Unknown Unusual Coin Old Antique Roman Greek Ancient Strange Wierd Rare Medieval

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller notinashyway (16,836) 99.7%, Location: Look at my other Items, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 401782731894 Unknown Penny Coin## FREE UK Postage ## I bought this coin as part of a Box of Coins from a Flea Market It is dish shaped It looks like its very old Starting at one Penny...With No Reserve..If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! Would make an Excellent Lucky Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir I will have a lot of Old Coins on Ebay so CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Bid with Confidence - Check My almost 100% Positive Feedback from over 4,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 5 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items so why not > Check out my other items! 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Events January–June Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States January 6 – The North Carolina General Assembly authorizes nine commissioners to purchase 100 acres (0.40 km2) of land for the county seat of Chatham County. The town is named Pittsborough (later shortened to Pittsboro) for William Pitt the Younger. January 11 – William Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus. January 19 – Mozart's Symphony No. 38 is premièred in Prague. February 4 – Shays' Rebellion in Massachusetts fails. February 28 – A charter is granted establishing the institution which will become the University of Pittsburgh. April 2 – A Charter of Justice is signed providing the authority for the establishment of the first New South Wales (i.e. Australian) Courts of Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction. May 7 – The New Church is founded. May 13 – Captain Arthur Phillip leaves Portsmouth in England with the eleven ships of the First Fleet carrying around 700 convicts and at least 300 crew and guards to establish a penal colony in Australia. May 14 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, delegates begin arriving for a Constitutional Convention (United States). May 22 – In Britain, Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp found the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade with support from John Wesley, Josiah Wedgwood and others. May 25 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, delegates begin to convene the Constitutional Convention intended to amend the Articles of Confederation. However, a new United States Constitution is eventually produced. George Washington presides over the Convention. May – Orangist troops attack Vreeswijk, Harmelen and Maarssen: civil war starts in the Dutch Republic. May 31 – The original Lord's Cricket Ground in London holds its first cricket match;[1] Marylebone Cricket Club founded.[2] June 6 – Franklin College, named for Benjamin Franklin, opens in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. It later merges with Marshall College to become Franklin and Marshall College. June 20 – Oliver Ellsworth moves at the Federal Convention that the government be called the United States. June 28 – Princess Wilhelmina of Orange, sister of King Frederick William II of Prussia, is captured by Dutch Republican patriots, taken to Goejanverwellesluis and not allowed to travel to The Hague. July–December July 13 – The Congress of the United States enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It also establishes procedures for the admission of new states and limits the expansion of slavery. August 27 – Launching a 45-foot (14 m) steam powered craft on the Delaware River, John Fitch demonstrates the first U.S. patent for his design. September 13 – Prussian troops enter the Dutch Republic. Within a few weeks 40,000 Patriots (out of a population of 2,000,000) go into exile in France (and learn from observation the ideals of the French Revolution). September 17 – The United States Constitution is adopted by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. September 24 – Washington Academy (later Washington & Jefferson College) is chartered by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[3] October 1 – Russo-Turkish War, 1787-1792 – Battle of Kinburn: Alexander Suvorov, though sustaining a wound, routs the Turks. October 27 – The first of the Federalist Papers, a series of essays calling for ratification of the U.S. Constitution, is published in a New York paper. October 29 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Don Giovanni (libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte) premieres in the Estates Theatre in Prague. December 3 – James Rumsey demonstrates his water-jet propelled boat on the Potomac River. December 7 – Delaware ratifies the Constitution and becomes the first U.S. state. December 8 – La Purisima Mission is founded by Padre Fermín Lasuén as the eleventh of the Spanish missions in California. December 12 – Pennsylvania becomes the second U.S. state. December 18 – New Jersey becomes the third U.S. state. December 23 – Captain William Bligh sets sail from England for Tahiti in HMS Bounty.