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Seller: Top-Rated Seller notinashyway (16,819) 99.7%, Location: Look at my other Items, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 303180769586 HISTORICAL HEADLINES The Story of the 20th Century Imagine if you had the moments that made the 20th Century in one place! You have just imagines Historical Headlines This is a Hardback Book with Reproduction Replica of the Newspaper The Daily Mirror covering six major events Sinking of the Titanic (1912) Queen Elizabeth II Coronation (1953) The Assignation of JFK (1963) England win the FIFA World Cup (1966) Apollo Astronaughts Land on the Moon (1969 The 9/11 Terrorist Attacks (2001) There are also hidden gems like if you look on the TV Page of the JFK Newspaper you will see advertised the first ever episode of Doctor who named "The Unearthly Child" Each complete newspaper is in this hardback book With Pictures and Reports about each event Relive the event with a newspaper printed at the same time A3 Size with Pages Dimensions: 36 x 30.4 x 2.8 cm It is a very heavy book weiging in just under a kilo / just over 2lb Over 120 Pages In Excellent Condition Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake as a guide to the Great Moments of Recent History I have a lot of Old Newspapers and other Memrobilia on Ebay so Please CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 3,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 4 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items so why not > Check out my other items! All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain! 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The Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe Events in the 20th century[edit] The world at the beginning of the century[edit] In Europe, the British Empire achieved the height of its power. Germany and Italy, which came into existence as unified nations in the second half of the 19th century, grew in power, challenging the traditional hegemony of Britain and France. With nationalism in full force at this time, the European powers competed with each other for land, military strength and economic power. Asia and Africa were for the most part still under control of their European colonizers. The major exceptions were China and Japan. The Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905 was the first major instance of a European power being defeated by a so-called inferior nation. The war itself strengthened Japanese militarism and enhanced Japan's rise to the status of a world power. Tsarist Russia, on the other hand, did not handle the defeat well. The war exposed the country's military weakness and increasing economic backwardness, and contributed to the Russian Revolution of 1905, the dress rehearsal for the conclusive one in 1917. Already in the 19th century, the United States had become an influential actor in world politics. It had made its presence known on the world stage by challenging Spain in the Spanish–American War, gaining the colonies of Puerto Rico and the Philippines as protectorates. Now, with growth in immigration and a resolution of the national unity issue through the bloody American Civil War, America was emerging as an industrial power as well, rivaling Britain, Germany, and France. With increasing rivalry among the European powers and the rise of Japan and the United States, the stage was set for a major upheaval in world affairs. The imperial crisis[edit] From 1914 to 1918, the First World War, and its aftermath caused major changes in the power balance of the world, destroying or transforming some of the most powerful empires. "The war to end all wars": World War I (1914–1918)[edit] Main article: World War I The First World War, termed "The Great War" (or simply WWI) by contemporaries, started in 1914 and ended in 1918. It was ignited by the Assassination in Sarajevo of the Austro-Hungarian Empire's heir to the throne, Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, by Gavrilo Princip of the Serbian nationalist organization "Black Hand". Bound by Slavic nationalism to help the small Serbian state, the Russians came to the aid of the Serbs when they were attacked. Interwoven alliances, an increasing arms race, and old hatreds dragged Europe into war. The Allies, known initially as "The Triple Entente", comprised the British Empire, France and Russia. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Bulgaria, and later the Ottoman Empire, were known as "The Central Powers". In 1917, Russia ended hostile actions against the Central Powers after the fall of the Tsar. The Bolsheviks negotiated the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, although it was at huge cost to Russia. Although Germany shifted huge forces from the eastern to the western front after signing the treaty, it was unable to stop the Allied advance, especially with the entrance of American troops in 1918. The war itself was also a chance for the combatant nations to show off their military strength and technological ingenuity. The Germans introduced the machine gun, U-Boats and deadly gases. The British first used the tank. Both sides had a chance to test out their new aircraft to see if they could be used in warfare. It was widely believed that the war would be short. Unfortunately, since trench warfare was the best form of defense, advances on both sides were very slow, and came at a terrible cost in lives. When the war was finally over in 1918, the results, would set the stage for the next twenty years. First and foremost, the Germans were forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, forcing them to make, exorbitant payments to repair damages caused during the War. Many Germans felt these reparations were unfair because they did not actually "lose" the war nor did they feel they caused the war (see Stab-in-the-back legend). Germany was never occupied by Allied troops, yet it had to accept a liberal democratic government imposed on it by the victors after the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm. Much of the map of Europe was redrawn by the victors based upon the theory that future wars could be prevented if all ethnic groups had their own "homeland". New states like Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were created out of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire to accommodate the nationalist aspirations of these groups. An international body called the League of Nations was formed to mediate disputes and prevent future wars, although its effectiveness was severely limited by, among other things, its reluctance and inability to act. The Russian Revolution and communism[edit] Main article: Russian Revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution of 1917 (ending in the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and the brutal execution of His Imperial Majesty Nicholas II and his family) sparked a wave of communist revolutions across Europe, prompting many to believe that a socialist world revolution could be realized in the near future. However, the European revolutions were defeated, Vladimir Lenin died in 1924, and within, a few years Joseph Stalin displaced Leon Trotsky as the de facto leader of the Soviet Union. The idea of worldwide revolution was no longer in the forefront, as Stalin concentrated on "socialism in one country" and embarked on a bold plan of collectivization and industrialization. The majority of socialists and even many communists became disillusioned with Stalin's autocratic rule, his purges and the assassination of his "enemies", as well as the news of famines he imposed on his own people. Communism was strengthened as a force in Western democracies when the global economy crashed in 1929 in what became known as the Great Depression. Many people saw this as the first stage of the end of the capitalist system and were attracted to Communism as a solution to the economic crisis, especially as the Soviet Union,'s economic development in the 1930s was strong, unaffected by the capitalist world's crisis. Between the wars[edit] Main article: Interwar period Economic depression[edit] Main article: Great Depression After World War I, the global economy remained strong through the 1920s. The war had provided a stimulus for industry and for economic activity in general. There were many warning signs foretelling the collapse of the global economic system in 1929 that were generally not understood by the political leadership of the time. The responses to the crisis often made the situation worse, as millions of people watched their savings become next to worthless and the idea of a steady job with a reasonable income fading away. Many sought answers in alternative ideologies such as communism and fascism. They believed that the capitalist economic system was collapsing, and that new ideas were required to meet the crisis. The early responses to the crisis were based upon the assumption that the free market would correct itself. This, however, did very little to correct the crisis or to alleviate the suffering of many ordinary people. Thus, the idea that the existing system could be reformed by government intervention in the economy rather than by, continuing the laissez-faire approach became prominent as a solution to the crisis. Democratic governments assumed the responsibility to provide needed services, in society and alleviate poverty. Thus was born the welfare state. These two politico-economic principles, the belief in government intervention and the welfare state, as opposed to the belief in the free market and private institutions, would define many political battles for the rest of the century. The rise of dictatorship[edit] Main articles: Fascism, Totalitarianism, and Dictatorship Fascism first appeared in Italy with the rise to power of Benito Mussolini in 1922. The ideology was supported by a large proportion of the upper classes as a strong challenge to the threat of communism. When Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, a new variant of fascism called Nazism took over Germany and ended the German experiment with democracy. The National Socialist party in Germany was dedicated to the restoration of German honor and prestige, the unification of German-speaking peoples, and the annexation of Central and Eastern Europe as vassal states, with the Slavic population to act as slave labor to serve German economic interests. There was also a strong appeal to a mythical racial purity (the idea that Germans were the Herrenvolk or the "master race"), and a vicious anti-semitism which promoted the idea of Jews as subhuman (Untermensch) and worthy only of extermination. Many people in Western Europe and the United States greeted the rise of Hitler with relief or indifference. They could see nothing wrong with a strong Germany ready to take on the communist menace to the east. Anti-semitism during the Great Depression was widespread as many were content to blame the Jews for causing the economic downturn. Hitler began to put his plan in motion, annexing Austria in the Anschluss, or reunification of Austria to Germany, in 1938. He then negotiated the annexation of the Sudetenland, a German-speaking mountainous area of Czechoslovakia, in the Munich Conference. The British were eager to avoid war and believed Hitler's assurance to protect the security of the Czech state. Hitler annexed the rest of the Czech state shortly afterwards, indicating that he had ulterior motives. Fascism was not the only form of dictatorship to rise in the post-war period. Almost all of the new democracies in the nations of Eastern Europe collapsed and were replaced by authoritarian regimes. Spain also became a dictatorship under the leadership of General Francisco Franco after the Spanish Civil War. Totalitarian states attempted to achieve total control over their subjects as well as their total loyalty. They held the state above the individual, and were often responsible for some of the worst acts in history, such as the Holocaust Adolf Hitler perpetrated on European Jews, or the Great Purge Stalin perpetrated in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. Global, war: World War II (1939–1945)[edit] Main article: World War II The war in Europe[edit] Main article: European Theater of World War II This section provides a conversational overview of World War II in Europe. See main article for a fuller discussion. Soon after the events in Czechoslovakia, Britain and France issued assurances of protection to Poland, which seemed to be next on Hitler's list. World War II officially began on September 1, 1939. On that date, Hitler unleashed his Blitzkrieg, or lightning war, against Poland. Britain and France, much to Hitler's surprise, immediately declared war upon Germany, but the help they delivered to Poland was negligible. At the same time, Poland was attacked from the East by Soviet Union, acting in a secret alliance with Nazi Germany. After only a few weeks, the Polish forces were overwhelmed, and its government fled to exile in London (see Polish government in Exile). In starting World War II, the Germans had unleashed a new type of warfare, characterized by highly mobile forces and the use of massed aircraft. The German strategy concentrated upon the devotion of the Wehrmacht, or German army, to the use of tank groups, called panzer divisions, and groups of mobile infantry, in concert with relentless attacks from the air. Encirclement was also a major part of the strategy. This change smashed any expectations that the Second World War would be fought in the trenches like the first. As Hitler's forces conquered Poland, the Soviet Union, under General Secretary Joseph Stalin, was acting out guarantees of territory under a secret part of a nonaggression pact between the USSR and Germany known as the Nazi-Soviet Pact. This treaty gave Stalin free rein to take the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as Eastern Poland, all of which would remain in Soviet possession after the war. Stalin also launched an attack on Finland, which he hoped to reduce to little more than a Soviet puppet state, but the Red Army met staunch Finnish resistance in what became known as the Winter War, and succeeded in gaining only limited territory from the Finns. This action would later cause the Finns to ally with Germany when its attack on the Soviet Union came in 1941. After the defeat of Poland, a period known as the Phony War ensued during the winter of 1939–1940. All of this changed on May 10, 1940, when the Germans launched a massive attack on the Low Countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg), most probably to surmount the Maginot Line of defenses on the Franco-German border. This witnessed the incredible fall of Eben Emael, a Belgian fort considered impregnable and guarded by 600 Belgians, to a force of only 88 German paratroopers. The worst of this was that King Léopold III of Belgium surrendered to the Germans on May 28 without warning his allies, exposing the entire flank of the Allied forces to German panzer groups. Following the conquest of the Low Countries, Hitler occupied Denmark and Norway, beginning on April 9, 1940. Norway was strategically important because of its sea routes which supplied crucial Swedish ore to the Nazi war machine. Norway held on for a few crucial weeks, but Denmark surrendered after only four days. With the disaster in the Low Countries, France, considered at the time to have had the finest army in world, lasted only four weeks, with Paris being occupied on June 14. Three days later, Marshal Philippe Pétain surrendered to the Germans. The debacle in France also led to one of the war's greatest mysteries, and Hitler's first great blunder, Dunkirk, where a third of a million trapped British and French soldiers were evacuated by not only British war boats, but every boat the army could find, including fishing rafts. Hitler refused to "risk" his panzers on action at Dunkirk, listening to the advice of Air Minister Hermann Göring and allowing the Luftwaffe, or German Air Force, to handle the job. The irony of this was that the escaped men would form the core of the army that was to invade the beaches of Normandy in 1944. Hitler did not occupy all of France, but about three-quarters, including all of the Atlantic coast, allowing Marshal Pétain to remain as dictator of an area known as Vichy France. However, members of the escaped French Army formed around General Charles de Gaulle to create the Free French forces, which would continue to battle Hitler in the stead of an independent France. At this moment, Italy, under Benito Mussolini, declared war on the Allies on June 10, thinking that the war was almost over, but he managed only to occupy a few hundred yards of French territory. Throughout the war, the Italians would be more of a burden to the Nazis than a boon, and would later cost them precious time in Greece. Hitler now turned his eyes on Great Britain, which stood alone against him. He ordered his generals to draw up plans for an invasion, code named Operation Sea Lion, and ordered the Luftwaffe to launch a massive air war against the British isles, which would come to be known as the Battle of Britain. The British at first suffered steady losses, but eventually managed to turn the air war against Germany, taking down 2,698 German planes throughout the summer of 1940 to only 915 Royal Air Force (RAF) losses. The key turning point came when the Germans discontinued successful attacks against British airplane factories and radar command and coordination stations and turned to civilian bombing known as terror bombing using the distinctive "bomb" sound created by the German dive-bomber, the Stuka. The switch came after a small British bombing force had attacked Berlin. Hitler was infuriated. However, his decision to switch the attacks' focus allowed the British to rebuild the RAF and eventually force the Germans to indefinitely postpone Sea Lion. The importance of the Battle of Britain is that it marked the beginning of Hitler's defeat. Secondly, it marked the advent of radar as a major weapon in modern air war. With radar, squadrons of fighters could be quickly assembled to respond to incoming bombers attempting to bomb civilian targets. It also allowed the identification of the type and a guess at the number of incoming enemy aircraft, as well as tracking of friendly airplanes. Hitler, taken aback by his defeat over the skies of Britain, now turned his gaze eastward to the Soviet Union. Despite having signed the non-aggression pact with Stalin, Hitler despised communism and wished to destroy it in the land of its birth. He originally planned to launch the attack in early spring of 1941 to avoid the disastrous Russian winter. However, a pro-allied coup in Yugoslavia and Mussolini's almost utter defeat in his invasion of Greece from occupied Albania prompted Hitler to launch a personal campaign of revenge in Yugoslavia and to occupy Greece at the same time. The Greeks would have a bitter revenge of sorts; the attack caused a delay of several crucial weeks of the invasion of the USSR. On June 22, 1941, Hitler attacked Stalin with the largest army the world has ever seen. Over three million men and their weapons were put into service against the Soviet Union. Stalin had been warned about the attack, both by other countries and by his own intelligence network, but he had refused to believe it. Therefore, the Soviet army was largely unprepared and suffered incredible setbacks in the early part of the war, despite Stalin's orders to counterattack the Germans. Throughout 1941, German forces, divided into 3 army groups (Army Group A, Army Group B, and Army Group C), occupied the territories of the present day Ukraine and Belarus, laid siege to Leningrad (present day Saint Petersburg), and advanced to within 15 miles of Moscow. At this critical moment, the Soviet people stalled the German Wehrmacht to a