Leptis Magna ·Londinium ·Mediolanum ·Pompeii ·Ravenna ·Rome ·Smyrna Other topics Fiction set in ancient Rome (films ·video games) Portal [hide]v ·t ·eRoman Constitution Ancient Rome History ·Constitution ·Senate ·Assemblies (Curiate ·Century ·Tribal ·Plebeian)·Magistrates Roman Kingdom History ·Constitution ·Senate ·Assemblies ·Magistrates Roman Republic History ·Constitution (reforms of Sulla • reforms of Caesar • reforms of Augustus) ·Senate ·Assemblies ·Magistrates Roman Empire History ·(post Diocletian) ·Constitution ·(post Diocletian) ·Senate ·Assemblies ·Magistrates Miscellaneous Sulla's Constitutional Reforms ·Caesar's Constitutional Reforms ·Conflict of the Orders ·Roman law Portal Portal [hide]v ·t ·eRoman mythology and religion Deities Apollo ·Bona Dea ·Castor and Pollux ·Ceres ·Cupid ·Diana ·Dis Pater ·Fauna ·Faunus ·Flora ·Genius ·Hercules ·Janus ·Juno ·Jupiter ·Lares ·Liber ·Mars ·Mercury ·Minerva ·Orcus ·Neptune ·Penates ·Pluto ·Pomona ·Priapus ·Proserpina ·Quirinus ·Saturn ·Silvanus ·Sol ·Venus ·Vesta ·Vulcan She-wolf suckles Romulus and Remus.jpg Abstract deities Concordia ·Fides ·Fortuna ·Pietas ·Spes ·Roma ·Victoria ·Terra Legendary founders Aeneas ·Romulus and Remus ·Numa Pompilius ·Servius Tullius ·Ancus Marcius Texts Vergil (Aeneid)·Ovid (Metamorphoses ·Fasti)·Propertius ·Apuleius (The Golden Ass) Concepts and practices Religion in ancient Rome ·Festivals ·interpretatio graeca ·Imperial cult ·Temples See also Glossary of ancient Roman religion ·Greek mythology ·myth and ritual ·classical mythology [hide]v ·t ·eAncient Greek and Roman wars Wars of ancient Greece Trojan War ·First Messenian War ·Second Messenian War ·Lelantine War ·Sicilian Wars ·Greco-Persian Wars ·Aeginetan War ·Wars of the Delian League ·Samian War ·Peloponnesian War ·Corinthian War ·Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) ·Social War (357–355 BC) ·Rise of Macedon ·Wars of Alexander the Great ·Wars over Alexander's empire ·Lamian War ·Chremonidean War ·Cleomenean War ·Social War (220–217 BC) ·Cretan War ·Aetolian War ·War against Nabis ·Maccabean Revolt Wars of the Roman Republic Roman-Latin wars (First Latin War (Battle of Lake Regillus)·Second Latin War)·Samnite Wars ·Pyrrhic War ·Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) ·Macedonian Wars (Illyrian ·First Macedonian ·Second Macedonian ·Seleucid ·Third Macedonian ·Fourth Macedonian)·Jugurthine War ·Cimbrian War ·Roman Servile Wars (First ·Second ·Third)·Social War ·Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (First ·Second)·Mithridatic Wars (First ·Second ·Third)·Gallic Wars ·Julius Caesar's civil war ·End of the Republic (Post-Caesarian ·Liberators' ·Sicilian ·Fulvia's ·Final) Wars of the Roman Empire Germanic Wars (Marcomannic ·Alamannic ·Gothic ·Visigothic)·Wars in Britain ·Wars of Boudica ·Armenian War ·Civil War of 69 ·Jewish Wars ·Domitian's Dacian War ·Trajan's Dacian Wars ·Parthian Wars ·Roman–Persian Wars ·Civil Wars of the Third Century ·Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Military history [hide]v ·t ·eRoman emperors Principate27 BC – 235 AD Augustus ·Tiberius ·Caligula ·Claudius ·Nero ·Galba ·Otho ·Vitellius ·Vespasian ·Titus ·Domitian ·Nerva ·Trajan ·Hadrian ·Antoninus Pius ·Marcus Aurelius with Lucius Verus ·Commodus ·Pertinax ·Didius Julianus ·Septimius Severus ·Caracalla ·Geta ·Macrinus with Diadumenian ·Elagabalus ·Alexander Severus Crisis235–284 Maximinus Thrax ·Gordian I and Gordian II ·Pupienus and Balbinus ·Gordian III ·Philip the Arab ·Decius with Herennius Etruscus ·Hostilian ·Trebonianus Gallus with Volusianus ·Aemilianus ·Valerian ·Gallienus with Saloninus ·Claudius Gothicus ·Quintillus ·Aurelian ·Tacitus ·Florianus ·Probus ·Carus ·Carinus ·Numerian Dominate284–395 Diocletian ·Maximian ·Constantius Chlorus ·Galerius ·Severus ·Maxentius ·Maximinus Daia ·Licinius with Valerius Valens and Martinianus ·Constantine the Great ·Constantine II ·Constans I ·Constantius II with Vetranio ·Julian ·Jovian ·Valentinian I ·Valens ·Gratian ·Valentinian II ·Theodosius I Western Empire395–480 Honorius with Constantine III ·Constantius III ·Joannes ·Valentinian III ·Petronius Maximus ·Avitus ·Majorian ·Libius Severus ·Anthemius ·Olybrius ·Glycerius ·Julius Nepos ·Romulus Augustulus Eastern/Byzantine Empire395–1204 Arcadius ·Theodosius II ·Marcian ·Leo I the Thracian ·Leo II ·Zeno ·Basiliscus ·Anastasius I ·Justin I ·Justinian I ·Justin II ·Tiberius II Constantine ·Maurice ·Phocas ·Heraclius ·Constantine III ·Heraklonas ·Constans II ·Constantine IV ·Justinian II ·Leontios ·Tiberios III ·Philippikos ·Anastasios II ·Theodosios III ·Leo III the Isaurian ·Constantine V ·Artabasdos ·Leo IV the Khazar ·Constantine VI ·Irene ·Nikephoros I ·Staurakios ·Michael I Rangabe ·Leo V the Armenian ·Michael II the Amorian ·Theophilos ·Michael III ·Basil I the Macedonian ·Leo VI the Wise ·Alexander ·Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos ·Romanos I Lekapenos ·Romanos II ·Nikephoros II Phokas ·John I Tzimiskes ·Basil II ·Constantine VIII ·Zoe ·Romanos III Argyros ·Michael IV the Paphlagonian ·Michael V Kalaphates ·Constantine IX Monomachos ·Theodora ·Michael VI Bringas ·Isaac I Komnenos ·Constantine X Doukas ·Romanos IV Diogenes ·Michael VII Doukas ·Nikephoros III Botaneiates ·Alexios I Komnenos ·John II Komnenos ·Manuel I Komnenos ·Alexios II Komnenos ·Andronikos I Komnenos ·Isaac II Angelos ·Alexios III Angelos ·Alexios IV Angelos ·Alexios V Doukas Empire of Nicaea1204–1261 Constantine Laskaris ·Theodore I Laskaris ·John III Doukas Vatatzes ·Theodore II Laskaris ·John IV Laskaris Eastern/Byzantine Empire1261–1453 Michael VIII Palaiologos ·Andronikos II Palaiologos ·Michael IX Palaiologos ·Andronikos III Palaiologos ·John V Palaiologos ·John VI Kantakouzenos ·Matthew Kantakouzenos ·Andronikos IV Palaiologos ·John VII Palaiologos ·Andronikos V Palaiologos ·Manuel II Palaiologos ·John VIII Palaiologos ·Constantine XI Palaiologos Ancient Greece was a Greek civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period[citation needed] of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era.[1] Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and Europe, for which reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture.[ Ancient Greece Outline ·Timeline Periods Cycladic civilization ·Minoan civilization ·Mycenaean civilization ·Greek Dark Ages ·Archaic period ·Classical Greece ·Hellenistic Greece ·Roman Greece Geography Aegean Sea ·Aeolis ·Alexandria ·Antioch ·Crete ·Cyprus ·Cappadocia ·Doris ·Hellespont ·Ephesus ·Epirus ·Ionian Sea ·Ionia ·Macedonia ·Magna Graecia ·Miletus ·Pergamon ·Peloponnesus ·Pontus ·Ancient Greek colonies City states Argos ·Athens ·Byzantium ·Chalkis ·Corinth ·Megalopolis ·Rhodes ·Syracuse ·Sparta ·Thebes Politics Athenian democracy (Agora ·Areopagus ·Ecclesia ·Graphē paranómōn ·Heliaia ·Ostracism)·Boeotarch ·Boule ·Koinon ·Proxeny ·Spartan Constitution (Apella ·Ephor ·Gerousia ·Harmost)·Strategos ·Synedrion ·Tagus ·Tyrant ·Amphictyonic League Rulers Kings of Argos ·Archons of Athens ·Kings of Athens ·Kings of Commagene ·Diadochi ·Kings of Lydia ·Kings of Macedonia ·Kings of Paionia ·Attalid kings of Pergamon ·Kings of Pontus ·Kings of Sparta ·Tyrants of Syracuse Life Agriculture ·Calendar ·Clothing ·Cuisine ·Economy ·Education ·Festivals ·Homosexuality ·Law ·Marriage ·Funeral and burial practices ·Olympic Games ·Pederasty ·Philosophy ·Prostitution ·Religion ·Slavery ·Warfare ·Wine Military Wars ·Athenian military ·Antigonid Macedonian army ·Army of Macedon ·Ballista ·Cretan archers ·Hellenistic armies ·Hippeis ·Hoplite ·Hetairoi ·Macedonian phalanx ·Phalanx formation ·Peltast ·Pezhetairos ·Sarissa ·Sacred Band of Thebes ·Sciritae ·Seleucid army ·Spartan army ·Toxotai ·Xiphos ·Xyston People Philosophers Anaxagoras ·Anaximander ·Anaximenes ·Antisthenes ·Aristotle ·Democritus ·Diogenes of Sinope ·Epicurus ·Empedocles ·Heraclitus ·Hypatia ·Leucippus ·Gorgias ·Parmenides ·Plato ·Protagoras ·Pythagoras ·Socrates ·Thales ·Zeno Authors Aeschylus ·Aesop ·Alcaeus ·Archilochus ·Aristophanes ·Bacchylides ·Euripides ·Herodotus ·Hesiod ·Hipponax ·Homer ·Ibycus ·Lucian ·Menander ·Mimnermus ·Pindar ·Plutarch ·Polybius ·Sappho ·Simonides ·Sophocles ·Stesichorus ·Thucydides ·Theognis ·Timocreon ·Tyrtaeus ·Xenophon Others Agesilaus II ·Agis II ·Alexander the Great ·Alcibiades ·Aratus ·Archimedes ·Aspasia ·Demosthenes ·Epaminondas ·Euclid ·Hipparchus ·Hippocrates ·Leonidas ·Lycurgus ·Lysander ·Milo of Croton ·Miltiades ·Pausanias ·Pericles ·Philip of Macedon ·Philopoemen ·Ptolemy ·Pyrrhus ·Solon ·Themistocles Groups Playwrights ·Poets ·Philosophers ·Tyrants Cultures Ancient Greek tribes ·Greeks ·Thracian Greeks ·Ancient Macedonians Arts Architecture ·Coinage ·Literature ·Music ·Pottery ·Sculpture ·Theatre Religion Funeral and burial practices ·Greek mythology ·Greek temple ·Greek underworld ·Mythological figures ·Twelve Olympians Sacred places Eleusis ·Delphi ·Delos ·Dodona ·Mount Olympus ·Olympia Sciences Astronomy ·Mathematics ·Medicine ·Technology Structures Temple of Artemis ·Temple of Athena Nike ·Athenian Treasury ·Erechtheion ·Lion Gate ·Long Walls ·Parthenon ·Philippeion ·Samothrace temple complex ·Temple of Aphaea ·Temple of Hephaestus ·Temple of Hera, Olympia ·Temple of Zeus, Olympia ·Theatre of Dionysus ·Tunnel of Eupalinos Language Proto-Greek ·Mycenaean ·Homeric ·Dialects (Aeolic ·Arcadocypriot ·Attic ·Doric ·Ionic ·Locrian ·Macedonian ·Pamphylian)·Koine Writing Linear A ·Linear B ·Cypriot syllabary ·Greek alphabet ·Greek numerals ·Attic numerals Lists Cities ·Cities in Epirus ·Greek temples ·Place names ·Sroae ·Theatres Category Category ·Portal Portal ·WikiProject WikiProject [hide]v ·t ·eClassical antiquity by region Europa Graecia ·Italia ·Gallia ·Dacia ·Thracia ·Illyria ·Hispania ·Britannia ·Germania Asia Scythia ·Anatolia ·Syria ·Arabia Africa Libya ·Aegyptus [hide]v ·t ·eAncient Greek and Roman wars Wars of ancient Greece Trojan War ·First Messenian War ·Second Messenian War ·Lelantine War ·Sicilian Wars ·Greco-Persian Wars ·Aeginetan War ·Wars of the Delian League ·Samian War ·Peloponnesian War ·Corinthian War ·Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) ·Social War (357–355 BC) ·Rise of Macedon ·Wars of Alexander the Great ·Wars over Alexander's empire ·Lamian War ·Chremonidean War ·Cleomenean War ·Social War (220–217 BC) ·Cretan War ·Aetolian War ·War against Nabis ·Maccabean Revolt Wars of the Roman Republic Roman-Latin wars (First Latin War (Battle of Lake Regillus)·Second Latin War)·Samnite Wars ·Pyrrhic War ·Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) ·Macedonian Wars (Illyrian ·First Macedonian ·Second Macedonian ·Seleucid ·Third Macedonian ·Fourth Macedonian)·Jugurthine War ·Cimbrian War ·Roman Servile Wars (First ·Second ·Third)·Social War ·Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (First ·Second)·Mithridatic Wars (First ·Second ·Third)·Gallic Wars ·Julius Caesar's civil war ·End of the Republic (Post-Caesarian ·Liberators' ·Sicilian ·Fulvia's ·Final) Wars of the Roman Empire Germanic Wars (Marcomannic ·Alamannic ·Gothic ·Visigothic)·Wars in Britain ·Wars of Boudica ·Armenian War ·Civil War of 69 ·Jewish Wars ·Domitian's Dacian War ·Trajan's Dacian Wars ·Parthian Wars ·Roman–Persian Wars ·Civil Wars of the Third Century ·Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Condition: In Good Condition but Please see photos to judge condition for yourself, Civilisation: Roman, Country/Region of Manufacture: Unknown, Cleaned/ Uncleaned: Uncleaned, Provenance: Ownership History Not Available, Roman Period: Unknown, Denomination: Unknown, Metal: Silver, Collections/ Bulk Lots: Roman Coin

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