[1] Date unknown Caroline Herschel is granted an annual salary of £50 by King George III of Great Britain for acting as assistant to her brother William in astronomy.[4] The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates Waynesborough and designates it the county seat for Wayne County, North Carolina. Antoine Lavoisier is the first to suggest that silica is an oxide of a thusfar unknown metallic chemical element, later isolated and named silicon. Freed slave Ottobah Cugoano publishes Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species in England. Births January 1 – Manuel José Arce, Revolutionary General and first President of The Federal Republic of Central America. (d. 1847) February 10 – William Bradley, Britain's tallest man ever 7 ft 9 in. (d. 1820) February 17 – George Mogridge (Old Humphrey), British writer and poet (d. 1854) March 7 – George Bethune English, American explorer and writer (d. 1828) March 11 – Ivan Nabokov, Russian General (d. 1852) March 17 – Edmund Kean, British actor (d. 1833) April 26 – Ludwig Uhland, German poet (d. 1862) June 28 – Sir Harry Smith, English soldier and military commander (d. 1860) November 7 – Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language (d. 1864) November 18 – Louis Daguerre, French artist and chemist (d. 1851) November 21 – Samuel Cunard, Canadian business, prominent Nova Scotian, founder of the Cunard Line (d. 1865) December 10 – Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, American educator (d. 1851) December 16 – Mary Russell Mitford, English novelist and dramatist (d. 1855) Date unknown Hugh Maxwell, American lawyer and politician (d. 1873) Deaths February 13 Rudjer Boscovich, Croatian scientist and diplomat (b. 1711) Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, Fren ch statesman and diplomat (b. 1717) April 1 – Floyer Sydenham, English classical scholar (b. 1710) April 2 – Thomas Gage, British general (b. 1719) May 10 – William Watson, English physician and scientist (b. 1715) May 28 – Leopold Mozart, Austrian composer (b. 1719) June 20 – Carl Friedrich Abel, German composer (b. 1723) July 4 – Charles de Rohan, prince de Soubise, Marshal of France (b. 1715) August 1 – Alphonsus Liguori, Italian founder of the Redemptionist order (b. 1696) October 7 – Henry Muhlenberg, German-born founder of the U.S. Lutheran Church (b. 1711) October 28 – Johann Karl August Musäus, German author (b. 1735) November 3 – Robert Lowth, English bishop and grammarian (b. 1710) November 15 – Christoph Willibald Gluck, German composer (b. 1714) December 18 Francis William Drake, British admiral and Governor of Newfoundland (b. 1724) Soame Jenyns, English writer (b. 1704) Unknown The Two-Headed Boy of Bengal who suffered from a rare condition called Craniopagus parasiticus (b. 1783) Hammered coinage is the most common form of coins produced since the invention of coins in the first millennium BC until the early modern period of ca. the 15th–17th centuries, contrasting to the very rare cast coinage and the later developed milled coinage. Hammered coins were produced by placing a blank piece of metal (a planchet or flan) of the correct weight between two dies, and then striking the upper die with a hammer to produce the required image on both sides. The planchet was usually cast from a mold. The bottom die (sometimes called the anvil die) was usually counter sunk in a log or other sturdy surface and was called a pile. One of the minters held the die for the other side (called the trussel), in his hand while it was struck either by himself or an assistant. Striking coins: wall relief at Rostock In later history, in order to increase the production of coins, hammered coins were sometimes produced from strips of metal of the correct thickness, from which the coins were subsequently cut out. Both methods of producing hammered coins meant that it was difficult to produce coins of a regular diameter. Coins were liable to suffer from "clipping" where unscrupulous people would remove slivers of precious metal since it was difficult to determine the correct diameter of the coin. Coins were also vulnerable to "sweating," which is when silver coins would be placed in a bag that would be vigorously shaken. This would produce silver dust, which could later be removed from the bag. Milled coins The ability to fashion coins from machines (Milled coins) caused hammered coins to gradually become obsolete during the 17th century. Interestingly, they were still made in Venice until the 1770s. France became the first country to adopt a full machine-made coin in 1643. In England, the first non-hammered coins were produced in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I in the 1560s, but while machine-produced coins were experimentally produced at intervals over