halt at the gates of Moscow. Stalin had planned to evacuate the city, and had already moved important government functions, but decided to stay and rally the city. Recently arrived troops from the east under the command of Marshal Georgi Zhukov counterattacked the Germans and drove them from Moscow. Here marks the third great blunder of Hitler's. He could have won the war in the USSR except for a few reasons. One, he tried to capture too much too fast; he wanted the German army to advance all the way to the Urals, which amounted to one million square miles (2,600,000 km²) of territory, when he probably should have concentrated on taking Moscow and thereby driving a wedge into heart of the Soviet Union. Second, he ignored the similar experiences of Napoleon Bonaparte nearly one hundred and fifty years earlier in his attempt to conquer Russia. Despite this, Stalin was not in a good position. Roughly two-fifths of the USSR's industrial might was in German hands. Also, the Germans were at first seen by many as liberators fighting the communists. Stalin was also not a very able general, and like Hitler, at first tried to fight the war as a military strategist. However, Hitler managed to turn all of his advantages against himself, and lost the only remaining hope for Germany: seizing the Caucasus and taking control of North Africa and the oil-rich Middle East. Mussolini had launched an offensive in North Africa from Italian-controlled Libya into British-controlled Egypt. However, the British smashed the Italians and were on the verge of taking Libya. Hitler decided to help by sending in a few thousand troops, a Luftwaffe division, and the first-rate general Erwin Rommel. Rommel managed to use his small force to repeatedly smash massively superior British forces and to recapture the port city of Tobruk and advance into Egypt. However, Hitler, embroiled in his invasion of the Soviet Union, refused to send Rommel any more troops. If he had, Rommel might have been able to seize the Middle East, where Axis-friendly regimes had taken root in Iraq and Persia (present-day Iran). Here, Rommel could have cut the major supply route of the Soviets through Persia, and helped take the Caucasus, virtually neutralizing Britain's effectiveness in the war and potentially sealing the fate of the Soviet Union. However, Hitler blundered again, throwing away the last vestiges of the German advantage on his coming offensive in 1942. After the winter, Hitler launched a fresh offensive in the spring of 1942, with the aim of capturing the oil-rich Caucacus and the city of Stalingrad. However, he repeatedly switched his troops to where they were not needed. The offensive bogged down, and the entire 6th Army, considered the best of German troops, was trapped in Stalingrad. Hitler now refused to let 6th Army break out. He insisted that the German army would force its way in. Hermann Göring also assured Hitler that the Luftwaffe could supply the 6th Army adequately, when it could in reality only supply a minute fraction of the needed ammunition and rations. Eventually, the starved 6th Army surrendered, dealing a severe blow to the Germans. In the end, the defeat at Stalingrad was the turning point for the war in the east. Meanwhile, the Japanese had attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941. This disastrous attack forced the Americans into the war. Hitler need not have declared war on the United States, and kept its continued neutrality in Europe, but he did not. Both he and Mussolini declared war only a few days after the attack. At the time, most German generals, preoccupied with war in the USSR, did not even notice America's entrance. It was to be a crucial blunder. Throughout the rest of 1942 and 1943, the Soviets began to gain ground against the Germans. The tank battle of Kursk is one example. However, by this time, Rommel had been forced to abandon North Africa after a defeat by Montgomery at El Alamein, and the Wehrmacht had encountered serious casualties that it could not replace. Hitler also insisted on a "hold at all costs" policy which forbade relinquishing any ground. He followed a "fight to the last man" policy that was completely ineffective. By the beginning of 1944, Hitler had lost all initiative in the Soviet Union, and was struggling even to hold back the tide turning against him. From 1942 to 1944, the United States and Britain acted in only a limited manner in the European theater, much to the chagrin of Stalin. They drove out the Germans in Africa, invading Morocco and Algeria on November 8, 1942. Then, on July 10, 1943, the Allies invaded Sicily, in preparation for an advance through Italy, the "soft underbelly" of the Axis, as Winston Churchill called it. On September 9, the invasion of Italy began. By the winter of 1943, the southern half of Italy was in Allied hands. The Italians, most of whom did not really support the war, had already turned against Mussolini. In July, he had been stripped of power and taken prisoner, though the Italians feigned continued support of the Axis. On September 8, the Italians formally surrendered, but most of Italy not in Allied hands was controlled by German troops and those loyal to Mussolini's (Mussolini had been freed by German paratroopers) new Italian Social Republic, which in reality consisted of the shrinking zone of German control. The Germans offered staunch resistance, but by June 4, 1944, Rome had fallen. The Battle of the Atlantic took place from 1942 to 1944. The Germans hoped to sever the vital supply lines between Britain and America, sinking many tons of shipping with U-boats, German submarines. However, the development of the destroyer and aircraft with a longer patrol range were effective at countering the U-boat threat. By 1944, the Germans had lost the battle. On June 6, 1944, the Western Allies finally launched the long awaited assault on "Fortress Europe" so wanted by Stalin. The offensive, codenamed Operation Overlord, began the early morning hours of June 6. The day, known as D-day, was marked by foul weather. Rommel, who was now in charge of defending France against possible Allied attack, thought the Allies would not attack during the stormy weather, and was on holiday in Germany. Besides this, the Germans were expecting an attack, but at the natural harbor of Calais and not the beaches of Normandy; a blunder that sealed the operation's success. They did not know about the Allies' artificial harbours, and clues planted by the Allies suggested Calais as the landing site. By this time, the war was looking ever darker for Germany. On July 20, 1944, a group of conspiring German officers attempted to assassinate Hitler. The bomb they used did injure him, but the second was not used, and a table shielded Hitler in a stroke of luck. The plotters still could have launched a coup, but only the head of occupied Paris acted, arresting SS and Gestapo forces in the city. The German propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, rallied the Nazis, and saved the day for Hitler. In France, the Allies took Normandy and finally Paris on August 25. In the east, the Soviets had advanced almost to the former Polish-Soviet border. At this time, Hitler introduced the V-weapons, the V-1 flying bomb and, later, the V-2, the first rockets used in modern warfare. The V-1 was often intercepted by air pilots, but the V-2 was extremely fast and carried a large payload. However, this advance came too late in the war to have any real effect. The Germans were also on the verge on introducing a number of terrifying new weapons, including advanced jet aircraft, which were too fast for ordinary propeller aircraft, and submarine improvements which would allow the Germans to again fight effectively in the Atlantic. All this came too late to save Hitler. Although a September invasion of The Netherlands failed, the Allies made steady advances. In the winter of 1944, Hitler put everything into one last desperate gamble in the West, known as the Battle of the Bulge, which, despite an initial advance, was a failure, because the introduction of new Allied tanks and low troop numbers among the Germans prevented any real action being taken. In early February 1945, the three Allied leaders, Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, met at newly liberated Yalta in the Crimea in the Soviet Union in the Yalta Conference. Here, they agreed upon a plan to divide post-war Europe. Most of the east went to Stalin, who agreed to allow free elections in Eastern Europe, which he never did. The west went to Britain, France, and the U.S. Post-war Germany would be split between the four, as would Berlin. Here the territory of the Cold War was set. The boundaries of a new Europe, stripped of some of its oldest ruling families, were drawn up by the three men at Yalta. At the beginning of 1945, Hitler was on his last strings. The Soviets launched a devastating attack from Poland into Germany and Eastern Europe, intending to take Berlin. The Germans collapsed in the West, allowing the Allies to fan out across Germany. However, the Supreme Allied Commander, American general Dwight D. Eisenhower, refused to strike for Berlin, and instead became obsessed with reports of possible guerrilla activity in southern Germany, which in reality existed only in the propaganda of Joseph Goebbels. By April 25, the Soviets had besieged Berlin. Hitler remained in the city in a bunker under the Chancellery garden. On April 30, he committed suicide, after a ritual wedding with his longtime mistress Eva Braun. The Germans held out another 7 days under Admiral Doenitz, their new leader, but the Germans surrendered unconditionally on May 7, 1945, ending the war in Europe (see V-E Day). Rivalries that had begun during the war, combined with the sense of strength in the victorious powers, laid the foundations of the Iron Curtain and of the Cold War. The war in the Pacific[edit] Main article: Pacific Theater of Operations The Holocaust[edit] Main article: The Holocaust The Holocaust (which roughly means "great fire") was the deliberate, systematic, and horrific murder of millions of Jews and other minorities during World War II by the Nazi regime in Germany. Several differing views exist regarding whether it was intended to occur from the war's beginning, or if the plans for it came about later. Regardless, persecution of Jews extended well before the war even started, such as in the Kristallnacht (literally "Crystal Night", Night of Broken Glass). The Nazis used propaganda to great effect to stir up anti-Semitic feelings within ordinary Germans. After the conquest of Poland, the Third Reich, which had previously deported Jews and other "undesirables", suddenly had within its borders the largest concentration of Jews in the world. The solution was to round up Jews and place them in concentration camps or in ghettos, cordoned off sections of cities where Jews were forced to live in deplorable conditions, often with tens of thousands starving to death, and the bodies decaying in the streets. As appalling as this sounds, they were the lucky ones. After the invasion of the Soviet Union, armed killing squads of SS men known as Einsatzgruppen systematically rounded up Jews and murdered an estimated one million Jews within the country. As barbaric and inhuman as this seems, it was too slow and inefficient by Nazi standards. In 1942, the top leadership met in Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin, and began to plan a more efficient way to slaughter the Jews. The Nazis created a system of extermination camps throughout Poland, and began rounding up Jews from the Soviet Union, and from the Ghettos. Not only were Jews shot or gassed to death en masse, but they were forced to provide slave labor and they were used in horrific medical experiments (see Human experimentation in Nazi Germany). Out of the widespread condemnation of the Nazis' medical experiments, the Nuremberg Code of medical ethics was devised. Slave laborers at the Buchenwald concentration camp. The Nazis took a sadistic pleasure in the death camps; the entrance to the worst camp, Auschwitz, stated "Arbeit Macht Frei"—"Work Makes Free". In the end, six million Jews, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Gypsies and political prisoners were killed by various means, mainly in the death camps. An additional seven million Soviet and other Allied prisoners of war died in camps and holding areas. There is some controversy over whether ordinary Germans knew about the Holocaust. It appears that many Germans knew about the concentration camps; such things were prominently displayed in magazines and newspapers. In many places, Jews had to walk past towns and villages on their way to work as slaves in German industry. In any case, Allied soldiers reported that the smell of the camps carried for miles. A very small number of people deny the Holocaust occurred entirely, though these claims have been routinely discredited by mainstream historians. The Nuclear Age begins[edit] The first nuclear explosion, named "Trinity", was detonated on July 16, 1945. Main article: History of nuclear weapons During the 1930s, innovations in physics made it apparent that it could be possible to develop nuclear weapons of incredible power using nuclear reactions. When World War II broke out, scientists and advisors among the Allies feared that Nazi Germany may have been trying to develop its own atomic weapons, and the United States and the United Kingdom pooled their efforts in what became known as the Manhattan Project to beat them to it. At the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico, scientist Robert Oppenheimer led a team of the world's top scientists to develop the first nuclear weapons, the first of which was tested at the Trinity site in July 1945. However, Germany had surrendered in May 1945, and it had been discovered that the German atomic bomb program had not been very close to success. The Allied team produced two nuclear weapons for use in the war, one powered by uranium-235 and the other by plutonium as fissionable material, named "Little Boy" and "Fat Man". These were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945 each. This, in combination with the Soviet entrance in the war, convinced the Japanese to surrender unconditionally. These two weapons remain the only two nuclear weapons ever used against other countries in war. Nuclear weapons brought an entirely new and terrifying possibility to warfare: a nuclear holocaust. While at first the United States held a monopoly on the production of nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union, with some assistance from espionage, managed to detonate its first weapon (dubbed "Joe-1" by the West) in August 1949. The post-war relations between the two, which had already been deteriorating, began to rapidly disintegrate. Soon the two were locked in a massive stockpiling of nuclear weapons. The United States began a crash-program to develop the first hydrogen bomb in 1950, and detonated its first thermonuclear weapon in 1952. This new weapon was alone over 400 times as powerful as the weapons used against Japan. The Soviet Union detonated a primitive thermonuclear weapon in 1953 and a full-fledged one in 1955. Nuclear missiles and computerized launch systems increased the range and scope of possible nuclear war. The conflict continued to escalate, with the major superpowers developing long-range missiles (such as the ICBM) and a nuclear strategy which guaranteed that any use of the nuclear weapons would be suicide for the attacking nation (Mutually Assured Destruction). The creation of early warning systems put the control of these weapons into the hands of newly created computers, and they served as a tense backdrop throughout the Cold War. Since the 1940s there were concerns about the rising proliferation of nuclear weapons to new countries, which was seen as being destabilizing to international relations, spurring regional arms races, and generally increasing the likelihood of some form of nuclear war. Eventually, seven nations would overtly develop nuclear weapons, and still maintain stockpiles today: the United States, the Soviet Union (and later Russia would inherit these), the United Kingdom, France, China, India, and Pakistan. South Africa developed six crude weapons in the 1980s (which it later dismantled), and Israel almost certainly developed nuclear weapons though it never confirmed nor denied it. The creation of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty in 1968 was an attempt to curtail such proliferation, but a number of countries developed nuclear weapons since it was signed (and many did not sign it), and a number of other countries, including Libya, Iran, and North Korea, were suspected of having clandestine nuclear weapons programs. The post-war world[edit] Following World War II, the majority of the industrialized world lay in ruins as a result of aerial bombings, naval bombardment, and protracted land campaigns. The United States was a notable exception to this; barring Pearl Harbor and some minor incidents, the U.S. had suffered no attacks upon its territory. The United States and the Soviet Union, which, despite the devastation of its most populated areas, rebuilt quickly, found themselves the world's two dominant superpowers. Much of Western Europe was rebuilt after the war with assistance from the Marshall Plan. Germany, chief instigator of the war, was placed under joint military occupation by the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Berlin, although in Soviet-controlled territory, was also divided among the four powers. Occupation of Berlin would continue until 1990. Japan was also placed under U.S. occupation, that would last five years, until 1949. Oddly, these two Axis powers, despite military occupation, soon rose to become the second (Japan) and third (West Germany) most powerful economies in the world. Following the end of the war, the Allies famously prosecuted numerous German officials for war crimes and other offenses in the Nuremberg Trials. Although Adolf Hitler had committed suicide, many of his cronies, including Hermann Göring, were convicted. Less well-known trials of other Axis officials also occurred, including the Tokyo War Crime Trial. The failure of the League of Nations to prevent World War II essentially discredited the organization, and it was dissolved. A new attempt at world peace was begun with the founding of the United Nations on October 24, 1945 in San Francisco. Today, nearly all countries are members, but despite its many successes, the organization's success at achieving its goal of world peace is dubious. The organization was never given enough power to overcome the conflicting interests and priorities of its member nations. The end of empires: decolonization[edit] Michael Somare, the first leader of an independent Papua New Guinea. Main articles: Decolonization and New Imperialism Almost all of the major nations that were involved in World War II began shedding their overseas colonies soon after the conflict. In Africa, nationalists such as Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana led their respective nations to independence from foreign rule. The tactics employed by the revolutionaries ranged from non-violent forms of protest to armed rebellions, depending on the nation involved. The United States granted independence to the Philippines, its major Pacific possession. European powers also began withdrawing from their possessions in Africa and Asia. France was forced out of both Indochina and, later, Algeria. Mutually assured destruction: the Cold War (1947–1991)[edit] Main article: Cold War This section should be added, and the following (War by proxy) merged into it. War by proxy[edit] Main articles: Korean War, Vietnam War, and Cuban Missile Crisis Two wars and a near-war in the 1950s became the foci for capitalist versus communist struggle. The first war was the Korean War, fought between People's Republic of China-backed North Korea and mainly United States-backed South Korea. North Korea's invasion of South Korea led to United Nations intervention. General Douglas MacArthur led troops from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and other countries in repulsing the Northern invasion. However, the war reached a stalemate after Chinese intervention pushed U.N. forces back, and an Armistice ended hostilities, leaving the two Koreas divided and tense for the rest of the century. The second war, the Vietnam War, was perhaps the second most visible war of the 20th century, after World War II. After the French withdrawal from its former colony, Vietnam became partitioned into two halves, much like Korea. Fighting between North and South eventually escalated into a regional war. The United States provided aid to South Vietnam, but was not directly involved until the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, passed in reaction to a supposed North Vietnamese attack upon American destroyers, brought the U.S. into the war as a belligerent. The war was initially viewed as a fight to contain communism (see containment, Truman Doctrine, and Domino Theory), but, as more Americans were drafted and news of events such as the Tet Offensive and My Lai massacre leaked out, American sentiment turned against the war. U.S. President Richard Nixon was elected partially on claims of a "secret plan" to stop the war. This Nixon Doctrine involved a gradual pullout of American forces; South Vietnamese units were supposed to replace them, backed up by American air power. Unfortunately, the plan went awry, and the war spilled into neighboring Cambodia while South Vietnamese forces were pushed further back. Eventually, the U.S. and North Vietnam signed the Paris Peace Accords, ending U.S. involvement in the war. With the threat of U.S. retaliation gone, the North proceeded to violate the ceasefire and invaded the South with full military force. Saigon was captured on April 30, 1975, and Vietnam was unified under Communist rule a year later, effectively bringing an end to one of the most unpopular wars of all time. The Cuban Missile Crisis illustrates just how close to the brink of nuclear war the world came during the Cold War. Cuba, under Fidel Castro's socialist government, had formed close ties with the Soviet Union. This was obviously disquieting to the United States, given Cuba's proximity. When Lockheed U-2 spy plane flights over the island revealed that Soviet missile launchers were being installed, U.S. President John F. Kennedy instituted a naval blockade and publicly confronted the Soviet Union. After a tense week, the Soviet Union backed down and ordered the launchers removed, not wanting to risk igniting a new world war. The space race[edit] In 1969, humans first set foot on the Moon. Main article: Space Race With Cold War tensions running high, the Soviet Union and United States took their rivalry to the stars in 1957 with the Soviet launch of Sputnik. A "space race" between the two powers followed. Although the USSR reached several important milestones, such as the first craft on the Moon (Luna 2) and the first human in space (Yuri Gagarin), the U.S. allegedly pulled ahead eventually with its Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs, which culminated in Apollo 11's manned landing on the moon. Five more manned landings followed (Apollo 13 was forced to abort its mission). Nevertheless, despite its successes U.S. space program could not match many major achievements of Soviet space program, such as unmanned rover-based space exploration and image and video transfer from surface of another planet, until early 21st century. In addition, both countries launched numerous probes into space, such as the Venera 7 and Voyager 2. In later decades, space became a somewhat friendlier place. Regular manned space flights were made possible with the American space shuttle, which was the first reusable spacecraft to be successfully used. Mir and Skylab enabled prolonged human habitation in space. In the 1990s, work on the International Space Station began, and by the end of the century, while still incomplete, it was in continual use by astronauts from the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, and Canada. The end of the Cold War[edit] In 1989, the Berlin Wall separating West and East Berlin fell. Main article: Cold War (1985-1991) By the 1980s, the Soviet Union was weakening. The Sino-Soviet split had removed the USSR's most powerful ally, the People's Republic of China. Its arms race with the U.S. was draining the country of funds, and further weakened by internal pressures, ethnic and political. Mikhail Gorbachev, its last leader, attempted to reform the country with glasnost and perestroika, but the formation of Solidarity, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the breaking-off of several Soviet republics, such as Lithuania, started a slippery slope of events that culminated in a coup to overthrow Gorbachev, organized by Communist Party hard-liners. Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia, organized mass opposition, and the coup failed. On December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union was officially disbanded into its constituent republics, thus putting a final line under the already exhausted Cold War. Information and communications technology[edit] Main articles: Computer, History of computing hardware, and Internet The creation of the transistor revolutionized the development of the computer. The first computers, room-sized electro-mechanical devices built to break cryptographical codes during World War II, quickly became at least 20 times smaller using transistors. Computers became reprogrammable rather than fixed-purpose devices. The invention of programming languages meant computer operators could concentrate on problem solving at a high-level, without having to think in terms of the individual instructions to the computer itself. The creation of operating systems also vastly improved programming productivity. Building on this, computer pioneers could now realize what they had envisioned. The graphical user interface, piloted by a computer mouse made it simple to harness the power of the computer. Storage for computer programs progressed from punched cards and paper tape to magnetic tape, floppy disks and hard disks. Core memory and bubble memory fell to random access memory. The invention of the word processor, spreadsheet and database greatly improved office productivity over the old paper, typewriter and filing cabinet methods. The economic advantage given to businesses led to economic efficiencies in computers themselves. Cost-effective CPUs led to thousands of industrial and home-brew computer designs, many of which became successful; a home-computer boom was led by the Apple II, the ZX80 and the Commodore PET. The first model of the IBM PC, the personal computer whose successors would fill the world. IBM, seeking to embrace the microcomputer revolution, devised its IBM Personal Computer (PC). Crucially, IBM developed the PC from third-party components that were available on the open market. The only impediment to another company duplicating the system's architecture was the proprietary BIOS software. Other companies, starting with Compaq, reverse engineered the BIOS and released PC compatible computers that soon became the dominant architecture. Microsoft, which produced an operating system for the PC, rode this wave of popularity to become the world's leading software company. The 1980s heralded the Information Age. The rise of computer applications and data processing made ethereal "information" as valuable as physical commodities. This brought about new concerns surrounding intellectual property issues. The U.S. Government made algorithms patentable, forming the basis of software patents. The controversy over these and proprietary software led Richard Stallman to create the Free Software Foundation and begin the GNU Project. Computers also became a usable platform for entertainment. Computer games were first developed by software programmers exercising their creativity on large systems at universities, but these efforts became commercially successful in arcade games such as Pong and Space Invaders. Once the home computer market was established, young programmers in their bedrooms became the core of a youthful games industry. In order to take advantage of advancing technology, games consoles were created. Like arcade systems, these machines had custom hardware designed to do game-oriented operations (such as sprites and parallax scrolling) in preference to general purpose computing tasks. Computer networks appeared in two main styles; the local area network, linking computers in an office or school to each other, and the wide area network, linking the local area networks together. Initially, computers depended on the telephone networks to link to each other, spawning the Bulletin Board sub-culture. However, a DARPA project to create bomb-proof computer networks led to the creation of the Internet, a network of networks. The core of this network was the robust TCP/IP network protocol. Thanks to efforts from Al Gore, the Internet grew beyond its military role when universities and commercial businesses were permitted to connect their networks to it. The main impetus for this was electronic mail, a far faster and convenient form of communication than conventional letter and memo distribution, and the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). However, the Internet remained largely unknown to the general public, who were used to Bulletin Boards and services like Compuserve and America Online. This changed when Tim Berners-Lee devised a simpler form of Vannevar Bush's hypertext, which he dubbed the World Wide Web. "The Web" suddenly changed the Internet into a printing press beyond the geographic boundaries of physical countries; it was termed "cyberspace". Anyone with a computer and an Internet connection could write pages in the simple HTML format and publish their thoughts to the world. The Web's immense success also fueled the commercial use of the Internet. Convenient home shopping had been an element of "visions of the future" since the development of the telephone, but now the race was on to provide convenient, interactive consumerism. Companies trading through web sites became known as "dot coms", due to the ".com" suffix of commercial Internet addresses. The world at the end of the century[edit] By the end of the century, more technological advances had been made than in all of preceding history. Communications and information technology, transportation technology, and medical advances had radically altered daily lives. Europe appeared to be at a sustainable peace for the first time in recorded history. The people of the Indian subcontinent, a sixth of the world population at the end of the century, had attained an indigenous independence for the first time in centuries. China, an ancient nation comprising a fifth of the world population, was finally open to the world in a new and powerful synthesis of west and east, creating a new state after the near-complete destruction of the old cultural order. With the end of colonialism and the Cold War, nearly a billion people in Africa were left with truly independent new nation states, some cut from whole cloth, standing up after centuries of foreign domination. The world was undergoing its second major period of globalization; the first, which started in the 18th century, having been terminated by World War I. Since the US was in a position of almost unchallenged domination, a major part of the process was Americanization. This led to anti-Western and anti-American feelings in parts of the world, especially the Middle East. The influence of China and India was also rising, as the world's largest populations, long marginalized by the West and by their own rulers, were rapidly integrating with the world economy. However, several problems faced the world. The gap between rich and poor nations continued to widen. Some said that this problem could not be fixed, that there was a set amount of wealth and it could only be shared by so many. Others said that the powerful nations with large economies were not doing enough to help improve the rapidly evolving economies of the Third World. However, developing countries faced many challenges, including the scale of the task to be surmounted, rapidly growing populations, and the need to protect the environment, and the cost that goes along with it. Terrorism, dictatorship, and the spread of nuclear weapons were other issues requiring attention. The world was still blighted by small-scale wars and other violent conflicts, fueled by competition over resources and by ethnic conflicts. Despots such as Kim Jong-il of North Korea continued to lead their nations toward the development of nuclear weapons. Disease threatened to destabilize many regions of the world. New viruses such as SARS and West Nile continued to spread. In poor nations, malaria and other diseases affected the majority of the population. Millions were infected with HIV, the virus which causes AIDS. The virus was becoming an epidemic in southern Africa. The geographic distribution of surface warming during the 21st century calculated by the HadCM3 climate model if a business as usual scenario is assumed for economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. In this figure, the globally averaged warming corresponds to 3.0 °C (5.4 °F). Perhaps most importantly, it was speculated that in the long term, environmental problems threatened the planet's liveability. The most serious problem was global warming, which was predicted to frequently flood coastal areas, due to human-caused emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide produced by the burning of fossil fuels. This prompted many nations to negotiate and sign the Kyoto treaty, which set mandatory limits on carbon dioxide emissions. The celebration of the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century was at New Year's 2000, January 1, 2000. Yet, historically speaking the century, according to calendar, ended at the end of 2000. John F. Kennedy JohnFK.png 35th President of the United States In office January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson Preceded by Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson United States Senator from Massachusetts In office January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960 Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge II Succeeded by Benjamin A. Smith II Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 11th district In office January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953 Preceded by James Michael Curley Succeeded by Tip O'Neill Personal details Born John Fitzgerald Kennedy May 29, 1917 Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S. Died November 22, 1963 (aged 46) Dallas, Texas, U.S. Resting place Arlington National Cemetery Arlington, Virginia Political party Democratic Spouse(s) Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Relations Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr. (father) Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald (mother) Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr. (brother) Rose Marie Kennedy (sister) Kathleen Agnes Kennedy (sister) Eunice Mary Kennedy (sister) Patricia Helen Kennedy (sister) Robert Francis Kennedy (brother) Jean Ann Kennedy (sister) Edward Moore Kennedy (brother) Children Arabella Kennedy Caroline Bouvier Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kenndy Patrick Bouvier Kennedy Alma mater Harvard College Profession Politician Religion Roman Catholicism Signature Cursive signature in ink Military service Allegiance United States of America Service/branch United States Navy Years of service 1941–1945 Rank US-O3 insignia.svg Lieutenant Unit Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 Battles/wars World War II Solomon Islands campaign Awards Navy and Marine Corps Medal ribbon.svg Navy and Marine Corps Medal Purple Heart BAR.svg Purple Heart American Defense Service ribbon.svg American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign ribbon.svg Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (3 bronze stars) World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal[1] John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his death in 1963. After military service as commander of Motor Torpedo Boats PT-109 and PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts' 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. At 43 years of age, he was the youngest to have been elected to the office,[2][a] the second-youngest president (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president.[3] A Catholic, Kennedy was the only non-Protestant president, and was the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize.[4] Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War. Therein, Kennedy increased the number of military advisers, special operation forces, and helicopters in an effort to curb the spread of communism in South East Asia.[5] The Kennedy administration adopted the policy of the Strategic Hamlet Program which was implemented by the South Vietnamese government. It involved certain forced relocation, village internment, and segregation of rural South Vietnamese from northern and southern communist insurgents.[6] Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald, arrested that evening, was accused of the crime but was shot and killed by Jack Ruby two days later, before a trial could take place. The FBI and the Warren Commission officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin. However, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that those investigations were flawed and that Kennedy was probably assassinated as the result of a conspiracy.[7] Kennedy's controversial Department of Defense TFX fighter bomber program led to a Congressional investigation that lasted from 1963 to 1970.[8] Since the 1960s, information concerning Kennedy's private life has come to light. Details of Kennedy's health problems with which he struggled have become better known, especially since the 1990s. Although initially kept secret from the general public, reports of Kennedy's philandering have garnered much press. Kennedy ranks highly in public opinion ratings of U.S. presidents The launch of Doctor Who was overshadowed by the assassination of John F. Kennedy the previous day. The serial received favourable reviews, and the four episodes attracted an average of 6 million viewers. However, it became overshadowed by the subsequent story, The Daleks. Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord—a time travelling, humanoid alien known as the Doctor. He explores the universe in his TARDIS (acronym: Time and Relative Dimension in Space), a sentient time-travelling space ship. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963, when the series first aired. Along with a succession of companions, the Doctor faces a variety of foes while working to save civilisations, help ordinary people, and right wrongs. The show has received recognition from critics and the public as one of the finest British television programmes, winning the 2006 British Academy Television Award for Best Drama Series and five consecutive (2005–10) awards at the National Television Awards during Russell T Davies's tenure as Executive Producer.[3][4] In 2011, Matt Smith became the first Doctor to be nominated for a BAFTA Television Award for Best Actor. In 2013, the Peabody Awards honoured Doctor Who with an Institutional Peabody "for evolving with technology and the times like nothing else in the known television universe."