the next century, the production of hammered coins did not finally end until 1662. Cast coins An alternative method of producing early coins, particularly found in Asia, especially in China, was to cast coins using molds. This method of coin production continued in China into the nineteenth century. Up to a couple of dozen coins could be produced at one time from a single mold, when a 'tree' of coins (which often contained features such as a square hole in the centre) would be produced and the individual coins (called cash) would then be broken off. oins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes: these coins are usually worth less than banknotes: usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, or the general public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law). Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g. C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not. Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e.g. porcelain) have been used to produce coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment: bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1] Today, the term coin can also be used in reference to digital currencies which are not issued by a state. As of 2013, examples include BitCoin and LiteCoin, among others. As coins have long been used as money, in some languages the same word is used for "coin" and "currency". Numismatics Claudius II coin (colourised).png Currency Coins · Banknotes · Forgery Community currencies Company scrip · Coal scrip · LETS · Time dollars Fictional currencies History Ancient currencies Greek · Roman · China · India Byzantine Medieval currencies Modern currencies Africa · The Americas · Europe · Asia · Oceania Production Mint · Designers · Coining · Milling · Hammering · Cast Exonumia Credit cards · Medals · Tokens · Cheques Notaphily Banknotes Scripophily Stocks · Bonds The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, India & China around 600-700 BC. Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.[2] Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire. Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius). Ancient and early medieval coins in theory had the value of their metal content, although there have been many instances throughout history of the metal content of coins being debased, so that the inferior coins were worth less in metal than their face value. Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the jiaozi paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the later Middle Ages, but some coins continued to have the value of the gold or silver they contained throughout the Early Modern period. The penny was mint (coin)ed as a silver coin until the 17th century. The first copper pennies were minted in the United States in the 1790s.[3][citation needed] Silver content was reduced in many coins in the 19th century (use of billon), and the first coins made entirely of base metal (e.g. nickel, cupronickel, aluminium bronze), representing values higher than the value of their metal, were minted in the mid 19th century. Bronze Age predecessors[edit] An Oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values. Coins were an evolution of "currency" systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made, such as those discovered in a tomb near Anyang.[4][5] These were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese money, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell.[6][7][8] These, as well as later Chinese bronzes, were replicas of knives, spades, and hoes, but not "coins" in the narrow sense, as they did not carry a mark or marks certifying them to be of a definite exchange value.[9] Iron Age[edit] Further information: Archaic period of ancient Greek coinage 1/3rd stater from Lydia, 6th century BC. Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620-600 BC. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch. Anatolian gold coin from 4th century BC Mysia. Greek drachma of Aegina. Obverse: Land Chelone / Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin. The oldest Aegina Chelone coins depicted sea turtles and were minted ca. 700 BC.[10] The earliest coins are mostly associated with Iron Age Anatolia, especially with the kingdom of Lydia.[11] Early electrum coins were not standardized in weight, and in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests.[12] Many early Lydian and Greek coins were minted under the authority of private individuals and are thus more akin to tokens or badges than to modern coins,[13] though due to their numbers it is evident that some were official state issues, with King Alyattes of Lydia being a frequently mentioned originator of coinage.[14] The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold that was further alloyed with added silver and copper.