[5] The programme is listed in Guinness World Records as the longest-running science fiction television show in the world[6] and as the "most successful" science fiction series of all time—based on its over-all broadcast ratings, DVD and book sales, and iTunes traffic.[7] During its original run, it was recognised for its imaginative stories, creative low-budget special effects, and pioneering use of electronic music (originally produced by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop). The show is a significant part of British popular culture;[8][9] and elsewhere it has become a cult television favourite. The show has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series.[10] The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. After an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot in the form of a television film, the programme was relaunched in 2005 by Russell T Davies who was showrunner and head writer for the first five years of its revival, produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff. Series 1 in the 21st century, featuring Christopher Eccleston as the ninth incarnation, was produced by the BBC. Series 2 and 3 had some development money contributed by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), which was credited as a co-producer.[11] Doctor Who also spawned spin-offs in multiple media, including Torchwood (2006–11) and The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007-11) – both created by Russell T Davies, K-9 (2009–10), the four-part video series P.R.O.B.E. (1994–96), and a single pilot episode of K-9 and Company (1981). There also have been many spoofs and cultural references of the character in other media. Twelve actors have headlined the series as the Doctor. The transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show as regeneration, a life process of Time Lords through which the character of the Doctor takes on a new body and, to some extent, new personality, which occurs when sustaining injury which would be fatal to most other species. Although each portrayal is different, and on occasions the various incarnations have even met one another, they are all meant to be aspects of the same character. The Doctor is currently portrayed by Matt Smith, who took up the role after David Tennant's last appearance in an episode broadcast on 1 January 2010.[12] On 1 June 2013, it was announced that Matt Smith would leave the series and the eleventh Doctor would regenerate in the 2013 Christmas special.[13] On 4 August 2013, Peter Capaldi was announced as the twelfth incarnation of the Doctor. Genre Science fiction drama Created by Sydney Newman C. E. Webber Donald Wilson Directed by Various Starring Various Doctors (currently Matt Smith) Various companions (currently Jenna Coleman)[1] Theme music composer Ron Grainer Delia Derbyshire Opening theme Doctor Who theme music Composer(s) Various composers (currently Murray Gold) Country of origin United Kingdom No. of seasons 26 (1963–89) plus one TV film (1996) No. of series 7 (2005–present) No. of episodes 798 (106 missing) (List of episodes) Production Executive producer(s) Various (currently Steven Moffat and Brian Minchin[2]) Camera setup Single/Multi-Camera hybrid Running time 25 minutes (1963–84, 1986–89) 45 minutes (1985, 2005–present) Various other lengths Broadcast Original channel BBC BBC One (1963-1989, 1996, 2005-present) BBC One HD (2010–present) BBC HD (2007–10) BBC America (2010–present) Picture format 405-line Black-and-white (1963–67) 625-line Black-and-white (1968–69) 625-line PAL (1970–89) 525-line NTSC (1996) 576i 16:9 DTV (2005–08) 1080i HDTV (2009–present) Audio format Monaural (1963–87) Stereo (1988–89; 1996; 2005–08) 5.1 Surround Sound (2009–present) Original run Classic series: 23 November 1963 – 6 December 1989 Television film: 12 May 1996 Revived series: 26 March 2005 – present Chronology Related shows K-9 and Company (1981) Torchwood (2006–11) The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007–11) K-9 (2009–10) Doctor Who Confidential (2005–11) Totally Doctor Who (2006–07) Sarah Jane's Alien Files (2010) [hide] v t e Doctor Who Pages Characters The Doctor Companion Time Lord Dalek Cyberman The Master Sontarans Concepts TARDIS Regeneration Sonic screwdriver Time War Whoniverse Torchwood Institute UNIT Miscellany History Story arcs Missing episodes Theme music Doctor Who in Canada and the U.S. Doctor Who in Australia Fandom Merchandise Lists Production Serials (unmade) Awards and nominations DVD and Blu-ray releases Doctors Cast Guest appearances Producers Script editors Writers Directors Music Composers Soundtrack releases Narrative devices Supporting characters Historical characters UNIT personnel Creatures and aliens Villains Henchmen Robots Planets Items Vehicles Miscellany Chronology Doctor Who exhibitions Spin-offs and related shows Spin-offs K-9 and Company Tardisodes Torchwood The Sarah Jane Adventures K-9 Documentary Whose Doctor Who Thirty Years in the TARDIS Dalekmania Doctor Who Confidential Totally Doctor Who Torchwood Declassified Doctor Who: The Commentaries An Adventure in Space and Time Concerts and stage shows The Curse of the Daleks Doctor Who and the Daleks in the Seven Keys to Doomsday Doctor Who – The Ultimate Adventure Doctor Who: A Celebration Doctor Who Prom 2008 2010 2013 Doctor Who Live Key production staff Showrunners Sydney Newman Philip Segal Russell T Davies Steven Moffat Producers Verity Lambert John Wiles Innes Lloyd Peter Bryant Derrick Sherwin Barry Letts Philip Hinchcliffe Graham Williams John Nathan-Turner Phil Collinson Script editors David Whitaker Dennis Spooner Donald Tosh Gerry Davis Terrance Dicks Robert Holmes Anthony Read Douglas Adams Christopher H. Bidmead Antony Root Eric Saward Andrew Cartmel Notable others Terry Nation Delia Derbyshire Ray Cusick Kit Pedler Douglas Camfield Malcolm Hulke Dudley Simpson Murray Gold Euros Lyn Adaptations and tie-ins Film Dr. Who and the Daleks Daleks – Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D. Novels Novelisations Original books Bernice Summerfield Time Hunter Audio Audiobooks Audio plays Audio releases Cyberman Dalek Empire Gallifrey I, Davros Jago & Litefoot Kaldor City Sarah Jane Smith UNIT The Lost Stories Destiny of the Doctor Video Wartime P.R.O.B.E. Shakedown: Return of the Sontarans Downtime Auton trilogy Dæmos Rising Dead and Buried Miscellany Doctor Who spin-offs Stage plays Video games Spoofs Spin-off companions Faction Paradox Iris Wildthyme Death's Head Star Trek: The Next Generation/Doctor Who: Assimilation2 Related publications Doctor Who Magazine Doctor Who Adventures Doctor Who – Battles in Time Doctor Who DVD Files Related Big Finish Productions Reeltime Pictures BBV Mad Norwegian Press Magic Bullet Productions Obverse Books Portal Portal Category Category Wikipedia book Book WikiProject WikiProject [hide] v t e Media in Cardiff Television and film production Aspect Television BBC Wales ITV Wales S4C Broadcasting House Cardiff BBC Roath Lock BAFTA Cymru Cube Interactive Hartswood Films Calon Cardiff Film Festival Media Wales, Six Park Street, Cardiff 001.jpg Television series Drama Doctor Who Torchwood The Sarah Jane Adventures Caerdydd Being Human Crash Merlin Sherlock Upstairs Downstairs Casualty Pobol y Cwm Comedy Gavin & Stacey Factual Hospital 24/7 Newyddion ITV News Wales CF99 Reality The Valleys Children's The Story of Tracy Beaker Superted Film Panic Button Flick Killer Elite Human Traffic Patagonia Skellig The Contractor Tiger Bay Press Western Mail South Wales Echo Echo Extra Y Dinesydd gair rhydd Buzz Metro Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies Media Wales Radio BBC Radio Wales BBC Radio Cymru Capital FM South Wales Nation Radio Gold Real Radio Xpress Radio Radio Cardiff Online WalesOnline CardiffOnline Pizzaman Category Category [hide] v t e Television series by Russell T Davies Dark Season (1991) Century Falls (1993) Revelations (1994–96) Springhill (1996–97) Coronation Street: Viva Las Vegas! (1997) The Grand (1997–98) Queer as Folk (1999–2000) Bob & Rose (2001) The Second Coming (2003) Mine All Mine (2004) Casanova (2005) Doctor Who (2005–10) Torchwood (2006–11) The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007–11) Wizards vs Aliens (2012–) See also Damaged Goods (Virgin New Adventures novel) All production credits Screenplays by Russell T Davies [hide] v t e Steven Moffat Series written and produced Press Gang (1989–1993) Joking Apart (1993–1995) Chalk (1997) Coupling (2000–2004) Jekyll (2007) Sherlock (2010–present) Doctor Who (2010–present, written only: 2005–2010) Written Feature films The Adventures of Tintin (2011) Doctor Who episodes The Curse of Fatal Death (1999) "The Empty Child" / "The Doctor Dances" (2005) "The Girl in the Fireplace" (2006) "Blink" (2007) "Time Crash" (2007) "Silence in the Library" / "Forest of the Dead" (2008) "The Eleventh Hour" (2010) "The Beast Below" (2010) "The Time of Angels / "Flesh and Stone" (2010) "The Pandorica Opens" / "The Big Bang" (2010) "A Christmas Carol" (2010) "Space" / "Time" (2011) "The Impossible Astronaut" / "Day of the Moon" (2011) "A Good Man Goes to War" (2011) "Let's Kill Hitler" (2011) "The Wedding of River Song" (2011) "The Doctor, the Widow and the Wardrobe" (2011) "Asylum of the Daleks" (2012) "The Angels Take Manhattan" (2012) "The Snowmen" (2012) "The Bells of Saint John" (2013) "The Name of the Doctor" (2013) 50th anniversary special (2013) Sherlock episodes "A Study in Pink" (2010) "A Scandal in Belgravia" (2012) [hide] Awards for Doctor Who [hide] v t e BAFTA TV Award for Best Drama Series Inspector Morse (1992) Inspector Morse (1993) Between the Lines (1994) Cracker (1995) Cracker (1996) EastEnders (1997) Jonathan Creek (1998) The Cops (1999) The Cops (2000) Clocking Off (2001) Cold Feet (2002) Spooks (2003) Buried (2004) Shameless (2005) Doctor Who (2006) The Street (2007) The Street (2008) Wallander (2009) Misfits (2010) Sherlock (2011) The Fades (2012) Last Tango in Halifax (2013) [hide] v t e Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form (2003–present) "Conversations with Dead People" (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) (2003) Gollum's Acceptance Speech at the 2003 MTV Movie Awards (2004) "33" (Battlestar Galactica) (2005) "The Empty Child" / "The Doctor Dances" (Doctor Who) (2006) "The Girl in the Fireplace" (Doctor Who) (2007) "Blink" (Doctor Who) (2008) Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog (2009) "The Waters of Mars" (Doctor Who) (2010) "The Pandorica Opens" / "The Big Bang" (Doctor Who) (2011) "The Doctor's Wife" (Doctor Who) (2012) "Blackwater" (Game of Thrones) (2013) Complete list (1958–1980) (1981–2002) (Long form: 2003–present) (Short form: 2003–present) [hide] v t e Nebula Award for Best Script/Bradbury Award (2001–present) Nebula Award for Best Script Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon – James Schamus, Kuo Jung Tsai and Hui-Ling Wang (2001) The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens & Peter Jackson (2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, Stephen Sinclair & Peter Jackson (2003) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens & Peter Jackson (2004) Serenity – Joss Whedon (2005) Howl's Moving Castle – Hayao Miyazaki, Cindy Davis Hewitt and Donald H. Hewitt (2006) Pan's Labyrinth – Guillermo del Toro (2007) WALL-E – Andrew Stanton, Jim Reardon and Pete Docter (2008) Ray Bradbury Award for Outstanding Dramatic Presentation 2000X — Tales of the Next Millennia – Yuri Rasovsky and Harlan Ellison (2001) Joss Whedon (2008) District 9 – Neill Blomkamp and Terri Tatchell (2009) Inception – Christopher Nolan (2010) Doctor Who: "The Doctor's Wife" – Neil Gaiman & Richard Clark (2011) Complete list (1973–2000) (2001–present) [hide] v t e Saturn Award for Best Television Presentation Alien Nation: Millennium (1994) Alien Nation: Dark Horizon (1995) Doctor Who: Doctor Who (1996) The Shining (1997) Storm of the Century (1999) Fail Safe (2000) Jack and the Beanstalk: The Real Story (2001) Steven Spielberg Presents Taken (2002) Battlestar Galactica (2003) Farscape: The Peacekeeper Wars (2004) Masters of Horror/The Triangle (2005) The Librarian: Return to King Solomon's Mines (2006) Family Guy: Blue Harvest (2007) The Librarian: Curse of the Judas Chalice (2008) Torchwood: Children of Earth (2009) The Walking Dead (2010) The Walking Dead (2011) Breaking Bad (2012) Time Persons of the Year [hide] 1927–1950 Charles Lindbergh (1927) Walter Chrysler (1928) Owen D. Young (1929) Mahatma Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval (1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) Hugh Samuel Johnson (1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934) Haile Selassie I (1935) Wallis Simpson (1936) Chiang Kai-shek / Soong May-ling (1937) Adolf Hitler (1938) Joseph Stalin (1939) Winston Churchill (1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941) Joseph Stalin (1942) George Marshall (1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944) Harry S. Truman (1945) James F. Byrnes (1946) George Marshall (1947) Harry S. Truman (1948) Winston Churchill (1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950) [hide] 1951–1975 Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II (1952) Konrad Adenauer (1953) John Foster Dulles (1954) Harlow Curtice (1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev (1957) Charles de Gaulle (1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy (1961) Pope John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) William Westmoreland (1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt (1970) Richard Nixon (1971) Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972) John Sirica (1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975) [hide] 1976–2000 Jimmy Carter (1976) Anwar Sadat (1977) Deng Xiaoping (1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan (1980) Lech Wałęsa (1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) Peter Ueberroth (1984) Deng Xiaoping (1985) Corazon Aquino (1986) Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) George H. W. Bush (1990) Ted Turner (1991) Bill Clinton (1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993) Pope John Paul II (1994) Newt Gingrich (1995) David Ho (1996) Andrew Grove (1997) Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush (2000) [hide] 2001–present Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush (2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin (2007) Barack Obama (2008) Ben Bernanke (2009) Mark Zuckerberg (2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama (2012) Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926[note 1]) is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states (known as the Commonwealth realms) and their territories and dependencies, as well as head of the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations. She is Supreme Governor of the Church of England and, in some of her realms, carries the title of Defender of the Faith as part of her full title. On her accession on 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth became Head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. From 1956 to 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and some realms became republics. At present, in addition to the first four aforementioned countries, Elizabeth is Queen of Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Her reign of 60 years is currently the second longest for a British monarch; only Queen Victoria has reigned longer at 63 years. Elizabeth was born in London and educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne as George VI in 1936 on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, in which she served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, with whom she has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward. Her coronation service took place in 1953 and was the first to be televised. The Queen's many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and reciprocal visits to and from the Pope. The Queen has seen major constitutional changes in her realms, such as devolution in the United Kingdom and the patriation of the Canadian constitution. Times of personal significance have included the births and marriages of her children, the births of her grandchildren, the investiture of the Prince of Wales, and the celebration of milestones such as her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012, respectively. Major events in the Queen's reign have included the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Falklands War, wars with Iraq and the War in Afghanistan. There have been times of personal sorrow for her which include the death of her father at 56, the assassination of Prince Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten, the breakdown of her children's marriages in 1992 (a year deemed her annus horribilis), the death in 1997 of her daughter-in-law, Diana, Princess of Wales, and the deaths of her mother and sister in 2002. The Queen has occasionally faced severe press criticism of the royal family and republican sentiments, but her personal popularity and support for the monarchy remains high. Queen of the Commonwealth realms List[show] Reign 6 February 1952 – present Coronation 2 June 1953 Predecessor George VI Heir apparent Charles, Prince of Wales Prime Ministers See list Spouse Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (m. 1947) Detail Issue Charles, Prince of Wales Anne, Princess Royal Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Full name Elizabeth Alexandra Mary House House of Windsor Father George VI Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Born 21 April 1926 (age 86) Mayfair, London, England, United Kingdom Religion Church of England Church of Scotland Queen Elizabeth II navigational boxes [hide] v t e Queen Elizabeth II Monarchies Queen of Antigua and Barbuda Queen of Australia Queen of the Bahamas Queen of Barbados Queen of Belize Queen of Canada Queen of Grenada Queen of Jamaica Queen of New Zealand (Cook Islands) Queen of Papua New Guinea Queen of Saint Kitts and Nevis Queen of Saint Lucia Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Queen of the Solomon Islands Queen of Tuvalu Queen of the United Kingdom Prime Ministers Titles and honours List of titles and honours Head of the Commonwealth List of things named for Queen Elizabeth II Overseas visits State visits Commonwealth visits Public celebrations Wedding to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Coronation Silver Jubilee Golden Jubilee Diamond Jubilee Queen's Official Birthday Heads of state of the European Union member states Fischer (AT) Albert II (BE) Plevneliev (BG) Christofias (CY) Klaus (CZ) Margrethe II (DK) Ilves (EE) Niinistö (FI) Hollande (FR) Gauck (DE) Papoulias (GR) Áder (HU) Higgins (IE) Napolitano (IT) Bērziņš (LV) Grybauskaitė (LT) Henri (LU) Abela (MT) Beatrix (NL) Komorowski (PL) Cavaco Silva (PT) Băsescu (RO) Gašparovič (SK) Türk (SI) Juan Carlos I (ES) Carl XVI Gustaf (SE) Elizabeth II (UK) Acting heads of state shown in italics. [hide] v t e Current heads of state in Central American countries Elizabeth II (Belize) Laura Chinchilla (Costa Rica) Mauricio Funes (El Salvador) Otto Pérez Molina (Guatemala) Porfirio Lobo (Honduras) Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua) Ricardo Martinelli (Panama) [hide] v t e British princesses The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British Royal Family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used. 1st generation Queen Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia 2nd generation Princess Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange Princess Amelia Princess Caroline Princess Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel Queen Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway 3rd generation Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick Princess Elizabeth Princess Louisa Queen Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway 4th generation