[15] Most of the early Lydian coins include no writing ("legend" or "inscription"), only an image of a symbolic animal. Therefore the dating of these coins relies primarily on archaeological evidence, with the most commonly cited evidence coming from excavations at the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, also called the Ephesian Artemision (which would later evolve into one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World). Because the oldest lion head "coins" were discovered in that temple, and they do not appear to have been used in commerce, these objects may not have been coins but badges or medals issued by the priests of that temple. Anatolian Artemis was the Πὀτνια Θηρῶν (Potnia Thêrôn, "Mistress of Animals"), whose symbol was the stag. A small percentage of early Lydian/Greek coins have a legend.[16] A famous early electrum coin, the most ancient inscribed coin at present known, is from nearby Caria. This coin has a Greek legend reading phaenos emi sema [17] interpreted variously as "I am the badge of Phanes", or "I am the sign of light",[18] or "I am the tomb of light", or "I am the tomb of Phanes". The coins of Phanes are known to be amongst the earliest of Greek coins, a hemihekte of the issue was found in the foundation deposit of the temple of Artemis at Ephesos (the oldest deposit of electrum coins discovered). One assumption is that Phanes was a wealthy merchant, another that this coin is associated with Apollo-Phanes and, due to the Deer, with Artemis (twin sister of the god of light Apollo-Phaneos). Although only seven Phanes type coins were discovered, it is also notable that 20% of all early electrum coins also have the lion of Artemis and the sun burst of Apollo-Phaneos. Alternatively, Phanes may have been the Halicarnassian mercenary of Amasis mentioned by Herodotus, who escaped to the court of Cambyses, and became his guide in the invasion of Egypt in 527 or 525 BC. According to Herodotus, this Phanes was buried alive by a sandstorm, together with 50,000 Persian soldiers, while trying to conquer the temple of Amun–Zeus in Egypt.[19] The fact that the Greek word "Phanes" also means light (or lamp), and the word "sema" also means tomb makes this coin a famous and controversial one.[20] Another candidate for the site of the earliest coins is Aegina, where Chelone ("turtle") coins were first minted on 700 BC,[21] either by the local Aegina people or by Pheidon king of Argos (who first set the standards of weights and measures). In the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, there is a unique electrum stater of Aegina.[10][22][unreliable source?] Coins from Athens and Corinth appeared shortly thereafter, known to exist at least since the late 6th century BC.[23] Classical Antiquity[edit] Further information: Ancient Greek coinage, Achaemenid coinage, Illyrian coinage, Roman currency, Coinage of India, Aureus, Solidus (coin), Denarius, and Antoninianus Set of three roman aurei depicting the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Top to bottom: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. 69-96 AD. Coinage followed Greek colonization and influence first around the Mediterranean and soon after to North Africa (including Egypt), Syria, Persia, and the Balkans.[24] Coins were minted in the Achaemenid Empire, including the gold darics and silver sigloi. and with the Achemenid conquest of Gandhara under Darius the Great ca. 520 BC, the practice spread to the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana.[25] These earliest Indian coins, however, are unlike those circulated in Persia, which were derived from the Greek/Anatolian type; they not disk-shaped but rather stamped bars of metal, suggesting that the innovation of stamped currency was added to a pre-existing form of token currency which had already been present in the Mahajanapada kingdoms of the Indian Iron Age. Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included Gandhara, Kuntala, Kuru, Panchala, Shakya, Surasena and Surashtra.[26] In China, early round coins appear in the 4th century BC. The first Roman coins, which were crude, heavy cast bronzes, were issued ca. 289 B Most coins presently are made of a base metal, and their value comes from their status as fiat money. This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat (law), and thus is determined by the free market only inasmuch as national currencies are used in domestic trade and also traded internationally on foreign exchange markets. Thus these coins are monetary tokens, just as paper currency is: they are usually not backed by metal, but rather by some form of government guarantee. Some have suggested that such coins not be considered to be "true coins" (see below). Thus there is very little economic difference between notes and coins of equivalent face value. Coins may be in circulation with fiat values lower than the value of their component metals, but they are never initially issued with such value, and the shortfall only arises over time due to inflation, as market values for the metal overtake the fiat declared face value of the coin. Examples are the pre-1965 US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar, US nickel, and pre-1982 US penny. As a result of the increase in the value of copper, the United States greatly reduced the amount of copper in each penny. Since mid-1982, United States pennies are made of 97.5% zinc, with the remaining 2.5% being a coating of copper. Extreme differences between fiat values and metal values of coins causes coins to be hoarded or removed from circulation by illicit smelters in order to realise the value of their metal content. This is an example of Gresham's law. The United States Mint, in an attempt to avoid this, implemented new interim rules on December 14, 2006, subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalized the melting and export of pennies and nickels.[30] Violators can be fined up to $10,000 and/or imprisoned for up to five years. A coin's value as a collector's item or as an investment generally depends on its condition, specific historical significance, rarity, quality/beauty of the design and general popularity with collectors. If a coin is greatly lacking in all of these, it is unlikely to be worth much. The value of bullion coins is also influenced to some extent by those factors, but is largely based on the value of their gold, silver, or platinum content. Sometimes non-monetized bullion coins such as the Canadian Maple Leaf and the American Gold Eagle are minted with nominal face values less than the value of the metal in them, but as such coins are never intended for circulation, these face values have no relevance. Coins can be used as creative medium of expression – from fine art sculpture to the penny machines that can be found in most amusement parks. In the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in the United States there are some regulations specific to nickels and pennies that are informative on this topic. 31 CFR § 82.1 forbids unauthorized persons from exporting, melting, or treating any 5 or 1 cent coins. This has been a particular problem with nickels and dimes (and with some comparable coins in other currencies) because of their relatively low face value and unstable commodity prices. For a while the copper in US pennies was worth more than one cent, so people would hoard pennies then melt them down for their metal value. It costs more than face value to manufacture pennies or nickels, so any widespread loss of the coins in circulation could be expensive for the Treasury. This was more of a problem when coins were still made of precious metals like silver and gold, so historically strict laws against alteration make more sense. 31 CFR § 82.2 goes on to state that: "(b) The prohibition contained in § 82.1 against the treatment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins shall not apply to the treatment of these coins for educational, amusement, novelty, jewelry, and similar purposes as long as the volumes treated and the nature of the treatment makes it clear that such treatment is not intended as a means by which to profit solely from the value of the metal content of the coins." Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world[1] with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population[2][3][4]) and covering 6.5 million square kilometers (2.5 million sq mi) during its height between the first and second centuries AD.[5][6][7] In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern Europe, Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, parts of Northern Europe, and parts of Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into "Classical Antiquity" together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. The Romans are still remembered today, including names such as Julius Caesar, Cicero, and Augustus. Ancient Roman society contributed greatly to government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, society and more in the Western world. A civilization highly developed for its time, Rome professionalized and greatly expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics[8][9][10] such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as large monuments, palaces, and public facilities. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged under the leadership of Augustus Caesar. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common ritual for a new emperor's rise.[11][12][13] States, such as Palmyra, temporarily divided the Empire in a third-century crisis. Soldier emperors reunified it, by dividing the empire between Western and Eastern halves. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-mediaeval "Dark Ages" of Europe. The Eastern Roman Empire survived this crisis and was governed from Constantinople after the division of the Empire. It comprised Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt. Despite the later loss of Syria and Egypt to the Arab-Islamic Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire continued for another millennium, until its remnants were annexed by the emerging Turkish Ottoman Empire. This eastern, Christian, medieval stage of the Empire is usually called the Byzantine Empire by historians. Ancient Rome topics Outline · Timeline Epochs Foundation · Monarchy (Revolution) · Republic · Empire (Timeline, Pax Romana, Principate, Dominate, Decline, Fall) · Western Empire / Eastern Empire Constitution History · Kingdom · Republic · Empire · Late Empire · Senate · Legislative assemblies (Curiate · Century · Tribal · Plebeian) · Executive magistrates Government Curia · Forum · Cursus honorum · Collegiality · Emperor · Legatus · Dux · Officium · Praefectus · Vicarius · Vigintisexviri · Lictor · Magister militum · Imperator · Princeps senatus · Pontifex Maximus · Augustus · Caesar · Tetrarch · Optimates · Populares · Province Magistrates Ordinary Tribune · Quaestor · Aedile · Praetor · Consul · Censor · Promagistrate · Governor Extraordinary Dictator · Magister Equitum · Decemviri · Consular Tribune · Triumvir · Rex · Interrex Law Twelve Tables · Mos maiorum · Citizenship · Auctoritas · Imperium · Status · Litigation Military Borders · Establishment · Structure · Campaigns · Political control · Strategy · Engineering · Frontiers and fortifications (Castra) · Technology · Army (Legion · Infantry tactics · Personal equipment · Siege engines) · Navy (fleets) · Auxiliaries · Decorations and punishments · Hippika gymnasia Economy Agriculture · Deforestation · Commerce · Finance · Currency · Republican currency · Imperial currency · SPQR Technology Abacus · Numerals · Civil engineering · Military engineering · Military technology · Aqueducts · Bridges · Circus · Concrete · Forum · Metallurgy · Roads · Sanitation · Thermae Culture Architecture · Art · Bathing · Calendar · Clothing · Cosmetics · Cuisine · Hairstyles · Education · Literature · Music · Mythology · Religion · Romanization · Sexuality · Theatre · Wine Society Patricians · Plebs · Conflict of the Orders · Secessio plebis · Equestrian order · Gens · Tribes · Naming conventions · Women · Marriage · Adoption · Slavery · Bagaudae Language (Latin) History · Alphabet · Romance languages Versions Old · Classical · Vulgar · Late · Medieval · Renaissance · New · Contemporary · Ecclesiastical Writers Apuleius · Caesar · Catullus · Cicero · Ennius · Horace · Juvenal · Livy · Lucan · Lucretius · Martial · Ovid · Petronius · Plautus · Pliny the Elder · Pliny the Younger · Propertius · Quintilian · Sallust · Seneca · Statius · Suetonius · Tacitus · Terence · Tibullus · Varro · Virgil · Vitruvius Lists Wars · Battles · Generals · Legions · Emperors · Geographers · Institutions · Laws · Consuls · Distinguished women Major cities Alexandria · Antioch · Aquileia · Bononia · Carthage · Constantinople · Leptis Magna · Londinium · Mediolanum · Pompeii · Ravenna · Rome · Smyrna Other topics Fiction set in ancient Rome (films · video games) Portal [hide] v · t · e Roman Constitution Ancient Rome History · Constitution · Senate · Assemblies (Curiate · Century · Tribal · Plebeian) · Magistrates Roman Kingdom History · Constitution · Senate · Assemblies · Magistrates Roman Republic History · Constitution (reforms of Sulla • reforms of Caesar • reforms of Augustus) · Senate · Assemblies · Magistrates Roman Empire History · (post Diocletian) · Constitution · (post Diocletian) · Senate · Assemblies · Magistrates Miscellaneous Sulla's Constitutional Reforms · Caesar's Constitutional Reforms · Conflict of the Orders · Roman law Portal Portal [hide] v · t · e Roman mythology and religion Deities Apollo · Bona Dea · Castor and Pollux · Ceres · Cupid · Diana · Dis Pater · Fauna · Faunus · Flora · Genius · Hercules · Janus · Juno · Jupiter · Lares · Liber · Mars · Mercury · Minerva · Orcus · Neptune · Penates · Pluto · Pomona · Priapus · Proserpina · Quirinus · Saturn · Silvanus · Sol · Venus · Vesta · Vulcan She-wolf suckles Romulus and Remus.jpg Abstract deities Concordia · Fides · Fortuna · Pietas · Spes · Roma · Victoria · Terra Legendary founders Aeneas · Romulus and Remus · Numa Pompilius · Servius Tullius · Ancus Marcius Texts Vergil (Aeneid) · Ovid (Metamorphoses · Fasti) · Propertius · Apuleius (The Golden Ass) Concepts and practices Religion in ancient Rome · Festivals · interpretatio graeca · Imperial cult · Temples See also Glossary of ancient Roman religion · Greek mythology · myth and ritual · classical mythology [hide] v · t · e Ancient Greek and Roman wars Wars of ancient Greece Trojan War · First Messenian War · Second Messenian War · Lelantine War · Sicilian Wars · Greco-Persian Wars · Aeginetan War · Wars of the Delian League · Samian War · Peloponnesian War · Corinthian War · Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) · Social War (357–355 BC) · Rise of Macedon · Wars of Alexander the Great · Wars over Alexander's empire · Lamian War · Chremonidean War · Cleomenean War · Social War (220–217 BC) · Cretan War · Aetolian War · War against Nabis · Maccabean Revolt Wars of the Roman