Princess Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Princess Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Sophia of Gloucester Princess Sophia Princess Amelia Princess Caroline of Gloucester Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester 5th generation Princess Charlotte Augusta, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Charlotte of Clarence Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Queen Victoria Princess Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck 6th generation Princess Victoria, Princess Royal and German Empress Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Princess Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg Princess Frederica, Baroness Alfons von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie of Hanover 7th generation Princess Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife Princess Victoria Queen Maud, Queen of Norway Queen Marie, Queen of Romania Princess Victoria Melita, Grand Duchess of Hesse Princess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera Princess Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden Princess Patricia of Connaught Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone Princess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Princess Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga of Hanover 8th generation Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Queen Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes 9th generation Queen Elizabeth II Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy 10th generation Princess Anne, Princess Royal 11th generation Princess Beatrice of York Princess Eugenie of York Lady Louise Windsor [hide] v t e Charles, Prince of Wales Titles Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay Earl of Carrick Baron of Renfrew Lord of the Isles Prince and Great Steward of Scotland more Family Diana, Princess of Wales (first wife) Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (elder son) Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (daughter-in-law) Prince Harry of Wales (younger son) Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (second wife) Elizabeth II (mother) Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (father) Anne, Princess Royal (sister) Prince Andrew, Duke of York (brother) Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex (brother) Events Investiture of the Prince of Wales First wedding (guest list) Divorce Second wedding Charities The Prince's Charities/The Prince's Charities Canada Mutton Renaissance Campaign Miscellaneous Duchy Originals from Waitrose Poundbury [hide] v t e Time Persons of the Year Mohammad Mosaddegh (1951) Elizabeth II (1952) Konrad Adenauer (1953) John Foster Dulles (1954) Harlow Curtice (1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighter (1956) Nikita Khrushchev (1957) Charles de Gaulle (1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) U.S. Scientists (1960) George Beadle Charles Draper John Enders Donald A. Glaser Joshua Lederberg Willard Libby Linus Pauling Edward Purcell Isidor Rabi Emilio Segrè William Shockley Edward Teller Charles Townes James Van Allen Robert Woodward John F. Kennedy (1961) Pope John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) William Westmoreland (1965) Baby boomers (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) The Apollo 8 Astronauts (1968) William Anders Frank Borman Jim Lovell The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt (1970) Richard Nixon (1971) Henry Kissinger Richard Nixon (1972) John Sirica (1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women (1975) Susan Brownmiller Kathleen Byerly Alison Cheek Jill Conway Betty Ford Ella Grasso Carla Hills Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Carol Sutton Susie Sharp Addie L. Wyatt The British Royal Family HM The Queen Philip HRH The Duke of Edinburgh Charles HRH The Prince of Wales Camilla HRH The Duchess of Cornwall Princess Dianna William HRH The Duke of Cambridge Kathryn HRH The Duchess of Cambridge HRH Prince Harry of Wales Andrew HRH The Duke of York HRH Princess Beatrice of York HRH Princess Eugenie of York Edward HRH The Earl of Wessex Anne HRH The Princess Royal British Monarchs he Normans (1066 - 1154) King William I, the Conqueror 1066 - 1087 King Henry I 1100 - 1135 King Stephen 1135 - 1154 Empress Matilda 1141 Plantagenets (1154 - 1399) King Henry II 1154 - 1189 King Richard I the Lionheart 1189 - 1199 King John 1 1199 - 1216 King Henry III 1216 - 1272 King Edward I 1272 - 1307 King Edward II 1307 - 1327 King Edward III 1327 - 1377 Richard II 1377 - 1399 The House of Lancaster (1399 - 1461) Henry IV 1399 - 1413 Henry V 1413 - 1422 Henry VI 1422 - 1461, 1470 - 1471 The House of York (1461 - 1485) King Edward IV 1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483 King Edward V 1483 - 1483 King Richard III 1483 - 1485 The Tudors (1485 -1603) King Henry VII 1485 - 1509 King Henry VIII 1509 - 1547 King Edward VI 1547 - 1553 Jane Grey 1554 Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 - 1558 Queen Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603 The Stuarts (1603 - 1649) (1660 - 1714) James I 1603 - 1625 Charles I 1625 - 1649 Charles II 1660 - 1685 James II 1685 - 1688 William III 1688 - 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 - 1694 Queen Anne 1702 - 1714 The House of Hanoverians (1714 -1901) King George I 1714 - 1727 King George II 1727 - 1760 King George III 1760 - 1820 King George IV 1820 - 1830 King William IV 1830 - 1837 Queen Victoria 1837 - 1901 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors (1901 -1910) (1910 - Today) King Edward VII 1901 - 1910 King George V 1910 - 1936 King Edward VIII June 1936 King George VI 1936 - 1952 Queen Elizabeth II 1952 - present day The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II was the ceremony in which the newly ascended monarch, Elizabeth II, was crowned Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Ceylon, and Pakistan, as well as taking on the role of Head of the Commonwealth. Elizabeth, then aged 26, ascended the thrones of these countries upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was proclaimed queen by her various privy and executive councils shortly afterwards. The coronation was held more than a year after the accession, on 2 June 1953. This followed the tradition that a festival such as a coronation was inappropriate during the period of mourning that followed the death of the preceding sovereign. In the coronation ceremony itself, Elizabeth swore an oath to uphold the laws of her nations and to govern the Church of England. Celebrations took place and a commemorative medal was issued throughout the Commonwealth realms. articipants Queen Elizabeth II Great Officers of State Archbishops and Bishops Assistant of the Church of England Garter Principal King of Arms Peers of the Realm Mistress of the Robes Location London, England Date June 2, 1953 A moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon. This includes both manned and unmanned (robotic) missions. The first human-made object to reach the surface of the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 2 mission on 13 September 1959.[3] The United States's Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon on 20 July 1969.[4] There have been six manned landings (between 1969 and 1972) and numerous unmanned landings. Apollo 11 was the spaceflight which landed the first humans, Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr, on Earth's Moon on July 20, 1969, at 20:17:39 UTC. The United States mission is considered the major accomplishment in the history of space exploration. Launched from the Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 in Merritt Island, Florida on July 16, Apollo 11 was the fifth manned mission, and the third lunar mission, of NASA's Apollo program. The crew consisted of Armstrong as Commander and Aldrin as Lunar Module Pilot, with Command Module Pilot Michael Collins. Armstrong and Aldrin landed in the Sea of Tranquillity and became the first humans to walk on the Moon on July 21. Their Lunar Module, Eagle, spent 21 hours 31 minutes on the lunar surface, while Collins remained in orbit in the Command/Service Module, Columbia.[2] The three astronauts returned to Earth on July 24, landing in the Pacific Ocean. They brought back 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar rocks. Apollo 11 fulfilled U.S. President John F. Kennedy's goal of reaching the Moon before the Soviet Union by the end of the 1960s, which he had expressed during a 1961 mission statement before the United States Congress: "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."[3] Six additional Apollo missions flew to the Moon and five landed between 1969 and 1972. Mission name Apollo 11 Spacecraft name CSM: Columbia LM: Eagle Command Module CM-107 mass 12,250 lb (5,560 kg) Service Module SM-107 mass 51,243 lb (23,243 kg) Lunar Module LM-5 mass 33,278 lb (15,095 kg) Spacecraft mass 96,771 lb (43,895 kg) Crew size 3 Call sign CSM: Columbia LM: Eagle in-flight; Tranquillity Base on lunar surface Launch vehicle Saturn V SA-506 Launch pad LC 39A Kennedy Space Center Florida, United States Launch date July 16, 1969 13:32:00 UTC Lunar landing July 20, 1969 20:17:40 UTC Sea of Tranquillity 0°40′26.69″N 23°28′22.69″E (based on the IAU Mean Earth Polar Axis coordinate system) Lunar EVA duration 2 h 36 m 40 s Lunar surface time 21 h 31 m 20 s Lunar sample mass 21.55 kg (47.5 lb) Number of lunar orbits 30 Total CSM time in lunar orbit 59 h 30 m 25.79 s Landing July 24, 1969 16:50:35 UTC North Pacific Ocean 13°19′N 169°9′W Mission duration 8 d 03 h 18 m 35 s New York is the most populous city in the United States[9] and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world.[10][11][12] New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the United Nations Headquarters,[13] New York is an important center for international affairs and is widely deemed the cultural capital of the world.[14][15][16][17][18] The city is also referred to as New York City or the City of New York[19] to distinguish it from the state of New York, of which it is a part.[20] Located on one of the world's largest natural harbors,[21] New York City consists of five boroughs which were consolidated in 1898:[22] The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island.[23] With a 2010 United States Census population of 8,175,133[7] distributed over a land area of just 305 square miles (790 km2),[24][25][26] New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States.[27] As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.[28] The New York City Metropolitan Area's population is the United States' largest, estimated at 18.9 million people distributed over 6,720 square miles (17,400 km2),[8][29] and is also part of the most populous combined statistical area in the United States, containing 22.2 million people as of 2009 Census estimates.[30] New York has the largest internet presence of any location in the world; registering 7.1 billion search results as of December 2011.[31] New York traces its roots to its 1624 founding as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic, and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.[32] The city and its surrounds came under English control in 1664[33][34] and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.[35][36] New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790.[37] It has been the country's largest city since 1790.[38] The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries[39] and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy.[40] Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 50 million annual visitors.[41][42][43] Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World",[44][45][46][47][48] is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theater district,[49] one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections,[50] and a major center of the world's entertainment industry.[51] The city hosts many world renowned bridges, skyscrapers,[52] and parks. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, functions as the financial capital of the world[53][54][55][56][57][58][59] and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies.[60] Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world.[61] Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.[62][63][64][65] Unlike most global rapid transit systems, the New York City Subway provides 24/7 service.[66] Numerous colleges and universities are located in New York,[67] including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which are ranked among the top 50 in the world Coordinates: 40°43′N 74°00′WCoordinates: 40°43′N 74°00′W Country United States State New York Counties Bronx Kings New York Queens Richmond Settled 1624 Government • Type Mayor-Council • Body New York City Council • Mayor Michael Bloomberg (I)[6] Area • City 468.9 sq mi (1,214.4 km2) • Land 304.8 sq mi (789.4 km2) • Water 165.6 sq mi (428.8 km2) • Urban 3,352.6 sq mi (8,683.2 km2) • Metro 6,720 sq mi (17,405 km2) Elevation 33 ft (10 m) Population (April 1, 2010 United States Census)[7][8] • City 8,175,133 • Density 27,532/sq mi (10,630/km2) • Urban 18,223,567 • Urban density 5,435.7/sq mi (2,098.7/km2) • Metro 18,897,109 • Metro density 2,812.1/sq mi (1,085.7/km2) Demonym New Yorker Time zone EST (UTC-5) • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4) ZIP codes 100xx-104xx, 11004-05, 111xx-114xx, 116xx Area code(s) 212, 718, 917, 646, 347, 929 FIPS code 36-51000 New York City The Five Boroughs: The Bronx · Brooklyn · Manhattan · Queens · Staten Island History · Neighborhoods · Architecture · Skyscrapers · Tourism · Attractions · Culture · Books · Arts · Parks · Cuisine · Dialect · People · Music · Sports · Media · Economy · Companies · Education · Schools · Government · Mayor · Central Park · Council · Fire · Police · Landmarks · Crime · Elections · Geography · Harbor · Gardens · Flag · Environment · Demographics · Enclaves · Transportation · Hospitals · Lists · Images · Portal New York metropolitan area · New York State · United States [hide] v d e Greater Long Island General topics Long Island • Long Islanders Geography • History • Economy • Transportation • Politics • Policing • Music • Popular culture • Recreation Places Municipalities • North Shore • South Shore • North Fork • South Fork • Long Island Sound • Barrier islands • Fire Island Counties Kings (Brooklyn) • Queens • Nassau • Suffolk Cities New York City (part) • Glen Cove • Long Beach Towns (Nassau:) Hempstead • North Hempstead • Oyster Bay (Suffolk:) Babylon • Brookhaven • East Hampton • Huntington • Islip • Riverhead • Shelter Island • Smithtown • Southampton • Southold Villages & hamlets with more than 10,000 inhabitants Babylon • Baldwin • Bethpage • East Rockaway • Floral Park • Freeport • Garden City • Hempstead Village • Hicksville • Huntington • Islip • Kings Park • Lake Grove • Levittown • Lindenhurst • Lynbrook • Massapequa • Massapequa Park • Merrick • Mineola • Oceanside • Riverhead • Rockville Centre • Patchogue • Smithtown • Uniondale • Valley Stream • Wantagh • Westbury • West Islip Villages & hamlets with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants Amityville • Asharoken • Atlantic Beach • Baxter Estates • Bayville • Belle Terre • Bellerose • Bellerose Terrace • Bellport • Brightwaters • Brookville • Cedarhurst • Centre Island • Cove Neck • Dering Harbor • East Hampton • East Hills • East Williston • Farmingdale • Flower Hill • Great Neck • Great Neck Estates • Great Neck Plaza • Greenport • Head of the Harbor • Hewlett Bay Park • Hewlett Harbor • Hewlett Neck • Huntington Bay • Island Park • Islandia • Kensington • Kings Point • Lake Success • Lattingtown • Laurel Hollow • Lawrence • Lloyd Harbor • Malverne • Manorhaven • Matinecock • Mill Neck • Munsey Park • Muttontown • New Hyde Park • Nissequogue • North Haven • North Hills • Northport • Ocean Beach • Old Brookville • Old Field • Old Westbury • Oyster Bay Cove • Plandome • Plandome Heights • Plandome Manor • Poquott • Port Jefferson • Port Washington North • Quogue • Roslyn • Roslyn Estates • Roslyn Harbor • Russell Gardens • Saddle Rock • Sag Harbor • Sagaponack • Sands Point • Saltaire • Sea Cliff • Shoreham • South Floral Park • Southampton • Stewart • Thomaston • Upper Brookville • Village of the Branch • West Hampton Dunes • Westhampton Beach • Williston Park [hide] v d e New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area Counties Bergen • Bronx • Dutchess • Essex • Fairfield • Hudson • Hunterdon • Kings • Litchfield • Mercer • Middlesex • Monmouth • Morris • Nassau • New Haven • New York • Ocean • Orange • Passaic • Pike • Putnam • Queens • Richmond • Rockland • Somerset • Suffolk • Sussex • Ulster • Union • Westchester Major city New York City Cities and towns 100k–999k Bridgeport • Elizabeth • Huntington • Jersey City • New Haven • Newark • Paterson • Stamford • Waterbury • Yonkers Cities and towns 25k–99k Bayonne • Branford • Cheshire • Clifton • Danbury • East Haven • East Orange • Englewood • Fairfield • Garfield • Greenwich • Hackensack • Hamden • Hoboken • Howell, New Jersey Kearny • Long Beach • Long Branch • Meriden • Middletown • Milford • Mount Vernon • Naugatuck • New Brunswick • New Milford • New Rochelle • Newburgh • Newtown • Norwalk • Passaic • Perth Amboy • Plainfield • Poughkeepsie • Rahway • Shelton • Stratford • Torrington • Trenton • Trumbull • Union City • Wallingford • West Haven • Westfield • Westport • White Plains Cities and towns 10k–25k Ansonia • Asbury Park • Beacon • Bethel • Brookfield • Darien • Derby • Dover • Guildford • Guttenberg • Harrison (NJ) • Harrison (NY) • Kingston • Linden • Madison • Monroe • Morristown • New Canaan • New Fairfield • North Branford • North Haven • Orange • Plymouth • Peekskill • Ridgefield • Rye • Scarsdale • Secaucus • Seymour • Southbury • Summit • Watertown • West New York • Weston • Wilton • Winchester • Wolcott Sub-regions Central Jersey • Greater Danbury • Greater New Haven • Greater Waterbury • Hudson Valley • Litchfield Hills • Long Island • North Jersey • Southwestern Connecticut [hide] v d e State of New York Albany (capital)* The Empire State Topics Administrative divisions Bibliography Congressional districts Constitution Demographics Economy Education Elections Geography Government Governor Legislature Court System History Symbols People Politics Transportation Visitor Attractions Regions Adirondack Mountains Allegheny Plateau Capital District Catskill Mountains Central Region (formerly Central-Leatherstocking) Central New York Champlain Valley City of New York Finger Lakes Holland Purchase Hudson Highlands Hudson Valley Long Island Mohawk Valley New York Metro Niagara Frontier North Country Ridge and Valley Saint Lawrence Seaway Shawangunks Ski country Southern Tier Southtowns Tech Valley Thousand Islands Upstate Western Metro areas Albany / Schenectady / Troy Binghamton Buffalo / Niagara Falls Elmira / Corning Glens Falls Ithaca Jamestown Newburgh / Middletown New York City Poughkeepsie Rochester Syracuse Utica / Rome Counties Albany Allegany Bronx Broome Cattaraugus Cayuga Chautauqua Chemung Chenango Clinton Columbia Cortland Delaware Dutchess Erie Essex Franklin Fulton Genesee Greene Hamilton Herkimer Jefferson Kings Lewis Livingston Madison Monroe Montgomery Nassau New York Niagara Oneida Onondaga Ontario Orange Orleans Oswego Otsego Putnam Queens Rensselaer Richmond Rockland Saint Lawrence Saratoga Schenectady Schoharie Schuyler Seneca Steuben Suffolk Sullivan Tioga Tompkins Ulster Warren Washington Wayne Westchester Wyoming Yates [hide] v d e Summer Paralympic Games host cities 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto 1980: Arnhem 1984: Stoke Mandeville/New York 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro [hide] Other articles related to New York City's population and geography [hide] Geographic locale