Republic Roman-Latin wars (First Latin War (Battle of Lake Regillus) · Second Latin War) · Samnite Wars · Pyrrhic War · Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) · Macedonian Wars (Illyrian · First Macedonian · Second Macedonian · Seleucid · Third Macedonian · Fourth Macedonian) · Jugurthine War · Cimbrian War · Roman Servile Wars (First · Second · Third) · Social War · Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (First · Second) · Mithridatic Wars (First · Second · Third) · Gallic Wars · Julius Caesar's civil war · End of the Republic (Post-Caesarian · Liberators' · Sicilian · Fulvia's · Final) Wars of the Roman Empire Germanic Wars (Marcomannic · Alamannic · Gothic · Visigothic) · Wars in Britain · Wars of Boudica · Armenian War · Civil War of 69 · Jewish Wars · Domitian's Dacian War · Trajan's Dacian Wars · Parthian Wars · Roman–Persian Wars · Civil Wars of the Third Century · Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Military history [hide] v · t · e Roman emperors Principate 27 BC – 235 AD Augustus · Tiberius · Caligula · Claudius · Nero · Galba · Otho · Vitellius · Vespasian · Titus · Domitian · Nerva · Trajan · Hadrian · Antoninus Pius · Marcus Aurelius with Lucius Verus · Commodus · Pertinax · Didius Julianus · Septimius Severus · Caracalla · Geta · Macrinus with Diadumenian · Elagabalus · Alexander Severus Crisis 235–284 Maximinus Thrax · Gordian I and Gordian II · Pupienus and Balbinus · Gordian III · Philip the Arab · Decius with Herennius Etruscus · Hostilian · Trebonianus Gallus with Volusianus · Aemilianus · Valerian · Gallienus with Saloninus · Claudius Gothicus · Quintillus · Aurelian · Tacitus · Florianus · Probus · Carus · Carinus · Numerian Dominate 284–395 Diocletian · Maximian · Constantius Chlorus · Galerius · Severus · Maxentius · Maximinus Daia · Licinius with Valerius Valens and Martinianus · Constantine the Great · Constantine II · Constans I · Constantius II with Vetranio · Julian · Jovian · Valentinian I · Valens · Gratian · Valentinian II · Theodosius I Western Empire 395–480 Honorius with Constantine III · Constantius III · Joannes · Valentinian III · Petronius Maximus · Avitus · Majorian · Libius Severus · Anthemius · Olybrius · Glycerius · Julius Nepos · Romulus Augustulus Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204 Arcadius · Theodosius II · Marcian · Leo I the Thracian · Leo II · Zeno · Basiliscus · Anastasius I · Justin I · Justinian I · Justin II · Tiberius II Constantine · Maurice · Phocas · Heraclius · Constantine III · Heraklonas · Constans II · Constantine IV · Justinian II · Leontios · Tiberios III · Philippikos · Anastasios II · Theodosios III · Leo III the Isaurian · Constantine V · Artabasdos · Leo IV the Khazar · Constantine VI · Irene · Nikephoros I · Staurakios · Michael I Rangabe · Leo V the Armenian · Michael II the Amorian · Theophilos · Michael III · Basil I the Macedonian · Leo VI the Wise · Alexander · Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos · Romanos I Lekapenos · Romanos II · Nikephoros II Phokas · John I Tzimiskes · Basil II · Constantine VIII · Zoe · Romanos III Argyros · Michael IV the Paphlagonian · Michael V Kalaphates · Constantine IX Monomachos · Theodora · Michael VI Bringas · Isaac I Komnenos · Constantine X Doukas · Romanos IV Diogenes · Michael VII Doukas · Nikephoros III Botaneiates · Alexios I Komnenos · John II Komnenos · Manuel I Komnenos · Alexios II Komnenos · Andronikos I Komnenos · Isaac II Angelos · Alexios III Angelos · Alexios IV Angelos · Alexios V Doukas Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261 Constantine Laskaris · Theodore I Laskaris · John III Doukas Vatatzes · Theodore II Laskaris · John IV Laskaris Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453 Michael VIII Palaiologos · Andronikos II Palaiologos · Michael IX Palaiologos · Andronikos III Palaiologos · John V Palaiologos · John VI Kantakouzenos · Matthew Kantakouzenos · Andronikos IV Palaiologos · John VII Palaiologos · Andronikos V Palaiologos · Manuel II Palaiologos · John VIII Palaiologos · Constantine XI Palaiologos Ancient Greece was a Greek civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period[citation needed] of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era.[1] Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and Europe, for which reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture.[ Ancient Greece Outline · Timeline Periods Cycladic civilization · Minoan civilization · Mycenaean civilization · Greek Dark Ages · Archaic period · Classical Greece · Hellenistic Greece · Roman Greece Geography Aegean Sea · Aeolis · Alexandria · Antioch · Crete · Cyprus · Cappadocia · Doris · Hellespont · Ephesus · Epirus · Ionian Sea · Ionia · Macedonia · Magna Graecia · Miletus · Pergamon · Peloponnesus · Pontus · Ancient Greek colonies City states Argos · Athens · Byzantium · Chalkis · Corinth · Megalopolis · Rhodes · Syracuse · Sparta · Thebes Politics Athenian democracy (Agora · Areopagus · Ecclesia · Graphē paranómōn · Heliaia · Ostracism) · Boeotarch · Boule · Koinon · Proxeny · Spartan Constitution (Apella · Ephor · Gerousia · Harmost) · Strategos · Synedrion · Tagus · Tyrant · Amphictyonic League Rulers Kings of Argos · Archons of Athens · Kings of Athens · Kings of Commagene · Diadochi · Kings of Lydia · Kings of Macedonia · Kings of Paionia · Attalid kings of Pergamon · Kings of Pontus · Kings of Sparta · Tyrants of Syracuse Life Agriculture · Calendar · Clothing · Cuisine · Economy · Education · Festivals · Homosexuality · Law · Marriage · Funeral and burial practices · Olympic Games · Pederasty · Philosophy · Prostitution · Religion · Slavery · Warfare · Wine Military Wars · Athenian military · Antigonid Macedonian army · Army of Macedon · Ballista · Cretan archers · Hellenistic armies · Hippeis · Hoplite · Hetairoi · Macedonian phalanx · Phalanx formation · Peltast · Pezhetairos · Sarissa · Sacred Band of Thebes · Sciritae · Seleucid army · Spartan army · Toxotai · Xiphos · Xyston People Philosophers Anaxagoras · Anaximander · Anaximenes · Antisthenes · Aristotle · Democritus · Diogenes of Sinope · Epicurus · Empedocles · Heraclitus · Hypatia · Leucippus · Gorgias · Parmenides · Plato · Protagoras · Pythagoras · Socrates · Thales · Zeno Authors Aeschylus · Aesop · Alcaeus · Archilochus · Aristophanes · Bacchylides · Euripides · Herodotus · Hesiod · Hipponax · Homer · Ibycus · Lucian · Menander · Mimnermus · Pindar · Plutarch · Polybius · Sappho · Simonides · Sophocles · Stesichorus · Thucydides · Theognis · Timocreon · Tyrtaeus · Xenophon Others Agesilaus II · Agis II · Alexander the Great · Alcibiades · Aratus · Archimedes · Aspasia · Demosthenes · Epaminondas · Euclid · Hipparchus · Hippocrates · Leonidas · Lycurgus · Lysander · Milo of Croton · Miltiades · Pausanias · Pericles · Philip of Macedon · Philopoemen · Ptolemy · Pyrrhus · Solon · Themistocles Groups Playwrights · Poets · Philosophers · Tyrants Cultures Ancient Greek tribes · Greeks · Thracian Greeks · Ancient Macedonians Arts Architecture · Coinage · Literature · Music · Pottery · Sculpture · Theatre Religion Funeral and burial practices · Greek mythology · Greek temple · Greek underworld · Mythological figures · Twelve Olympians Sacred places Eleusis · Delphi · Delos · Dodona · Mount Olympus · Olympia Sciences Astronomy · Mathematics · Medicine · Technology Structures Temple of Artemis · Temple of Athena Nike · Athenian Treasury · Erechtheion · Lion Gate · Long Walls · Parthenon · Philippeion · Samothrace temple complex · Temple of Aphaea · Temple of Hephaestus · Temple of Hera, Olympia · Temple of Zeus, Olympia · Theatre of Dionysus · Tunnel of Eupalinos Language Proto-Greek · Mycenaean · Homeric · Dialects (Aeolic · Arcadocypriot · Attic · Doric · Ionic · Locrian · Macedonian · Pamphylian) · Koine Writing Linear A · Linear B · Cypriot syllabary · Greek alphabet · Greek numerals · Attic numerals Lists Cities · Cities in Epirus · Greek temples · Place names · Sroae · Theatres Category Category · Portal Portal · WikiProject WikiProject [hide] v · t · e Classical antiquity by region Europa Graecia · Italia · Gallia · Dacia · Thracia · Illyria · Hispania · Britannia · Germania Asia Scythia · Anatolia · Syria · Arabia Africa Libya · Aegyptus [hide] v · t · e Ancient Greek and Roman wars Wars of ancient Greece Trojan War · First Messenian War · Second Messenian War · Lelantine War · Sicilian Wars · Greco-Persian Wars · Aeginetan War · Wars of the Delian League · Samian War · Peloponnesian War · Corinthian War · Sacred Wars (First, Second, Third) · Social War (357–355 BC) · Rise of Macedon · Wars of Alexander the Great · Wars over Alexander's empire · Lamian War · Chremonidean War · Cleomenean War · Social War (220–217 BC) · Cretan War · Aetolian War · War against Nabis · Maccabean Revolt Wars of the Roman Republic Roman-Latin wars (First Latin War (Battle of Lake Regillus) · Second Latin War) · Samnite Wars · Pyrrhic War · Punic Wars (First, Second, Third) · Macedonian Wars (Illyrian · First Macedonian · Second Macedonian · Seleucid · Third Macedonian · Fourth Macedonian) · Jugurthine War · Cimbrian War · Roman Servile Wars (First · Second · Third) · Social War · Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (First · Second) · Mithridatic Wars (First · Second · Third) · Gallic Wars · Julius Caesar's civil war · End of the Republic (Post-Caesarian · Liberators' · Sicilian · Fulvia's · Final) Wars of the Roman Empire Germanic Wars (Marcomannic · Alamannic · Gothic · Visigothic) · Wars in Britain · Wars of Boudica · Armenian War · Civil War of 69 · Jewish Wars · Domitian's Dacian War · Trajan's Dacian Wars · Parthian Wars · Roman–Persian Wars · Civil Wars of the Third Century · Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Condition: Good Condition for its age, Colour: Bronze, Material: Bronze, Type: Coin, Provenance: Ownership History Not Available

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