Bergen County, NJ Westchester County Yonkers Long Island Sound Hudson County, NJ Jersey City Nassau County New York City Middlesex County, NJ Monmouth County, NJ Atlantic Ocean Lat. and Long. 40°43′N 74°0′W [hide] v d e 50 most populous cities of the United States New York Los Angeles Chicago Houston Philadelphia Phoenix San Antonio San Diego Dallas San Jose Jacksonville Indianapolis San Francisco Austin Columbus Fort Worth Charlotte Detroit El Paso Memphis Baltimore Boston Seattle Washington Nashville Denver Louisville Milwaukee Portland Las Vegas Oklahoma City Albuquerque Tucson Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Kansas City Mesa Virginia Beach Atlanta Colorado Springs Omaha Raleigh Miami Cleveland Tulsa Oakland Minneapolis Wichita Arlington (2010 United States Census Bureau) [hide] v d e 50 largest metropolitan statistical areas in the United States by population New York Los Angeles Chicago Dallas–Fort Worth Philadelphia Houston Washington Miami Atlanta Boston San Francisco–Oakland Detroit Riverside–San Bernardino Phoenix Seattle Minneapolis–St. Paul San Diego St. Louis Tampa–St. Petersburg Baltimore Denver Pittsburgh Portland Sacramento San Antonio Orlando Cincinnati Cleveland Kansas City Las Vegas San Jose Columbus, Ohio Charlotte Indianapolis Austin Virginia Beach–Norfolk Providence Nashville Milwaukee Jacksonville Memphis Louisville Richmond Oklahoma City Hartford New Orleans Buffalo Raleigh Birmingham Salt Lake City [hide] v d e World's fifty most-populous urban areas Tokyo –Yokohama Delhi Seoul –Incheon Jakarta Manila Mumbai New York São Paulo Mexico City Shanghai Cairo Osaka –Kobe –Kyoto Kolkata Shenzhen Los Angeles Beijing Moscow Karachi Istanbul Buenos Aires Dongguan Rio de Janeiro Guangzhou –Foshan Dhaka Lagos Paris Nagoya Chicago Kinshasa Lima Bogotá London Taipei Ho Chi Minh City Chennai Johannesburg –East Rand Bangalore Lahore Tehran Ruhr Area (Essen–Düsseldorf) Bangkok Hong Kong Hyderabad Tianjin Chonqing Bandung Baghdad Santiago Kuala Lumpur Toronto –Hamilton [hide] v d e Location of the capital of the United States and predecessors Colonies New Amsterdam (New Netherland) · Boston (Massachusetts Bay Colony) 1774 First Continental Congress Philadelphia 1775 – 1781 Second Continental Congress Philadelphia → Baltimore → Lancaster → York → Philadelphia 1781 – 1789 Congress of the Confederation Philadelphia → Princeton → Annapolis → Trenton → New York City 1789 – present Federal government of the United States New York City → Philadelphia → Washington, D.C. Key Facts Located on the Atlantic coast of NE United States Empire State Building is one of the 7th Wonders of the Modern World Average 47 million tourists per year enjoy New York city breaks 39 theatres in the Broadway district Birthplace of numerous cultural movements 5 boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens, Staten Island New York tourist attractions Empire State Building Statue of Liberty Times Square Ellis Island Broadway theatres Luxury shopping on Fifth Avenue and at Macy's Museum of Modern Art Central Park Metropolitan Museum of Art The Guggenheim Museum The original World Trade Center was a complex with seven buildings featuring landmark twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The complex opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. The site is currently being rebuilt with five new skyscrapers and a memorial to the casualties of the attacks. As of November 2011, only one skyscraper has been completed, with four more expected to be completed before 2020. One World Trade Center will be the lead building for the new complex and is expected to be finished by 2013. A sixth tower is still awaiting confirmation to be built. At the time of their completion, the original 1 and 2 World Trade Center, known colloquially as the Twin Towers, were the tallest buildings in the world. The complex was designed in the early 1960s by Minoru Yamasaki and Associates of Troy, Michigan, and Emery Roth and Sons of New York.[2] The twin 110-story towers used a tube-frame structural design. To gain approval for the project, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey agreed to take over the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, which became the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). Groundbreaking for the World Trade Center took place on August 5, 1966. The North Tower (1) was completed in December 1972 and the South Tower (2) was finished in July 1973. The construction project involved excavating a large amount of material, which was later used as landfill to build Battery Park City on the west side of Lower Manhattan. The cost for the construction was $400 million ($2,200,000,000 in 2012 dollars).[3] The complex was located in the heart of New York City's downtown financial district and contained 13.4 million square feet (1.24 million m2) of office space.[4][5] The Windows on the World restaurant was located on the 106th and 107th floors of 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower) while the Top of the World observation deck was located on the 107th floor of 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower). Other World Trade Center buildings included the Marriott World Trade Center; 4 World Trade Center; 5 World Trade Center; 6 World Trade Center, which housed the United States Customs. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1981. The final building constructed was 7 World Trade Center, which was built in 1985. The second King Kong was filmed in 1976 with some scenes mentioning and showing the World Trade Center. The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, and a bombing on February 26, 1993. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001. On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two 767 jets into the complex, one into each tower, in a coordinated terrorist attack. After burning for 56 minutes, the South Tower (2) collapsed, followed a half-hour later by the North Tower (1), with the attacks on the World Trade Center resulting in 2,753 deaths.[6] 7 World Trade Center collapsed later in the day and the other buildings, although they did not collapse, had to be demolished because they were damaged beyond repair. The process of cleanup and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months. The first new building at the site was 7 World Trade Center, which opened in May 2006. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), established in November 2001 to oversee the rebuilding process, organized competitions to select a site plan and memorial design. Memory Foundations, designed by Daniel Libeskind, was selected as the master plan, which included the 1,776-foot (541 m) One World Trade Center, three office towers along Church Street and a memorial designed by Michael Arad. Record height Tallest in the world from 1971 to 1973[I] Preceded by Empire State Building Surpassed by Willis Tower General information Location New York City Coordinates 40°42′42″N 74°00′45″WCoordinates: 40°42′42″N 74°00′45″W Groundbreaking August 25, 1966 Construction started 1 WTC: August 1968 2 WTC: January 1969 3 WTC: December 1979 4, 5, & 6 WTC: 1970 7 WTC: 1983 Completed 1 WTC: December 23, 1970 2 WTC: July 19, 1971 3 WTC: February 1981 4, 5, & 6 WTC: 1975 7 WTC: 1987 Opening April 4, 1973 Destroyed September 11, 2001 Height Antenna spire 1 WTC: 1,727 ft (526.3 m) Roof 1 WTC: 1,368 ft (417.0 m) 2 WTC: 1,362 ft (415.0 m) 3 WTC: 242 ft (74.0 m) 4 & 5 WTC: 118 ft (36.0 m) 6 WTC: 105 ft (32.0 m) 7 WTC: 610 ft (186.0 m) Top floor 1 WTC: 1,348 ft (411.0 m) 2 WTC: 1,342 ft (409.0 m) Technical details Floor count 1 & 2 WTC: 110 floors 3 WTC: 22 floors 4 & 5 WTC: 9 floors 6 WTC: 8 floors 7 WTC: 47 floors Floor area 1 & 2 WTC:[clarification needed] 4,300,000 sq ft (400,000 m2) 4, 5, & 6 WTC: 500,000 sq ft (50,000 m2) 7 WTC: 1,868,000 sq ft (170,000 m2) Elevator count Both had 99 elevators Design and construction Owner Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Architect Minoru Yamasaki Emery Roth & Sons Engineer Leslie E. Robertson Associates Timeline of tallest buildings in New York City Collegiate Reformed Protestant Dutch Church (c.1643) · Trinity Church (85 m) (1846) · New York World Building (94 m) (1890) · Manhattan Life Insurance Building (100 m) (1894) · Park Row Building (119 m) (1899) · Singer Building (187 m) (1908) · Metropolitan Life Tower (213 m) (1909) · Woolworth Building (241 m) (1913) · 40 Wall Street (283 m) (1929) · Chrysler Building (320 m) (1930) · Empire State Building (443 m) (1931) · World Trade Center (526 m) (1973) · Empire State Building (443 m) (2001) [hide] v d e Supertall skyscrapers [hide] Current North America Aon Center · Bank of America Plaza · Bank of America Tower · Chrysler Building · Empire State Building · Franklin Center (Chicago) · JPMorgan Chase Tower · John Hancock Center · The New York Times Building · Trump Tower Chicago · Two Prudential Plaza · U.S. Bank Tower · Wells Fargo Plaza · Willis Tower Asia Baiyoke Tower II · Bank of China Tower · The Center · Central Plaza · China World Trade Center Tower III · CITIC Plaza · Guangzhou International Finance Center · International Commerce Centre · International Finance Centre · Jin Mao Tower · Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower · Kingkey 100 · Menara Telekom · Minsheng Bank Building · Nanjing Greenland Financial Center · Nina Tower · Northeast Asia Trade Tower · Petronas Towers · Shanghai World Financial Center · Shimao International Plaza · Shun Hing Square · Taipei 101 · Tianjin World Financial Center · Tuntex Sky Tower · Wenzhou World Trade Center Europe City of Capitals Australia Eureka Tower · Q1 Middle East Almas Tower · Aspire Tower · Arraya 2 · Burj Al Arab · Burj Khalifa · Emirates Office Tower · Emirates Towers Hotel · HHHR Tower · Kingdom Centre · Rose Tower · Ocean Heights · The Address Downtown Dubai · The Index · The Marina Torch [hide] Under construction North America 175 Greenwich Street · 200 Greenwich Street · Carnegie 57 · One World Trade Center South America Gran Torre Santiago Asia Abenobashi Terminal Building Skyscraper (Abeno Harukas) · Busan Lotte World Tower · Dalian Eton Center · East Pacific Business Center · Forum 66 · Gate of the Orient · Gate of Taipei · Global Financial Building · Goldin Finance 117 · The Gramercy Residences · Grand International Mansion (The Pinnacle) · Hanging Village of Huaxi · Leatop Plaza · Lotte World Premium Tower · MahaNakhon · Orchid Heights · Palais Royale, Mumbai · Pearl River Tower · Pingan International Finance Center · Ryugyong Hotel · Shanghai Tower · Sino-Steel Tower · The Wharf Times Square · We've the Zenith · White Magnolia Plaza · Yantai Shimao No.1 The Harbour Europe Federation Tower · Mercury City Tower · Shard London Bridge Middle East 23 Marina · Abraj Al Bait · Ahmed Abdul Rahim Al Attar Tower · Al Hamra Tower · Al Yaqoub Tower · Central Market Project · DAMAC Heights · Dubai Pearl · Elite Residence · Emirates Park Towers · Infinity Tower · Lamar Towers · Qatar National Bank Tower · The Landmark · Marina 101 · Princess Tower · Sky Tower [hide] Construction suspended Al Quds Endowment Tower · Barwa Tower · BDNI Center 1 · Burj Al Alam · Chow Tai Fook Centre · Dalian International Trade Center · Doha Convention Center Tower · Dubai Towers Doha · Eurasia · Faros del Panamá · India Tower · JW Marriott International Finance Centre · Pentominium · Parc1 Tower A · Plaza Rakyat · Skycity · Square Capital Tower · Waterview Tower · Xiamen Post & Telecommunications Building [hide] Former World Trade Center See also Proposed supertall skyscrapers · List of architects of supertall buildings [hide] v d e World Trade Center World Trade Center Complex Tower One and Tower Two · Marriott World Trade Center · 4 World Trade Center · 5 World Trade Center · 6 World Trade Center · 7 World Trade Center · The Sphere · The Bathtub 2001–present World Trade Center site · One World Trade Center · Two World Trade Center · Three World Trade Center · Four World Trade Center · Five World Trade Center · 7 World Trade Center · National September 11 Memorial & Museum · The Mall at the World Trade Center · PATH station Terrorist Attacks 1993 bombing · September 11 attacks Alternative Proposal THINK Team People Minoru Yamasaki · Emery Roth & Sons · Larry Silverstein · Austin J. Tobin [hide] v d e Architecture by Minoru Yamasaki Skyscrapers One Woodward Avenue (1963) · IBM Building (1963) · Century Plaza Hotel (1966) · M&T Bank Center, Buffalo (1967) · World Trade Center Tower 1, Tower 2, Buildings 4, 5 and 6 (1970–1971) · Montgomery Ward Corporate Headquarters Tower (1972) · Century Plaza Towers (1975) · Bank of Oklahoma (1977) · Rainier Bank Tower (1977) · Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond (1978) · 100 Washington Square (1981) · Torre Picasso (1988) · Columbia Center (1989–2000) Airports Lambert-St. Louis International Airport main terminal (1956) · Dhahran International Airport terminal (1961) · Eastern Airlines terminal at Logan Airport (1969) · King Fahd International Airport master plan (1977) Houses of worship North Shore Congregation Israel (1964) · Temple Beth El (1974) · Shinji Shumeikai Founder's Hall (1982) Other buildings Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Detroit Branch Building annex (1951) · Pruitt–Igoe housing project (1954) · Grosse Pointe University School (1954) · Military Personnel Records Center (1955) · McGregor Memorial Conference Center (1957) · Prentis Building and DeRoy Auditorium Complex (1959) · Robertson Hall at Princeton University (1965) · Pacific Science Center (1962) · Irwin Library at Butler University (1963) · Oberlin Conservatory of Music (1963) · Quo Vadis Entertainment Center (1966) · Dr. John Archer Library (1967) · Japan Center (1968) · Tulsa Performing Arts Center (1976) · Istanbul Cevahir (1987) Landscape architecture Wascana Centre and University of Regina - Regina Campus (1961–1967) The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th or 9/11[nb 1]) were a series of four coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States in New York City and the Washington, D.C. areas on September 11, 2001. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists from the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger jets. The hijackers intentionally crashed two planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City; both towers collapsed within two hours. Hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The fourth jet, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after passengers attempted to take control before it could reach the hijacker's intended target in Washington, D.C. Nearly 3,000 died in the attacks. Suspicion quickly fell on al-Qaeda, and in 2004, the group's leader Osama bin Laden, who had initially denied involvement, claimed responsibility for the attacks.[1] Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives for the attacks. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded law enforcement powers. In May 2011, after years at large, bin Laden was found and killed. The destruction of the twin towers caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant impact on global markets. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. Numerous memorials were constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York, the Pentagon Memorial, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in Pennsylvania. Adjacent to the National Memorial, the 1,776 feet (541 m) One World Trade Center is expected to be completed in 2013. Location New York City; Arlington County, Virginia; and near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Date Tuesday, September 11, 2001 8:46 a.m. – 10:28 a.m. (UTC-04:00) Attack type Aircraft hijacking, mass murder, suicide attack, terrorism Deaths 2,996 Injured More than 6,000 Perpetrator(s) Al-Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden September 11 attacks Timeline Planning · September 11, 2001 · Rest of September · October · Beyond October Victims Casualties Hijacked airliners American Airlines Flight 11 · United Airlines Flight 175 · American Airlines Flight 77 · United Airlines Flight 93 Crash sites World Trade Center · The Pentagon · Stonycreek, Pennsylvania · Shanksville, Pennsylvania Effects Airport security · Economic effects · Local health effects Aftermath Immediate aftermath · Cultural references · Audiovisual entertainment · Closings and cancellations · Detentions · Post-9/11 · Reactions · 9/11 conspiracy theories Response U.S. military response · U.S. government response · Rescue and recovery effort · Financial assistance · Operation SUPPORT · Operation Yellow Ribbon · Memorials and services Perpetrators Responsibility · Motives · Hijackers · 20th hijacker Inquiries U.S. Congressional Inquiry · 9/11 Commission (Report · Criticism) · PENTTBOM Miscellaneous Communication (Radio communications) · Patriot Day · WTC collapse · Slogans and terms · Survivors' Staircase Book · Category · Portal · WikiProject [hide] v d e World Trade Center World Trade Center Complex Tower One and Tower Two · Marriott World Trade Center · 4 World Trade Center · 5 World Trade Center · 6 World Trade Center · 7 World Trade Center · The Sphere · The Bathtub 2001–present World Trade Center site · One World Trade Center · Two World Trade Center · Three World Trade Center · Four World Trade Center · Five World Trade Center · 7 World Trade Center · National September 11 Memorial & Museum · The Mall at the World Trade Center · PATH station Terrorist Attacks 1993 bombing · September 11 attacks Alternative Proposal THINK Team People Minoru Yamasaki · Emery Roth & Sons · Larry Silverstein · Austin J. Tobin [hide] v d e War on Terror Participants Operational ISAF · Operation Enduring Freedom participants · Afghanistan · Northern Alliance · Iraq (Iraqi Armed Forces) · NATO · Pakistan · United Kingdom · United States · European Union · Philippines · Ethiopia Targets Al-Qaeda · Osama bin Laden · Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula · Abu Sayyaf · Anwar al-Awlaki · Al-Shabaab · Hamas · Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami · Hezbollah · Hizbul Mujahideen · Islamic Courts Union · Jaish-e-Mohammed · Jemaah Islamiyah · Lashkar-e-Taiba · Mujahideen · Taliban · Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Conflicts Operation Enduring Freedom War in Afghanistan · OEF – Philippines · Georgia Train and Equip Program · Georgia Sustainment and Stability · OEF – Horn of Africa · OEF – Trans Sahara · Drone attacks in Pakistan Other Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) · Insurgency in the Philippines · Iraq War · Iraqi insurgency · Operation Linda Nchi · South Thailand insurgency · Terrorism in Saudi Arabia · War in North-West Pakistan · War in Somalia (2006–2009) · 2007 Lebanon conflict · Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown See also Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse · Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act · Axis of evil · Black sites · Bush Doctrine · The Clash of Civilizations · Combatant Status Review Tribunal · Criticism of the War on Terror · Death of Osama bin Laden · Enhanced interrogation techniques · Torture Memos · Extrajudicial prisoners · Extraordinary rendition · Guantanamo Bay detention camp · Military Commissions Act of 2006 · NSA electronic surveillance program · Pakistan's role · President's Surveillance Program · Protect America Act of 2007 · Targeted killing · Targeted Killing in International Law · Unitary executive theory · Unlawful combatant · USA PATRIOT Act Terrorism · War [hide] v d e al-Qaeda Leadership Saif al-Adel · Ayman al-Zawahiri · Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud · Abu Yahya al-Libi · Adam Yahiye Gadahn · Adnan Gulshair el Shukrijumah · Abu Dua Former leadership Osama bin Laden (killed) · Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (captured) · Anwar al-Awlaki (disputed; killed) · Nasir al-Wuhayshi (killed) · Younis al-Mauritani (captured) · Mohammed Atef (killed) · Fazul Abdullah Mohammed (killed) · Atiyah Abd al-Rahman (killed) · Mohammad Hasan Khalil al-Hakim (killed) · Abu Laith al-Libi (killed) · Abdullah Said al Libi (killed) · Abu Faraj al-Libbi (captured) · Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi (killed) · Ilyas Kashmiri (killed) · Mohamed Atta (killed in the 9/11 attacks) · Khadr family (captured/killed) · Samir Khan (killed) Timeline of attacks 1993 World Trade Center bombing · 1998 United States embassy bombings · USS Cole bombing · September 11 attacks · 2002 Bali bombings · Iraq Ashura bombings · 2004 Madrid train bombings · 7 July 2005 London bombings · 23 November 2006 Sadr City bombings · 18 April 2007 Baghdad bombings · 2007 Algiers bombings (April, December) · 2007 Yazidi communities bombings · 2008 Danish embassy bombing in Islamabad · 2009 Little Rock recruiting office shooting · Northwest Airlines Flight 253 · Cargo planes bomb plot Wars Soviet war in Afghanistan · Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–1992) · Civil war in Afghanistan (1992–1996) · Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001) · War in Afghanistan (2001–present) · Iraq War · Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown · Shia insurgency in Yemen · Somali Civil War · War in North-West Pakistan (Drone attacks) · Insurgency in the Maghreb · Affiliates Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula · al-Qaeda in Iraq · Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb Conspiracy / propaganda Al Qaeda Handbook · Al Neda · As-Sahab · Fatawā of Osama bin Laden · Inspire · Al-Khansaa · Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit · Management of Savagery · Voice of Jihad · Benevolence International Foundation · Qaedat al-Jihad · Al-Qaeda safe house Video and audio Videos and audio recordings of Osama bin Laden · Videos and audio recordings of Ayman al-Zawahiri · USS Cole bombing video [hide] v d e ← 2000 · Aviation accidents and incidents in 2001 · 2002 → Jan 23 Yemenia Flight 448 Jan 27 Oklahoma State basketball team crash Jan 31 Japan Airlines mid-air incident Mar 03 Thai Airways International Flight 114 Mar 19 Comair Flight 5054 Mar 29 Avjet Aspen crash Apr 01 Hainan Island incident Apr 04 Sudanese Air Force AN-24 crash Jul 04 Vladivostok Air Flight 352 Aug 24 Air Transat Flight 236 Aug 29 Binter Mediterráneo Flight 8261 Sep 11 (9/11) American Airlines Flight 11 Sep 11 (9/11) United Airlines Flight 175 Sep 11 (9/11) American Airlines Flight 77 Sep 11 (9/11) United Airlines Flight 93 Sep 11 Korean Air Flight 85 Sep 17 Grozny Mi-8 crash Oct 04 Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 Oct 08 Linate Airport disaster Nov 12 American Airlines Flight 587 Nov 24 Crossair Flight 3597 Dec 02 AFRF Flight 9064 Dec 22 American Airlines Flight 63 ("Shoe bomb" plot) FIFA World Cup Tournaments Uruguay 1930 · Italy 1934 · France 1938 · Brazil 1950 · Switzerland 1954 · Sweden 1958 · Chile 1962 · England 1966 · Mexico 1970 · West Germany 1974 · Argentina 1978 · Spain 1982 · Mexico 1986 · Italy 1990 · United States 1994 · France 1998 · South Korea & Japan 2002 · Germany 2006 · South Africa 2010 · Brazil 2014 · Russia 2018 · Qatar 2022 Finals 1930 · 1934 · 1938 · 19501 · 1954 · 1958 · 1962 · 1966 · 1970 · 1974 · 1978 · 1982 · 1986 · 1990 · 1994 · 1998 · 2002 · 2006 · 2010 Squads 1930 · 1934 · 1938 · 1950 · 1954 · 1958 · 1962 · 1966 · 1970 · 1974 · 1978 · 1982 · 1986 · 1990 · 1994 · 1998 · 2002 · 2006 · 2010 Qualification 19302 · 1934 · 1938 · 1950 · 1954 · 1958 · 1962 · 1966 · 1970 · 1974 · 1978 · 1982 · 1986 · 1990 · 1994 · 1998 · 2002 · 2006 · 2010 · 2014 · 2018 · 2022 Other articles Awards · Balls · Broadcasters · Droughts · Finals · Goalscorers · Hat-tricks · History · Hosts · Mascots · Milestone goals · Official songs · Penalty shoot-outs · Qualification · Records · Red cards · Referees · Team appearances · Trophy · Video games 1Decisive match of a final group stage. 2No qualification took place as places were given by invitation only. [hide]v · d · eWorld Football Championships Male National FIFA World Cup · Confederations Cup · Olympic Football · FIFA U-20 World Cup · FIFA U-17 World Cup Club FIFA Club World Cup (statistics · participants) · Intercontinental Cup* (statistics) · Afro-Asian Club Championship* Women FIFA Women's World Cup · Olympic Football · FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup · FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup Variants FIFA Futsal World Cup · FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup UEFA European Football Championships Tournaments France 1960 · Spain 1964 · Italy 1968 · Belgium 1972 · Yugoslavia 1976 · Italy 1980 · France 1984 · West Germany 1988 · Sweden 1992 · England 1996 · Belgium/Netherlands 2000 · Portugal 2004 · Austria/Switzerland 2008 · Poland/Ukraine 2012 · France 2016 Jules Rimet (14 October 1873 – 16 October 1956) was a French football administrator who was the 3rd President of FIFA, serving from 1921 to 1954. He was FIFA's longest serving president, having served for 33 years. He also served as the president of the French Football Federation from 1919 to 1946. He was born in Theuley, France. On Rimet's initiative, the first FIFA World Cup was held in 1930. The Jules Rimet Trophy was named in his honour. He also founded one of France's oldest teams, Red Star Saint-Ouen. Rimet died at Suresnes in France in 1956, two days after his 83rd birthday. In 2003 he was posthumously made a member of the FIFA Order of Merit. FIFA World Cup Trophy Awarded for Winning the FIFA World Cup Presented by FIFA First awarded 1930 (Jules Rimet Trophy) 1974 (Current) Currently held by Spain Official website The World Cup is a gold trophy that is awarded to the winners of the FIFA World Cup. Since the advent of the World Cup in 1930, two trophies have represented victory: the Jules Rimet Trophy from 1930 to 1970, and the FIFA World Cup Trophy from 1974 to the present day. The trophy, originally named Victory, but later renamed in honour of former FIFA president Jules Rimet, was made of gold plated sterling silver and lapis lazuli and depicted Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. Brazil won the trophy outright in 1970, prompting the commissioning of a replacement. The Jules Rimet Trophy was stolen in 1983 and never recovered. The subsequent trophy, called "FIFA World Cup Trophy", was introduced in 1974. Made of 18 carat gold with a malachite base, it depicts two human figures holding up the Earth. The current holder of the trophy is Spain, winner of the 2010 World Cup. Replica of the Jules Rimet Trophy awarded to winners Uruguay in 1930 The Jules Rimet Trophy was the original prize for winning the Football World Cup. Originally called "Victory", but generally known simply as the World Cup or Coupe du Monde, it was officially renamed in 1946 to honour the FIFA President Jules Rimet who in 1929 passed a vote to initiate the competition. Designed by Abel Lafleur and made of gold plated sterling silver on a white/yellow marble base. Since 1958 this base has been replaced with a high base made of lapis lazuli, it stood 35 centimetres (14 in) high and weighed 3.8 kilograms (8.4 lb).[1] It comprised an decagonal cup, supported by a winged figure representing Nike, the ancient Greek goddess of victory. The Jules Rimet Trophy was taken to Uruguay for the first FIFA World Cup aboard the Conte Verde, which set sail from Villefranche-sur-Mer, just south of Nice, on 21 June 1930. This was the same ship that carried Jules Rimet and the footballers representing France, Romania and Belgium who were participating in the tournament that year. The first team to be awarded the trophy was Uruguay, the winners of the 1930 World Cup. During World War II, the trophy was held by 1938 winners Italy. Ottorino Barassi, the Italian vice-president of FIFA and president of FIGC, secretly transported the trophy from a bank in Rome and hid it in a shoe-box under his bed to prevent the Nazis from taking it.[2] On 20 March 1966, four months before the 1966 FIFA World Cup in England, the trophy was stolen during a public exhibition at Westminster Central Hall.[3] The trophy was found just seven days later wrapped in newspaper at the bottom of a suburban garden hedge in Upper Norwood, South London, by a dog named Pickles.[4] As a security measure, The Football Association secretly manufactured a replica of the trophy for use in the post-match celebrations. The replica was also used on subsequent occasions until 1970. The replica was sold at an auction in 1997 for £254,500, when it was purchased by FIFA. The high auction price, several times the reserve price of £20,000-£30,000, led to speculation that the auctioned trophy was not a replica. Subsequent testing by FIFA confirmed the auctioned trophy was indeed a replica.[5] Subsequent to the auction, FIFA arranged for the replica to be displayed at the English National Football Museum in Preston. The Brazilian team won the tournament for the third time in 1970, allowing them to keep the real trophy in perpetuity, as had been stipulated by Jules Rimet in 1930.[6] It was put on display at the Brazilian Football Confederation headquarters in Rio de Janeiro in a cabinet with a front of bullet-proof glass. On 19 December 1983, the wooden rear of the cabinet was pried open with a crowbar and the cup was stolen again.[7] Four men were tried and convicted in absentia for the crime.[citation needed] The trophy has never been recovered. The Confederation commissioned a replica of their own, made by Eastman Kodak, using 1.8 kg (3.97 lb) of gold. This replica was presented to the Brazilian president in 1984 FIFA World Cup Trophy on a German stamp A replacement trophy was commissioned by FIFA for the 1974 World Cup. Fifty-three submissions were received from sculptors in seven countries.[9] Italian artist Silvio Gazzaniga was awarded the commission. The trophy stands 36.5 centimetres (14.4 inches) tall and is made of 5 kg (11 lb) of 18 carat (75%) gold with a base (13 centimetres [5.1 inches] in diameter) containing two layers of malachite. It has been asserted by Martyn Poliakoff that the trophy is hollow; if, as is claimed, it were solid, the trophy would weigh 70–80 kg and would be too heavy to lift.[10][11] Produced by Bertoni, Milano, it weighs 6.175 kg (13.6 lb) in total and depicts two human figures holding up the Earth. Gazzaniga described the trophy thus, "The lines spring out from the base, rising in spirals, stretching out to receive the world. From the remarkable dynamic tensions of the compact body of the sculpture rise the figures of two athletes at the stirring moment of victory."[9] It was first presented at the 1974 FIFA World Cup, to West German captain Franz Beckenbauer.[9] The trophy has the visible engravement "FIFA World Cup" in outpouring letters at its base. The name of the country whose national team wins each tournament is engraved in the bottom side of the trophy, and therefore is not visible when the trophy is standing upright. The text states the year in figures and the name of the winning nation in its national language,[12] for example "— 1974 Deutschland", "— 1994 Brasil" and - "2010 España" . As of 2010, ten winners have been engraved on the base. It is not known whether FIFA will retire the trophy after all of the name plaques at the base are filled in; this will not occur until after the 2038 World Cup at the earliest. FIFA's regulations now state that the trophy, unlike its predecessor, cannot be won outright: the winners of the tournament receive a replica which is gold plated rather than solid gold.[9] FIFA World Cup Tournaments Uruguay 1930 · Italy 1934 · France 1938 · Brazil 1950 · Switzerland 1954 · Sweden 1958 · Chile 1962 · England 1966 · Mexico 1970 · West Germany 1974 · Argentina 1978 · Spain 1982 · Mexico 1986 · Italy 1990 · United States 1994 · France 1998 · Korea/Japan 2002 · Germany 2006 · South Africa 2010 · Brazil 2014 · Russia 2018 · Qatar 2022 England Most Capped Players # Name Career caps Goals 1 Peter Shilton 1970–1990 125 0 2 David Beckham* 1996– 115 17 3 Bobby Moore 1962–1973 108 2 4 Bobby Charlton 1958–1970 106 49 5 Billy Wright 1946–1959 105 3 6 Bryan Robson 1980–1991 90 26 7 Steven Gerrard* 2000– 89 19 = Michael Owen* 1998– 89 40 = Ashley Cole* 2001– 89 0 10 Frank Lampard* 1999– 86 22 = Kenny Sansom 1979–1988 86 1 12 Gary Neville 1995–2007 85 0 13 Ray Wilkins 1976–1986 84 3 14 Rio Ferdinand* 1997– 81 3 15 Gary Lineker 1984–1992 80 48 16 John Barnes 1983–1995 79 11 17 Stuart Pearce 1987–1999 78 5 18 Terry Butcher 1980–1990 77 3 19 Tom Finney 1946–1958 76 30 20 David Seaman 1988–2002 75 0 21 Gordon Banks 1963–1972 73 0 = Sol Campbell* 1996– 73 1 23 Alan Ball 1965–1975 72 8 24 Wayne Rooney* 2003– 70 26 25 John Terry* 2003– 68 6 26 Martin Peters 1966–1974 67 20 27 Tony Adams 1987–2000 66 5 = Paul Scholes 1997–2004 66 14 29 Dave Watson 1974–1982 65 4 30 Ray Wilson 1960–1968 63 0 = Kevin Keegan 1972–1982 63 21 = Alan Shearer 1992–2000 63 30 33 Emlyn Hughes 1969–1980 62 1 = Chris Waddle 1985–1991 62 6 = David Platt 1989–1996 62 27 = Emile Heskey 1999–2010 62 7 37 Ray Clemence 1972–1983 61 0 38 Peter Beardsley 1986–1996 59 9 = Des Walker 1988–1993 59 0 = Phil Neville* 1996– 59 0 41 Jimmy Greaves 1959–1967 57 44 = Paul Gascoigne 1988–1998 57 10 = Gareth Southgate 1995–2004 57 2 44 Johnny Haynes 1954–1962 56 18 = Joe Cole* 2001– 56 10 46 Stanley Matthews 1934–1957 54 11 47 Glenn Hoddle 1979–1988 53 8 = Paul Ince 1992–2000 53 2 = David James* 1997– 53 0 50 Trevor Francis 1977–1986 52 12 51 Teddy Sheringham 1993–2002 51 11 52 Phil Neal 1976–1983 50 5 FourFourTwo's 100 Best Current Players In The World 1. Cristiano Ronaldo 2. Lionel Messi 3. Fernando Torres 4. Iker Casillas 5. Kaka 6. David Villa 7. Zlatan Ibrahimovic 8. Sergio Aguero 9. Rio Ferdinand 10. Steven Gerrard 11. Xavi 12. Cesc Fabregas 13. Frank Lampard 14. Ruud Van Nistelrooy 15. Emmanuel Adebayor 16. Didier Drogba 17. Franck Ribery 18. Michael Ballack 19. Gianluigi Buffon 20. Sergio Ramos 21. Wesley Sneijder 22. Michael Essien 23. Daniel Alves 24. Wayne Rooney 25. Ricardo Carvalho 26. Maicon 27. Andres Iniesta 28. Andrei Arshavin 29. Deco 30. Marcos Senna 31. Luis Fabiano 32. John Terry 33. Daniele De Rossi 34. Nemanja Vidic 35. Javier Mascherano 36. Samuel Eto'o 37. Dimitar Berbatov 38. David Silva 39. Nihat Kahveci 40. Patrice Evra 41. Anatoliy Tymoschuk 42. Robinho 43. Esteban Cambiasso 44. Ashley Cole 45. Alessandro Del Piero 46. Seydou Keita 47. Jose Bosingwa 48. Carlos Tevez 49. Joe Cole 50. Yuri Zhirkov 51. Arjen Robben 52. Artur Boruc 53. Petr Cech 54. Francesco Totti 55. Luca Toni 56. Raul 57. Thierry Henry 58. Cristian Chivu 59. Alessandro Nesta 60. Rafael Van Der Vaart 61. Pepe 62. Luka Modric 63. Karim Benzema 64. Roque Santa Cruz 65. Mahamadou Diarra 66. Philipp Lahm 67. Andrea Pirlo 68. Diego Forlan 69. Santi Cazorla 70. Ronaldinho 71. Darijo Srna 72. Fabio Cannavaro 73. Juninho 74. Mauro Camoranesi 75. David Trezeguet 76. Miroslav Klose 77. Gael Clichy 78. Fredi Kanoute 79. Antonio Di Natale 80. Javier Zanetti 81. Robert Pires 82. Christian Poulsen 83. Diego 84. Mancini 85. Giorgio Chiellini 86. Gonzalo Higuain 87. Gianluca Zambrotta 88. Bacary Sagna 89. Danny 90. John Obi Mikel 91. Goran Pandev 92. Igor Akinfeev 93. Simao 94. Amauri 95. Paul Scholes 96. Lassana Diarra 97. Diego Capel 98. Antonio Cassano 99. Bastian Schweinsteiger 100. Klaas-Jan Huntelaar Best Footballers of all Time 1 Pelé (Brazil) 2 Ronaldo (Brazil) 3 Romário (Brazil) 4 Luà s Figo (Portugal) 5 Zinedine Zidane (France) 6 Diego Maradona (Argentina) 7 Lothar Matthäus (Germany) 8 Gerd Müller (Germany) 9 Franz Beckenbauer (Germany) 10 Cafu (Brazil) 11 Roberto Carlos (Brazil) 12 Marco van Basten (Holland) 13 Michel Platini (France) 14 Rivaldo (Brazil) 15 Paolo Maldini (Italy) 16 Zico (Brazil) 17 Raúl (Spain) 18 Ruud Gullit (Holland) 19 Eusébio (Portugal) 20 Ferenc Puskás (Hungary) 21 Johan Cruyff (Holland) 22 Alfredo di Stefano (Argentina) 23 Bobby Charlton (England) 24 Jürgen Klinsmann (Ger) 25 Kenny Dalglish (Scotland) 26 Ali Daei (Iran) 27 Karl-Heinz Rummenigge (Ger) 28 Gabriel Batistuta (Argentina) 29 Michael Laudrup (Denmark) 30 Hristo Stoichkov (Bulgaria) 31 Dennis Bergkamp (Holland) 32 Frank Rijkaard (Holland) 33 Thierry Henry (France) 34 Pavel Nedved (Czech Rep) 35 Gheorghe Hagi (Romania) 36 Peter Schmeichel (Denmark) 37 Andriy Shevchenko (Ukraine) 38 Sepp Maier (Germany) 39 Didier Deschamps (France) 40 Lilian Thuram (France) 41 Enzo Francescoli (Uruguay) 42 Hakan Åžükür (Turkey) 43 Paolo Rossi (Italy) 44 David Beckham (England) 45 Jean-Pierre Papin (France) 46 Kevin Keegan (England) 47 Marcel Desailly (France) 48 Oliver Kahn (Germany) 49 Alessandro Costacurta (Ita) 50 Clarence Seedorf (Holland) 51 Dino Zoff (Italy) 52 Patrick Kluivert (Holland) 53 Jari Litmanen (Finland) 54 Daniel Passarella (Arg) 55 Bixente Lizarazu (France) 56 Gary Lineker (England) 57 Ronaldinho (Brazil) 58 Sylvain Wiltord (France) 59 Bebeto (Brazil) 60 Alessandro Del Piero (Italy) 61 Davor Å uker (Croatia) 62 Ryan Giggs (Wales) 63 David Trezeguet (France) 64 Demetrio Albertini (Italy) 65 Patrick Vieira (France) 66 Jürgen Kohler (Germany) 67 Laurent Blanc (France) 68 Michael Owen (England) 69 Youri Djorkaeff (France) 70 Frank De Boer (Holland) 71 Emilio Butragueño (Spain) 72 Hugo Sánchez (Mexico) 73 Rudi Völler (Germany) 74 Djalma Santos (Brazil) 75 Giacinto Facchetti (Italy) 76 Kanu (Nigeria) 77 Franco Baresi (Italy) 78 Gianni Rivera (Italy) 79 Roberto Baggio (Italy) 80 Oscar Ruggeri (Argentina) 81 Gheorghe Popescu (Romania) 82 Jon Dahl Tomasson (Denmark) 83 Raymond Kopa (France) 84 Carlos Valderrama (Colombia) 85 Rui Costa (Portugal) 86 Gary Neville (England) 87 Edgar Davids (Holland) 88 Claudio Taffarel (Brazil) 89 Paul Scholes (England) 90 Diego Simeone (Argentina) 91 Bryan Robson (England) 92 Roy Keane (Rep of Ireland) 93 Brian Laudrup (Denmark) 94 Henrik Larsson (Sweden) 95 Fabien Barthez (France) 96 Michael Ballack (Germany) 97 Jan Koller (Czech Rep) 98 Edwin van der Sar (Holland) 99 Robert Pirès (France) 100 Johan Neeskens (Holland) European Cup Winning Clubs Records and statistics Main article: European Cup and UEFA Champions League records and statistics Main article: UEFA Champions League clubs performance comparison [edit]By club Club Won Runner-up Years won Years runner-up Real Madrid 9 3 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1966, 1998, 2000, 2002 1962, 1964, 1981 Milan 7 4 1963, 1969, 1989, 1990, 1994, 2003, 2007 1958, 1993, 1995, 2005 Liverpool 5 2 1977, 1978, 1981, 1984, 2005 1985, 2007 Bayern Munich 4 4 1974, 1975, 1976, 2001 1982, 1987, 1999, 2010 Barcelona 4 3 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011 1961, 1986, 1994 Ajax 4 2 1971, 1972, 1973, 1995 1969, 1996 Internazionale 3 2 1964, 1965, 2010 1967, 1972 Manchester United 3 2 1968, 1999, 2008 2009, 2011 Benfica 2 5 1961, 1962 1963, 1965, 1968, 1988, 1990 Juventus 2 5 1985, 1996 1973, 1983, 1997, 1998, 2003 Nottingham Forest 2 0 1979, 1980 Porto 2 0 1987, 2004 Celtic 1 1 1967 1970 Hamburg 1 1 1983 1980 Steaua Bucureşti 1 1 1986 1989 Marseille 1 1 1993 1991 Feyenoord 1 0 1970 Aston Villa 1 0 1982 PSV Eindhoven 1 0 1988 Red Star Belgrade 1 0 1991 Borussia Dortmund 1 0 1997 Total titles won (1871–present) Team English Football Champions FA Cup League Cup FA Community Shield Domestic Total European Cup / UEFA Champions League UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Fairs Cup / UEFA Cup / Europa League UEFA Super Cup UEFA Intertoto Cup Intercontinental Cup / FIFA Club World Cup Total Manchester United 19 11 4 19 53 3 1 – 1 – 2 60 Liverpool 18 7 7 15 47 5 – 3 3 – – 58 Arsenal 13 10 2 12 37 – 1 1 – – – 39 Everton 9 5 – 9 23 – 1 – – – – 24 Aston Villa 7 7 5 1 20 1 – – 1 1 – 23 Sunderland 6 2 – 1 9 – – – – – – 9 Chelsea 4 6 4 4 18 – 2 – 1 – – 21 Newcastle United 4 6 – 1 11 – – 1 – 1 – 13 Sheffield Wednesday 4 3 1 1 9 – – – – – – 9 Blackburn Rovers 3 6 1 1 11 – – – – – – 11 Wolverhampton Wanderers 3 4 2 4 13 – – – – – – 13 Leeds United 3 1 1 2 7 – – 2 – – – 9 Huddersfield Town 3 1 – 1 5 – – – – – – 5 Tottenham Hotspur 2 8 4 7 21 – 1 2 – – – 24 Manchester City 2 5 2 3 12 – 1 – – – – 13 Portsmouth 2 2 – 1 5 – – – – – – 5 Preston North End 2 2 – – 4 – – – – – – 4 Burnley 2 1 – 2 5 – – – – – – 5 Derby County 2 1 – 1 4 – – – – – – 4 West Bromwich Albion 1 5 1 2 9 – – – – – – 9 Sheffield United 1 4 – – 5 – – – – – – 5 Nottingham Forest 1 2 4 1 8 2 – – 1 – – 11 Ipswich Town 1 1 – – 2 – – 1 – – – 3 Wanderers – 5 – – 5 – – – – – – 5 Bolton Wanderers – 4 – 1 5 – – – – – – 5 West Ham United – 3 – – 3 – 1 – – 1 – 5 Bury – 2 – – 2 – – – – – – 2 Old Etonians – 2 – – 2 – – – – – – 2 Cardiff City – 1 – 1 2 – – – – – – 2 Barnsley – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Blackburn Olympic – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Blackpool – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Bradford City – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Charlton Athletic – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Clapham Rovers – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Coventry City – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Notts County – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Old Carthusians – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Oxford University – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Royal Engineers – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Southampton – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Wimbledon – 1 – – 1 – – – – – – 1 Leicester City – – 3 1 4 – – – – – – 4 Birmingham City – - 2 – 2 – – – – – – 2 Norwich City – – 2 – 2 – – – – – – 2 Luton Town – – 1 – 1 – – – – – – 1 Middlesbrough – – 1 – 1 – – – – – – 1 Oxford United – – 1 – 1 – – – – – – 1 Queens Park Rangers – – 1 – 1 – – – – – – 1 Stoke City – – 1 – 1 – – – – – – 1 Swindon Town – – 1 – 1 – – – – – – 1 Brighton & Hove Albion – – – 1 1 – – – – – – 1 Fulham – – – – – – – – – 1 – 1 PFA Players' Player of the Year 1974: Hunter | 1975: Todd | 1976: Jennings | 1977: Gray | 1978: Shilton | 1979: Brady | 1980: McDermott | 1981: Wark | 1982: Keegan | 1983: Dalglish | 1984: Rush | 1985: Reid | 1986: Lineker | 1987: Allen | 1988: Barnes | 1989: Hughes | 1990: Platt | 1991: Hughes | 1992: Pallister | 1993: McGrath | 1994: Cantona | 1995: Shearer | 1996: Ferdinand | 1997: Shearer | 1998: Bergkamp | 1999: Ginola | 2000: Keane | 2001: Sheringham | 2002: Van Nistelrooy | 2003: Henry | 2004: Henry | 2005: Terry | 2006: Gerrard | 2007: C. Ronaldo | 2008: C. Ronaldo | 2009: Giggs | 2010: Rooney | 2011: Bale FWA Footballer of the Year 1948: Matthews | 1949: Carey | 1950: Mercer | 1951: Johnston | 1952: Wright | 1953: Lofthouse | 1954: Finney | 1955: Revie | 1956: Trautmann | 1957: Finney | 1958: Blanchflower | 1959: Owen | 1960: Slater | 1961: Blanchflower | 1962: Adamson | 1963: Matthews | 1964: Moore | 1965: Collins | 1966: B. Charlton | 1967: J. Charlton | 1968: Best | 1969: Book/Dave Mackay | 1970: Bremner | 1971: McLintock | 1972: Banks | 1973: Jennings | 1974: Callaghan | 1975: Mullery | 1976: Keegan | 1977: Hughes | 1978: Burns | 1979: Dalglish | 1980: McDermott | 1981: Thijssen | 1982: Perryman | 1983: Dalglish | 1984: Rush | 1985: Southall | 1986: Lineker | 1987: Allen | 1988: Barnes | 1989: Nicol | 1990: Barnes | 1991: Strachan | 1992: Lineker | 1993: Waddle | 1994: Shearer | 1995: Klinsmann | 1996: Cantona | 1997: Zola | 1998: Bergkamp | 1999: Ginola | 2000: Keane | 2001: Sheringham | 2002: Pirès | 2003: Henry | 2004: Henry | 2005: Lampard | 2006: Henry | 2007: C. Ronaldo | 2008: C. Ronaldo | 2009: Gerrard | 2010: Rooney | 2011: Parker Great Britain (Welsh: Prydain Fawr, Scottish Gaelic: Breatainn Mhòr, Cornish: Breten Veur, Scots: Great Breetain), also known as Britain, is an island situated to the north-west of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, the largest European island and the largest of the British Isles. With a population of about 62 million people in mid-2010, it is the third most populous island in the world, after Java (Indonesia) and Honshū (Japan). It is surrounded by over 1,000 smaller islands and islets. The island of Ireland lies to its west. Politically, Great Britain also refers to the island itself together with a number of surrounding islands, which constitute the territory of England, Scotland and Wales.[7][3][8][9][10][11] All of the island is territory of the sovereign state of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and most of the United Kingdom's territory is in Great Britain. Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island of Great Britain, as are their respective capital cities: London, Edinburgh, and Cardiff. The Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland with the Acts of Union 1707 on 1 May 1707 under Queen Anne. In 1801, under a new Act of Union, this kingdom merged with the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921) most of Ireland seceded from the Union, which then became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. British Isles Terminology Alba Albion Britain Éire Hibernia Naming dispute Politics Sovereign states Ireland United Kingdom (England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales) Crown dependencies Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Political cooperation Politics in the British Isles British–Irish Council British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly Common Travel Area Geography Island groups Channel Islands Islands of the Clyde Great Britain Hebrides Inner Outer Ireland Isle of Man Northern Isles Orkney Shetland Isles of Scilly Lists of islands of Bailiwick of Guernsey Ireland Bailiwick of Jersey Isle of Man United Kingdom England Scotland Wales History Island groups British Isles Ireland Current states Ireland United Kingdom England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Former states Irish Free State Kingdom of England Principality of Wales Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of Scotland Society Modern languages Germanic English Scots Celtic Cornish Scottish Gaelic Irish Manx Welsh Romance Auregnais French Guernésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Other BSL ISL NISL Shelta People British Cornish English English Gypsies Irish Irish Travellers Kale Manx Scottish Ulster-Scots Welsh [hide] v t e United Kingdom topics History Chronology Formation Georgian era Victorian era Edwardian era World War I Interwar World War II UK since 1945 By topic Economic Empire Maritime Military Geography Administrative Countries of the United Kingdom Crown dependencies Overseas territories City status Towns Former colonies Physical British Isles terminology Great Britain Geology Northern Ireland Lakes and lochs Mountains Rivers Volcanoes Governance Constitution Courts Elections Foreign relations Judiciary Law Law enforcement Legislation Monarchy monarchs Nationality Parliament House of Commons House of Lords Politics Political parties Government Cabinet list Civil service Departments Prime Minister list Military Royal Navy Army Royal Air Force Weapons of mass destruction Economy Banks Bank of England Budget Economic geography Energy Mining Pound (currency) Stock Exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transport Society Crime Demography Education Ethnic groups Health care Immigration Languages Poverty Public holidays Social care Social structure Culture Art Cinema Cuisine Identity Literature Media television Music Religion Sport Symbols Theatre List of urban areas in the United Kingdom List of most populous built-up areas in England and Wales[edit] The list below shows the most populous Built-up areas in England and Wales as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), showing all those with a population in excess of 100,000 at the 2011 census. Rank Built-up area[2] Population (2011 Census)[2] Area (km²)[2] Density (People/km²)[2] Major subdivisions[2] Metropolitan Area[3][4] Notable changes between 2001 and 2011 censuses [5] 1 Greater London Built-up area 9,787,426 1,737.9 5,630 London Boroughs, Hemel Hempstead, Watford, Woking, Harlow, St Albans London The addition of Guildford, Harlow, Bracknell and St Albans 2 Greater Manchester Built-up area 2,553,379 630.3 4,051 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham, Rochdale, Bury Manchester The addition of Golborne, Glossop and Newton-le-Willows 3 West Midlands Built-up area 2,440,986 598.9 4,076 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, West Bromwich, Dudley, Walsall, Solihull West Midlands 4 West Yorkshire Built-up area 1,777,934 487.8 3,645 Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Keighley, Halifax Leeds-Bradford The addition of Halifax 5 Liverpool Built-up area 864,122 199.6 4,329 Liverpool, Bootle, Litherland, Crosby, Prescot, St. Helens, Ashton-in-Makerfield Liverpool The addition of Ashton-in-Makerfield 6 South Hampshire Built-up area 855,569 192.0 4,455 Southampton, Portsmouth, Eastleigh, Gosport, Fareham, Havant, Horndean Southampton-Portsmouth Portsmouth Urban Area and Southampton Urban Area combined into one. The addition of Hedge End, Locks Heath, Bursledon and Whiteley. Stubbington and Lee-on-the-Solent are no longer part of the built-up area. 7 Tyneside Built-up area 774,891 180.5 4,292 Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay, Jarrow Newcastle-Sunderland Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring are no longer part of the built-up area. 8 Nottingham Built-up area 729,977 176.4 4,139 Nottingham, Beeston, Carlton, West Bridgford, Ilkeston, Hucknall Nottingham-Derby 9 Sheffield Built-up area 685,368 167.5 4,092 Sheffield, Rotherham, Rawmarsh Sheffield 10 Bristol Built-up area 617,280 144.4 4,274 Bristol, Filton, Pill, Frampton Cotterell, Winterbourne Bristol 11 Leicester Built-up area 508,916 109.4 4,653 Leicester, Syston, Whetstone, Birstall, Narborough, Enderby Leicester Ratby no longer part of the built-up area. Addition of Narborough and Enderby 12 Brighton and Hove Built-up area 474,485 89.4 5,304 Brighton and Hove, Worthing, Littlehampton, Shoreham-by-Sea Brighton Rottingdean, Saltdean and Findon are no longer part of the built-up area. 13 Bournemouth/Poole Built-up area 466,266 131.0 3,559 Bournemouth, Poole, Christchurch, Ferndown, New Milton, Wimborne Minster Bournemouth/Poole Ferndown and Wimborne Minster now part of the built-up area. 14 Cardiff Built-up area 447,287 102.3 4,370 Cardiff, Caerphilly, Penarth, Pontypridd Cardiff-Newport Caerphilly and Pontypridd now part of the built-up area. 15 Teesside Built-up area 376,633 108.2 3,482 Middlesbrough, Stockton-On-Tees, Billingham, Redcar Middlesbrough 16 Stoke-on-Trent Built-up area 372,775 103.9 3,588 Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Kidsgrove Stoke-on-Trent 17 Coventry Built-up area 359,262 81.3 4,420 Coventry, Bedworth West Midlands 18 Sunderland Built-up area 335,415 83.5 4,018 Sunderland, Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole, Houghton-le-Spring Newcastle-Sunderland Addition of Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring 19 Birkenhead Built-up area 325,264 88.2 3,687 Birkenhead, Wallasey, Ellesmere Port, Bebington Liverpool 20 Reading Built-up area 318,014 83.7 3,800 Reading, Wokingham, Woodley, Crowthorne London Bracknell no longer part of the built-up area. 21 Kingston upon Hull Built-up area 314,018 82.6 3,802 Kingston upon Hull, Cottingham, Hessle Hull 22 Preston Built-up area 313,322 82.4 3,802 Preston, Bamber Bridge, Chorley, Fulwood, Leyland Preston 23 Newport Built-up area 306,844 84.2 3,643 Newport, Pontypool, Cwmbran, Blackwood, Risca, Ystrad Mynach Cardiff-Newport Pontypool, Cwmbran and Blackwood added to the built-up area. 24 Swansea Built-up area 300,352 87.6 3,431 Swansea, Neath, Port Talbot, Ystradgynlais, Pontardawe Swansea Ystradgynlais now part of the built-up area. 25 Southend-on-Sea Built-up area 295,310 71.8 4,111 Southend-on-Sea, Hullbridge, Rayleigh, Rochford London Hullbridge now part of the built-up area. 26 Derby Built-up area 270,468 64.1 4,219 Derby, Borrowash, Duffield Nottingham-Derby 27 Plymouth Built-up area 260,203 59.7 4,356 Plymouth, Plymstock Plymouth 28 Luton Built-up area 258,018 50.7 5,088 Luton, Dunstable, Houghton Regis London 29 Farnborough/Aldershot Built-up area 252,397 78.5 3,217 Farnborough, Aldershot, Camberley, Farnham, Frimley, Sandhurst, Yateley London 30 Medway Towns Built-up area 243,931 52.2 4,677 Gillingham, Chatham, Rochester London 31 Blackpool Built-up area 239,409 61.3 3,908 Blackpool, Lytham St Annes, Poulton-le-Fylde, Thornton, Cleveleys Blackpool Fleetwood no longer forms part of the built-up area. 32 Milton Keynes Built-up area 229,941 62.5 3,678 Milton Keynes, Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Woburn Sands Milton Keynes The addition of Woburn Sands. 33 Barnsley/Dearne Valley Built-up area 223,281 59.7 3,739 Barnsley, Wath upon Dearne, Wombwell, Hoyland Sheffield 34 Northampton Built-up area 215,963 57.9 3,731 Northampton, Collingtree Northampton 35 Norwich Built-up area 213,166 61.9 3,444 Norwich, Taverham, Costessey, Cringleford Norwich 36 Swindon Built-up area 185,609 47.1 3,945 Swindon, Broad Blunsdon, Blunsdon St Andrew Swindon 37 Crawley Built-up area 180,508 58.1 3,107 Crawley, Horley, East Grinstead, Copthorne, Crawley Down London The addition of East Grinstead, Copthorne and Crawley Down. Reigate and Redhill no longer part of the built-up area. 38 Ipswich Built-up area 178,835 49.1 3,639 Ipswich, Kesgrave, Woodbridge Ipswich 39 Wigan Built-up area 175,405 43.8 4,009 Wigan, Skelmersdale, Standish, Ince-in-Makerfield Manchester/Liverpool 40 Mansfield Built-up area 171,958 48.4 3,556 Mansfield, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Mansfield Woodhouse Nottingham-Derby 41 Oxford Built-up area 171,380 37.4 4,585 Oxford, Kennington, Wheatley Oxford The addition of Kennington and Wheatley. 42 Warrington Built-up area 165,456 44.9 3,686 Warrington Manchester/Liverpool 43 Slough Built-up area 163,777 34.1 4,797 Slough, Stoke Poges, Poyle London 44 Peterborough Built-up area 163,379 44.2 3,693 Peterborough, Farcet Peterborough 45 Cambridge Built-up area 158,434 42.1 3,760 Cambridge, Fen Ditton, Girton, Histon Cambridge 46 Doncaster Built-up area 158,141 43.5 3,634 Doncaster, Bentley, Armthorpe, Sprotbrough Sheffield 47 York Built-up area 153,717 34.0 4,518 York, Earswick York 48 Gloucester Built-up area 150,053 40.4 3,718 Gloucester, Innsworth Gloucester-Cheltenham 49 Burnley Built-up area 149,422 35.7 4,183 Burnley, Colne, Nelson Blackburn-Burnley 50 Telford Built-up area 147,980 47.7 3,103 Telford, Broseley Telford 51 Blackburn Built-up area 146,521 35.6 4,115 Blackburn, Darwen Blackburn-Burnley 52 Basildon Built-up area 144,859 37.1 3,902 Basildon, Wickford, Ramsden Heath, North Benfleet London The addition of Wickford to the urban area. 53 Grimsby Built-up area 134,160 35.3 3,804 Grimsby, Cleethorpes, Waltham Grimsby 54 Hastings Built-up area 133,422 33.2 4,019 Hastings, Bexhill Hastings 55 High Wycome Built-up area 133,204 39.2 3398 High Wycombe, Cookham, Hughenden Valley London 56 Thanet Built-up area 125,370 27.9 4,495 Margate, Ramsgate, Broadstairs Thanet 57 Accrington/Rossendale Built-up area 125,059 30.0 4,168 Accrington, Rawtenstall, Bacup, Great Harwood, Haslingden, Oswaldtwistle Blackburn-Burnley Accrington Urban Area and Rossendale Urban Area combined. 58 Burton-upon-Trent Built-up area 122,199 35.0 3,487 Burton-upon-Trent, Swadlincote Burton-upon-Trent The addition of Swadlincote, Stapenhill and Winshill[6] 59 Colchester Built-up area 121,859 32.7 3,732 Colchester, Marks Tey Colchester 60 Eastbourne Built-up area 118,219 25.1 4,705 Eastbourne, Polegate Eastbourne 61 Exeter Built-up area 117,763 28.5 4,133 Exeter, Topsham Exeter 62 Cheltenham Built-up area 116,447 28.9 4,034 Cheltenham, Gloucester-Cheltenham 63 Paignton/Torquay Built-up area 115,410 31.5 3,667 Paignton, Torquay, Marldon Torbay 64 Lincoln Built-up area 114,879 32.7 3,518 Lincoln, North Hykeham Lincoln 65 Chesterfield Built-up area 113,057 34.6 3,263 Chesterfield, Staveley, Wingerworth, Holymoorside Sheffield 66 Chelmsford Built-up area 111,511 26.2 4,259 Chelmsford, Little Waltham London 67 Basingstoke 107,642 29.4 3,662 Basingstoke Basingstoke 68 Maidstone 107,627 25.4 4,229 Maidstone London 69 Bedford Built-up area 106,940 24.8 4,309 Bedford, Kempston Bedford 70 Worcester Built-up area 101,659 24.7 4,121 Worcester, Norton Worcester List of most populous urban areas in Scotland[edit] The list below shows the most populous Built-up areas in Scotland as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), showing all those with a population in excess of 50,000 at the 2001 census. Rank Urban Area[7] Population (2001 Census) Area (km²) Density (People/km²) Major subdivisions Metropolitan Area[8][4] 1 Greater Glasgow 1,199,629 368.47 3,171.0 Glasgow, Paisley, Coatbridge, Clydebank, Motherwell, Wishaw Glasgow 2 Edinburgh 420,893 120.11 3,765.0 Edinburgh, Musselburgh Edinburgh 3 Aberdeen 193,379 60.94 3,238 Aberdeen, Cove Bay, Dyce Aberdeen 4 Dundee 157,808 67 3,298 Dundee Dundee 5 Falkirk 88,109 36.10 2,532 Falkirk, Grangemouth, Carron, Polmont, Stenhousemuir Falkirk 6 East Kilbride 70,579 24.12 3,060 East Kilbride Glasgow 7 Blantyre/Hamilton 68,572 22.63 2,911 Blantyre, Hamilton Glasgow 8 Ayr/Prestwick 61,411 23.57 2,604 Ayr, Prestwick Ayr 9 Livingston 50,771 26.07 2,283 Livingston, East Calder, Mid Calder Edinburgh List of most populous urban areas in Northern Ireland[edit] The list below shows the most populous Built-up areas in Northern Ireland as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), showing all those with a population in excess of 50,000 at the 2001 census. Rank Urban Area[9] Population (2001 Census) Area (km²) Density (People/km²) Major subdivisions Metropolitan Area[10][4] 1 Belfast Metropolitan Urban Area 579,554 161.67 2,990.2 Belfast, Castlereagh, Newtownabbey, Lisburn, Bangor Belfast 2 Derry Urban Area 90,736 37.18 2,440 Derry, Culmore, Strathfoyle, Newbuildings, Creggan Londonderry 3 Craigavon 57,685 37.70 1,530 Craigavon, Lurgan, Portadown, Bleary Craigavon Commentary[edit] There is a spectrum that can be drawn between the conurbations that have a clear 'head' (such as Bristol and Leicester) to those that do not, known as multi-centred conurbations (such as Bournemouth/Poole and Teesside), via ones that are more borderline (West Midlands). In the case of the West Midlands, for example, the largest city, Birmingham did expand massively and is now considered to include areas that were formerly independent towns, such as Sutton Coldfield and Aston. However, here it stopped, with the Black Country and Wolverhampton retaining strong identities. There are also various places where whilst not actually running into each other, the amount of development in a large area is substantial. Heavily built up areas of this type include : West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire, which are all heavily built up but not entirely devoid of countryside (both are metropolitan counties). The area consisting of Greater Manchester, Merseyside and parts of Cheshire (mainly Halton (borough) and Warrington) is heavily built up and considered by some to be a conurbation[11][12] The London Commuter Belt consisting of Greater London and large densely populated parts of the home counties is heavily built up and is considered one of the world's largest cities. Cardiff/Newport, consisting of the cities of Cardiff and Newport, Cwmbran, much of the eastern South Wales Valleys with towns such as Risca, Pontypool and Caerphilly and part of the Vale of Glamorgan including Penarth and Barry.[4] The Nottingham-Derby Metropolitan area which mainly consists of three large conurbations, the Nottingham Urban Area, the Derby Urban Area and the Mansfield Urban Area.[4] Condition: New, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Era / Type: Various

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